began in the aspect of affairs. The sky though roomy and convenient for their became darker and more threatening, and purpose they would easily be overthrown after a time a peculiar raio of ashes began in the event of an earthquake. About to fall. This was of a grey color, and noon, therefore, on that eventful Monday soon the ground and streets were covered (August 27) there was a steady outpour of with it. For several hours there was a merchants from Batavia, and the city was geotle fall

at one time coarse and large soon wearing a deserted appearance. It as a pin's head, at another as this and fine was well that it did so, for a more start. as dust. Some of each kind I have now liog eveot had yet to come. in my possession, taken up from one of the Suddenly, without any warping, a tidal suburbs of Batavia shortly after it fell. wave (caused, as we shall afterwards see, Both kinds were submitted to a Dutch an- | by the disturbances and upheaval. of the alyst for examination, and to him I am island of Krakatoa) made itself felt in the indebted for the names of the component city. The Dutch capital has no harbor, parts. He tells me that the two showers and the only approach to it is by a long were identical except that the second fall | canal nearly two miles in length, lined on of ash was much finer than the first. It either side by massive brick walls. In consisted principally of siliceous sand, this channel, leading from the roadstead with sulphuret of iron, phosphates and to the city wharves, the water rose at an silicates of lime and magnesium, while alarming rate and burst over the adjointhe whole had a strong sulphuric smell. ing land. This was the first intimation at

While this rain of ash continued thick Batavia of the terrible wave which (as we darkness enveloped the city. Traffic and discovered later on) was the messenger of business were suspended. Gas was death to so many thousand inhabitants on lighted everywhere in the hope that the the western shores of Java. Its effects darkness would soon pass off, but still it in the city were quite bad enough. Alcontinued for several hours. The abject though this great torrent of water had terror of the poor natives, cowering down travelled nearly ninety miles it dashed up in the most helpless way, was quite a the Batavian canal with great power. in sight to behold. These followers of Mo- spite of distance, its fury was not then hammed, clinging tenaciously to their fully spent. In the streets of the capital, fatalistic creed, calmly said, “It is Allah," adjoining the canals and wharves, the and resigned themselves to their fate. In water rose to a depth of several feet, and times of difficulty and danger the natives the people had to run for their lives. Not of Java, and indeed the whole of the Ma- long afterwards I steaned down the canal lay archipelago, are some of the most in a launch, and saw the destruction which helpless and useless people under the sun. had been caused. In several places the

The Chinese, on the other hand, took a massive brickwork lining the sides had very different view of matters. Unfet. been swept away, leaving huge gaps in tered by any fatalistic notions, they the masonry of many feet. The surround. plainly showed their belief that while ing country also had been seriously inun. there is life there is hope. Whether this dated, great pools of water being visible is one of the moral sayings of Confucius I everywhere. Fortunately the loss of life koow not, but, with all their faults, the in Batavia was very small, and must have Chinese are certainly a practical and been confined to the natives who are alpainstaking race. On this occasion they ways to be found along the banks of the accordingly gathered together all their canal. A little village on the coast, a valuables and cleared out of the city with short drive from the capital, was less foras much despatch as possible. There are lunate, however. There was nothing twenty-five thousand of them in Batavia there to break the force of the rushing alone, and a large proportion of these soon waters as they dashed in all their fury on beat a hasty retreat. Some made for the the northern shore of the island, and the railway station en route for the interior of country round being very flat, a serious the island; some took to their boats on the loss of life occurred. The huge tidal canal, and many crowded themselves into wave broke over the native kampong (or their gaily painted vehicles known as ka- village), and several hundred bodies were hars, and drove away as fast as two San- subsequently reported by the government dalwood ponies would carry them. resident of the district to be lying dead in

The Europeaos also thought it wiser to the market-place. suspend business on account of the dark. Such were the events in the city of ness and to leave the city for their subur- Batavia and its suburbs on that memorbao homes. The buildings which they able Monday. As soon as the wave had use in Batavia for offices are very old, and spent its fury on the coast, the worst was over. The shower of ashes ceased, and Such an appeal may, perhaps, draw the darkness cleared off. Weaker and forth the remark that men of wealth in weaker grew the distant shocks, and at England are notoriously generous, and last they died away altogether. Traffic that men of high social position are never was once more resumed along the ash- wanting to take the lead in works of gen. strewn streets, which now had a grey coat. uine charity. These remarks are true in ing some three or four inches in depth. one sense, but untrue in another. It is On all sides trees were to be seen with true that large sums of money are always broken branches, weighed down and forthcoming on the occasion of any spe. snapped off, by the great pressure of the cial appeal to the generosity of the British ashes which had rested upon them. The public, and that the voluntary subscripfowls which had gone to roost at midday, tions annually contributed to works of when the darkness was at its worst, again charity in this country are larger than io came forth to begin their day a second any other; it is also true that there is time.

hardly any institution in the kingdom An air of thankfulness pervaded all which cannot show its list of aristocratic, classes. There was a dim foreboding and often royal supporters; but it would that a terrible calamity had occurred in not be in accordance with facts to assert some part of Java, and the anxiety was that men of wealth and of social position universal. All, however, was wrapped in take as active an interest in works of obscurity, for the telegraph wires were philanthropy and of charity as they do, broken and no information could be had. lor instance, in the pursuit of politics, or And it was not till some considerable time of mere luxury or amusement, or that they after that the startling news reached Ba. spend on the former as large a proportion tavia telling how an immense volcanic of their income as they do on the latter. wave more than a hundred feet in height Now, although it may be thought, and had devastated the whole north-western very possibly really may be, utopian 10 coast, sweeping away entirely Anjer and expect the average man of wealth to ex. several other towns, and engulfing quite pend upon his less fortunate fellow-crea. fifty thousand people in a watery grave. tures as much as he spends upon his own

We could scarcely believe in the city amusements, I certainly am quixotic the terrible tidings of events which had enough to believe that a much larger prohappened so near to us. The towns de portion of men would be found capable of stroyed were sixty miles distant from such madness, if in their youth they had Batavia, and Krakatoa itself ninety miles, been brought up to consider the wants of so that the volcanic wave must have trav. others; if, instead of being led to underelled nearly thirty miles before it burst stand that philanthropy and charity were upon the shore and did its deadly work. right and proper subjects for the consid

In subsequent papers I shall tell more eration of parsons and women, but were of what took place on those two days in beneath the attention of men of the world, August on the Java coast, and describe as it had been pointed out to them that there well a visit I made shortly afterwards to was no nobler work than the relief of hu. the ruined towns and villages. Such a man suffering, and the elevation of man. scene of havoc and desolation it rarely kind, whether viewed from the Christian falls to the lot of any one to witness, and or the humanitarian point of view; if it once seen such a sight can never be for. had been shown them that exceptional gotten.

opportunities for engaging in this work had been placed within their reach, that the mass of mankind were constanıly engaged in a never-ending struggle for bare existence, and that questions affecting their social well-being were of vastly more importance to the people than the most

exciting topics of political or even of ja. In an article recently published in this ternational warfare, except in so far as magazine I ventured to make an Appeal the latter, by raising prices, still further to Men of Leisure" to devote some por increased for them the difficulties of live tion of the time at their disposal to the ing. furtherance of works of philanthropy and I do not think that many persons who charity. The favorable reception accorded are in the habit of watching the curreats to my remarks, encourages me to make a of public opinion will disagree with me further appeal on behalf of similar objects when I say, that social questions not only to men of wealth and position.

| hold a vastly more important position in

From The National Review. AN APPEAL TO MEN OF WEALTH.



the public mind than formerly, but that take for his motto, “Not alms but a they are annually encroaching on the do- friend”. - a friend who should use his maio of pure politics, and that no states. wealth and his education, not to pauperman or party will, in the near future, be ize, but to elevate and encourage, to dissi. able with impunity to leave them out of pate prejudice, to soften hatreds, and to calculation. Indeed, I would go so far as bridge the yawning chasms of society; to say, that the political party which has for is it not true that separation begets the courage to grapple firmly with such ignorance, and ignorance hatred ? social questions as the housing of the Let the poor man and the rich, the poor, the regulation of the hours of labor, working man and the man of leisure, join the State direction of emigration, the pre- hands in works of general utility and vention of adulteration, the reform of our philanthropy, and there will be an end poor-laws, the sanitation of our public to class hatred. “ One touch of nature cities, the establishment of a government makes the whole world kin.” The poor department of health, with a minister at man will not begrudge the wealth which its head of cabinet rank, the reform of our he sees is being used to good purpose; sanitary laws, the increase and better he will recognize, without anger, the ad. payment of inspectors of nuisances and of vantages which education, wealth, leisure, factories, and the appointment of a real and social advantages have given to his and not of a sham public prosecutor, whose fellow-workers of the upper classes, duty it shall be to defend the individual and, respecting the unselfishness which against all action, whether corporate or prompts the latter to devote their advanprivate, calculated to injure the public tages to the benefit of mankind in genhealth - that the party, in short, that is eral, will freely accord the honor which bold enough to break loose from super he might have been tempted to withhold stitious worship of the doctrine of laissez from the possession of mere wealth or faire, and recognizes that the happiness social position unsustained by personal of the people is the true end and aim of merit. I appeal, then, to the wealthy, and its existence, will obtain a lengthened the socially distinguished, to throw themmonopoly of political power. Even sup. selves into all movements of a non-politposing all this to be desirable, I hear the ical character, which are calculated to reader say, why appeal to wealthy men? insure the happiness of the people, and What have they to say to it? Why not by this I mean not happiness only which rather, in these democratic days, descend is the outcome of physical content, but into the streets, and address your appeal that also which results from a good conto the masses with whom now rests the science and a well-regulated lise. fate of ministers? That is just what I want you rich men of England to do! I do not so much care that you should in. crease your subscriptions to charitable objects (though this might often be done with advantage), as that you should use GROUND-RENTS AND THE ABOLITION OF the great influence you possess in the cause of the happiness of the greatest We referred a week or two ago to the number. I want you to show the poor Leasehold and Building Land Enfranman (what I know to be the case) that he chisement Bill, the latest of a series to is not forgotten by you; that you are which the House of Commons has been alive to his sorrows, that you sympathize treated during the last two years. We with him in his troubles, that you respect then pointed out how preposterous is the him for his honest struggles against pen- proposal in that bill, that the tenant of a ury and want, that you admire him for his leasehold property should have the right patience; that you willingly acknowledge to purchase the freehold at twenty-five that moral worth is superior to all social years' purchase of the ground rent. Since distinction; that you recognize wealth as those observations were printed, remarka talent which has been given you from able confirmation has occurred of the jusabove, and that your greatest pleasure in tice of the arguments we urged against life is to use it for the good of your less hasty and ignorantly conceived legislation favored brethren. If wealth descended such as that aimed at by the authors of oftener into the streets, there would be this, and for the matter of that of every less apimosity between capital and labor. other bill designed with the same object Sympathy would soon produce love, and which bas yet been presented to Parlia. self-sacrifice reverence.

Let the rich man meot. It is a confirmation which practi

From The Estates' Gazette.


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cal men do not need; but it has to be erty would have been forced to accept remembered that those who will have at £375 for that which, in the open market, some, probably not very distant day, to has commanded not far short of treble decide upon these measures, or some of the amount a few doctrinaire politiciaos them, are not, save perhaps some few ex. consider it ought to be worth. Again, it ceptions, practical men, although some is not very long since a ground-rent of amount of technical knowledge is abso- £26 in the Whitechapel Road, with ooly lutely essential to a clear understanding twenty-three years to run, realized the of this important subject. During the remarkable price of £1,500, or fifty-eight last fortnight various sales of ground-rents years' purchase. Instances of this kind have taken place, at which figures far in could be multiplied, and many will readily excess of twenty-five years' purchase have occur to our readers. It is not alone in been obtained. Last week, for instance, London that figures like these are oban eminent firm of auctioneers sold three tained. Ground-rents have come to be ground-rents in succession, each of which regarded as one of the most valuable and obtained a higher price than the five back. unfluctuating forms of real property, and ers of the bill — Mr. Daniel Grant, Mr. wherever they exist they command prices Inderwick, Mr. Spencer Balfour, Sir which, always high, are naturally highest Thomas Chambers, and Mr. Firth — deem in thickly populated centres. Every prac. adequate for property which they seem to tical man is familiar with circumstances consider of so little account as ground in which twenty-five years' purchase of

In one case the auctioneers ob- the ground-rent would be even more ludi. tained £31,720, or twenty-six years' pur. crously inadequate than in the cases we chase, for a ground-rent of £1,220 in have mentioned. In London alone there Eastcheap, with the long period of seven is a very large number of houses held nine years to run. In view of the remote. upon long leases at ground-rents wbich ness of the reversion, that is, of course, a are really less than nominal. Upon the long price; but no one who has had much Bishop of London's estate, at Paddington, to do with the purchase and sale of ground for example, ground-rents are exceedingly rents would suggest that there is anything low, and we believe it would not be im. excessive in the figures. The fact that possible to find upon that property houses twenty-six years' purchase can be ob rented at over £ico per aonum, burdened tained for an important piece of property with ground-rents of less than £ 5. In like this, when the lease has more than the event of the bill with which we are three-quarters of a century to run, sug- dealing becoming law, it would consegests the question: what price will the quently be possible for a tenant to com. ground-rent command in fifty years time? pel his landlord to part with the freehold Certainly fifty, and not improbably sixty at one and a quarter year's purchase of years' purchase. In another case, a the rack rent! "It is not merely a profes. ground-rent of £76, with reversion in sional axiom, but a rule of common sense, twenty-eight years, commanded £3,100, that the fewer years a lease has to run or nearly forty-one years' purchase. An and the sooner the reversion to the rack. even more striking case was the third, in rental falls in, the greater the value. Yet which £9,300, or thirty-one years' pur- none of the Leaseholds Enfranchisement chase, was paid for a ground-rent of Bills allow for this higher value. Mr. £300, in Great Tower Street, with the Heory Broadhurst's original bill, provid. relatively long period of forty-nine years ing as it does that it shall not apply to

This week's list of sales at the leases which are running out, and that Mart supplies further evidence to the purchase money shall be fixed by the same end. A ground-rent of £35 a year county court as between a willing vendor at Stratford, with reversion in forty.nine and a willing purchaser, is obviously much years, was sold for £1,010, or nearly thirty to be preferred to this most dishonest years' purchase. A good idea of the and confiscatory projet de loi. We should, value of a ground-rent when the lease is however, be very much surprised to learn running out is given by the result of an that there is any notable body of public other sale held on the same day by the opinion in favor of any such measure, same firm. A ground-rent at Stratford of whatever its details. These various bills £15 a year, with only twenty years to run, are merely a part of the factitious agita. fetched £900, or sixty years' purchase. tion got up by Mr. Henry George, and Now, if the Leasehold Building Land necessarily have a most depressing effect Enfranchisement Bill were law the unfor- upon the property market at the present tunate owner of this valuable bit of prop | time.

to run.

Fifth Series,
Volume LI.

No. 2150.- September 5, 1885.

From Beginning,


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Edinburgh Review, II. MRS. DYMOND. Part VIII., .

Macmillan's Magazine,

Temple Bar,
Mrs. Oliphant. Part XXXI.,

Chambers' Journal,

Macmillan's Magazine, VI. A MARGATE GROTTO,

Temple Bar,




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