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in an admirable article in the Musical | chased in Paris, and the services of Mr.
Times of February, 1869, when the ques- Barnby secured as conductor. Now, as
tion had again emerged, Mr. Henry Lunn no mention whatever was made at the
saw in its decision " a remarkable instance recent public meeting held in St. James's
of the independence of the English char. Hall of this practical test of the lower
acter, which however commendable in pitch, which extended over several sea-
politics, is often most reprehensible in sons and was attended with remarkable
art.” He adds, and the words have a spe success, we may be allowed, in order to
cial significance at the present juncture, complete this brief historical survey of the
“It was evidot”[i.e., in the interval be- pitch question, to summarize the net re-
tween 1860 and 1869] “ that with the ex- sults of this experiment so far as they can
perience of the Society of Arts before us, be gathered from contemporary press no.
whatever might be done in France, the tices. From these it is evident that while
question never could be decided by any undoubted relief was afforded to the sing.
conference held in this country.” li was ers, no perceptible falling-off in brilliancy
during the dictatorship of Costa, as we or sonority was apparent. The critics
have seen, that musical pitch in England were almost unanimous in following the
rose to the height at or about which it now lead set by the writer in the Times
stands, and a full recognition of the merits presumably the late Mr. Davison — who
of that great conductor should not blind candidly confessed that the difference be-
us to the two evil effects entailed by this tween the pitches seemed so slight as
supposed gain of general brilliancy and hardly to be worth taking into serious ac.
sonority, — we mean the harm done to the count. A great number of these gentle-
voices of public singers, and the wrong men took no notice of the change at all;
inflicted upon composers whose works had and after the first season, press references
to be mutilated in order to bring them to the altered pitch were almost exclu.
within the range of the human voice. sively confined to the statement that it
For instance, the enormous intrinsic diffi- was stili upheld. One newspaper, which
culties presented to vocalists by Beetho- had assailed the innovation at the outset,
ven's “Mass in D ” were so far enhanced was obliged to admit, on the occasion of
by the pitch adopted by Costa, that at the the performance of the “ Mass in D,” that
performances of that work in 1854, 1861, the adoption of the French pitch was a
and 1870, by the Sacred Harmonic Soo great advantage; and in another journal
ciety, he was obliged to transpose, or even the diapason normal was attacked for the
alter, certain numbers of the vocal score. grotesque reason that, no grand piano
The resolution of the meeting of the So-tuned to that standard being available,
ciety of Arts was a dead letter, and when the “ queen of pianistes,” Madame Ara.
a crisis did occur nine years later, it may bella Goddard, was compelled to submit
fairly be said to have been forced on by the to the indignity of performing the piano.
single action of a great vocalist. Mr. Sim.s forte solo in the Choral Fantasia upon a
Reeves declined to sing for the Sacred semi.grand. Eventually, the need of more
Harmonic Society, giving as his reason, extended accommodation for the perform-
in a letter to the Athenæum, the abnor-ers induced the promoters of these ora-
mally high pitch then prevailing. Detract-torio concerts to migrate to Exeter Hall,
ors were not slow to insinuate that he where they were obliged to conform to the
was merely consulting the interests of his pitch of the organ, and abandon the dia-
own organ, and not those of musicians pason normal. The general public had
as a whole. The odium musicum was ceased to take an interest in the question
aroused, and the papers of the day were of pitch, and the musical world at large
filled with correspondence on the subject. refused to be convinced of the expedi.
But the matter did not end bere, for this ency of the alteration. Thus the move.
" strike on the part of an invaluable art. meni may be said to bave died a natural
ist gave an entirely practical turn to the death, but not before it had practically
controversy. An enterprising firm of mu. demonstrated the feasibility of the change
sical publishers. 1ook up the cause, and where the question of expense was not
organized a series of oratorio concerts, allowed to stand in the way.
with Mr. Sims Reeves as their chief at. Very little remains to be added to the
traction, and the adoption of the French arguments in favor of or against a lower-
pitch as the chief novelty of their pro. ing of pitch which have been stated at
gramme. A new organ, tuned to the lia- previous crises in me controversy. But it
pason normal, was built for the purpose, inay be as well to set down the pros and
the necessary wind instruments were pur. cons of the question as clearly as our

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space will allow. Foremost among the nection subsisting between sonority and advantages of depressing the pitch is the pitch, though we know at least one of greater uniformity which would be se. their number who would be ready to make cured, and of the paramount value of some sacrifice in this respect in the interwhich all musicians are convinced in the ests of that uniformity which is so deeply abstract. Vocalists and instrumentalists to be desired. There remains, then, the are seriously inconvenienced by the neces- question of expense. The change will sity of having to adapt their voices or in- not affect the construction of the stringed struments to the different pitches which instruments of an orchestra at all, and can sometimes prevail in the same city, and be carried out in pianofortes at slight composers are left in a state of uncertainty trouble and cost. Brass instruments are as to the exact demands they are making capable of alteration; but the real diffiupon their interpreters, vocal or instru: culty is met with in the case of organs, mental. Secondly, almost all singers flutes, oboes, clarinets, and bassoons. It would profit by the change. Of course, was computed sixteen years ago that to instances would occur where bass and supply the hundred and eighty.one milicontralto voices would experience an in- tary bands then existing with new wood creased difficulty in producing the cavern- wind instruments would cost upwards of ous tones of their lowest register which £13,000. This sum would have to be nature or cultivation has endowed them paid by the officers, for it is hardly neces. with. But their loss would be more than sary to remind our readers that the cost compensated by the corresponding dimi- of providing instruments for regimental nution of strain to tenors or soprani in bands is not defrayed by government. emitting the high A or any note above it, But the case of civilian instrumentalists and, let us add, of pain to the sensitive is a harder one. For while singers — who listener, whose appreciation of a song would be the greatest gainers by the does not always vary in a direct ratio with change — are by far the best paid memthe physical exertion expended by the bers of the profession, the chief burden singer. Thirdly, the lowering of pitch of the expense would fall on the poorest would, in many cases, extend the reper. class of musicians, players in orchestras. tory of conductors and enable them to “How,” as Mr. Hullab once pointedly surmount the well-nigh insurmountable asked, “is an orchestral performer, geper. difficulties presented by the “ monumental ally the worst paid of all living artists, to choral works of the great masters of the replace a costly instrument often all but whole of the eighteenth and the greater bis only property ?” Hence the excellent part of the first half of the present cen suggestion was propounded — we believe tury,– we quote from a letter written by by Mr. Manns — that the vocalists should Mr. Mapos sixteen years ago, in which subscribe to aid the instrumentalists. the advantages of the proposed change their readiness to carry out such a pro. are admirably summed up from the con- posal, which is pretty sure to be revived, ductor's point of view. There are other would be an admirable proof of their being advantages besides those mentioned which really in earnest in demanding a lowered would accrue from a depression of pitch, pitch, besides affording a pleasing exambut they are of minor importance ; and we ple of professional solidarity. may now turn to the chief arguments that The previous history of the pitch quesare urged against the proposed alteration. tion shows that so far as England is conThese are two in number - loss of bril- cerned, it is hopeless to expect any result Jiancy, and expense, the former a much from the meeting of conferences and the disputed point, the latter an indisputable appointment of committees. Rather must and most serious obstacle, “the crux of we look for success to a resolute attitude the whole subject," as it was described at on the part of the great virtuosi whose the recent meeting. It is not our inten- services are indispensable. Mr. Sims tion to enter on a discussion of the relaReeves forced on a crisis sixteen years tion of brilliancy to pitch. The late Mr. ago. Joachim might do the same now if Hullah was an absolute unbeliever as to he chose, or Herr Richter, and so bring the existence of such a relationship, and the question to a practical issue. If Sir many distinguished musicians like him George Macfarren is so convinced of the fail to recognize the added brilliancy which expediency of adopting the French pitch, an enhanced pitch is supposed to bring. then we humbly beg to suggest that he But on the other hand, it is only fair to should announce his intention of enforcrecord the fact that inany conductors have ing it at the Royal Academy. Such an a strong conviction of the intimate con- | announcement would be of infinitely more

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practical value than the reopening of a lart are of little avail when they are not discussion to which there is nothing to backed by a government department, imadd. From the report of the recent meet perial decrees, or State subsidies. Now, ing, the ordinary reader who had not made amongst the musical announcements for a special study of the question might sup- the forthcoming season we have noticed pose that the last crisis had occurred the promise of renewal by the same firm twenty-five, and not sixteen, years ago, so of publishers of the oratorio concerts to absolutely did all the speakers ignore the which the crisis of 1869 gave such a spe. existence of the Sims Reeves coup d'état ciai impulse. It would indeed be heaping and the consequent fair trial of the coals of fire on the heads of those who French pitch. Such obliviousness can have so ungratefully ignored their previ. only be accounted for by our national ous efforts if they were to renew the expassion for debate, inasmuch as a brief periment, and give once more proof of the statement of the results of the experiment superiority of action over debate. We in question would have materially cur make this suggestion for what it is worth, tailed the proceedings. Moreover, such and will supplement it with yet another. a gathering as that of last Saturday week, Should the result of this agitation seem convened under the auspices of a single to establish the fact that the change to institution, could hardly hope to be repre. the French pitch is too great for conduct. sentative. The co-operation of conducors and instrumenialists to approve of, a tors is indispensable in the matter; and compromise might be effected, and some yet the names of Messrs. Hallé, Manns, intermediate pitch agreed on, if our neighCarl Rosa, Barnby, Mackenzie, Stan. bors were to be maliciously reminded that, ford, and Parry are unaccountably absent after all, the diapason normal is a Napo. from the proceedings. Resolutions were leonic institution. Once they realized this passed, and an excellent committee ap- fact, we feel certain that considerations of pointed to carry them out. But resolu. expense would not hinder them from oblit. tions and recommendations in regard to erating yet another trace of imperialism.

THE NATIONAL ANTHEM IN INDIA. — Thelin a metre totally different from that of the translation of the national anthem into San- original, without rhymes, and quite incomskrit, Arabic, Persian, and the spoken vernac- patible with the music of “God Save the ulars of India, has been taken up of late by Queen,” The pandits of Benares remarked some native scholars in connection with the that the Sanskrit translation submitted to them Punjab University and the Anjuman i Punjab. did not conform to all the rules of Sanskrit The principal conditions of translating “God alankâr (rhetoric); but the repetitions ( puna. Save the Queen ”are that the translators should rukti) of which they complained belong to the reproduce, as much as possible, the ideas of original, which has never been considered a the original, that the metre should be the same, perfect specimen of English poetry. The so that the translation may be sung to the En- pandits are now disputing among themselves; glish tune of “God Save the Queen,” and that and one of them has tried to show that Gan. the lines should be rhymed as in English, un- gâdhara, the author of the new translation, less the genius of the language is entirely op while finding fault with Professor Max Müller posed to rhyme. The journal of the Anjuman for using a grammatical form which occurs in i Punjab contains a series of articles showing the Mahâbhârata, but is not sanctioned by Pâ. that the translations published by the National nini, has committed no less than twenty-seven Anthem Society in England fail to fulfil these mistakes himself. It is well known how fond conditions, and informs us that, under Dr. native scholars are of criticising each other, Leitner's auspices, new translations have been but we still hope that, under Professor Thi. made by native scholars, and been presented baut's guidance, they may be persuaded to help to the viceroy. At Benares the pandits of the in the production of a really serviceable trans. Sanskrit College, under Professor Thibaut, lation of "God Save the Queen”into Sanskrit. have been asked to examine Professor Maxi Such a translation should serve as a model for Müller's Sanskrit translation, and to suggest the vernacular translations in Bengáli, Hindi, improvements in one or two lines which the Marathi, and Guzerathi, and would probably translator himself had pointed out as not quite be used all over India, where Sanskrit, as the satisfactory. They preferred, however, to pub- lingua franca of the learned, still holds the lish a translation of their own, which, unfortu: same position which Latin held in the Middle nately, does not fulfil any one of the essential Ages. conditions of a translation. It is a new poem,

Academy,

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CONTENTS.
I. VICTOR HUGO,

Contemporary Review, .
II. FORtune's WHEEL Part VII.,

· Blackwood's Magazine,
III. MODERN CATHOLICS AND SCIENTIFIC Free-
DOM,

Nineteenth Century,
IV. A House DIVIDED AGAINST ITSELF. Ву
Mrs. Oliphant. Part XXVII.,

Chambers' Journal,
V. LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND IRELAND, Fortnightly Review,
VI. A WALKING TOUR IN THE LANDES,

Macmillan's Magazine,
VII. THE INTERNATIONAL SANITARY CONFER-
ENCE IN ROME,

Nature,
VIII. LEO XIII. AS ULTRAMONTANE,

Spectator,
IX. THE LYONS SILK TRADE,

Saturday Review, .

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TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTIOIT. Tor Eight DOLLARS, remitted directly to the Publishers, the LIVING AGE will be punctually forwarded for a year, free of postage.

Remittances should be made by bank draft or check, or by post-ofice money-order, if possible. If neither of these can be procured, the money should be sent in a registered letter, All postmasters are obliged to register letters when requested to do so. Drafts, checks and money-orders should be made payable to the order of LITTELL & Co.

Single Numbers of The LIVING AGE, 18 cents.

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FROWENDIENST.

Came, you say; but then, by "came Born in another century,

What do you suppose you mean? In old, dim years of love and crime and prayer,

Answer you:

“From sire and dame" ? You would have been, no doubt - so lithe and Prompt reply, more quick than keen. fair

How can one self come of two
A stately feudal dame; and I -

Other selves? Have I and you,
And I — your page, perchance.

Each, halves put together been?

Half-a.Self is nonsense. One
I love to dream so of us twain :
Your large, clear, night-blue eyes had been

Individual Self divide !
how sweet

Stands to reason can't be done. Beneath the tall white coif! your dainty feet

Part produced from either side,
Slow-moving for the heavy train

I should be a tertium quid.
Where scarlet leopards prance !

If I am so, call me squid !

Yet I must have once begun.
With folded palms and lids downcast,
A little weary of your queenly life –

“Ego," I.

“Non-Ego," you; You, delicate, a rough Crusader's wife

No-go that again would be.

“I” you say that you are, too ; I dream, in vaulted halls shut fast

Also that you are not me.
Though hawthorns are all white.

You're another — put it so.

I began, how long ago ?
And I, your page, your thing, your slave. Here We Are," a Mystery!
I bear your house's lilies on my vest,

Punch. And love of you deep-hidden in my breast.

My eyes are calm, my mien is grave;

None dreams the page dare love.

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Nay, none on earth! not even you.
But then, one day — while in the blank, black

wall
Of your dull room, where sunset shadows fall,

The casement opes a square of blue

Witb veil-like reds alight

You feel more lonely or more sad,
Half-yearning vaguely for some joy unknown.
You speak; I answer not. My lips in stone

Feel carved, that yet are laughter-glad.

I answer not, nor move.

GOWER, IN JUNE.
WHILE Spring delays, and. Summer comes to

greet
Her sister, bringing wreaths of blooming

gold
To load the hedgerows and adorn the wold,
With silver hawthorn vernal yet and sweet ;
The cuckoo's cry the echoing vales repeat,
The sand-rose stars the shore, the ferns un.

fold
Their curled stems, and in cool mantles

stoled
The woods repose beneath the noontide heat,-
I love this land of Gower ; but more to climb

Her cliffs deep-rooted in the cruel reef
Girt with the rondure of the smiling sea;
Or from some mighty headland's height sub-

Jime,
The guardian Worm behold, with full belief,
In sunset ocean sleeping tranquilly.
Spectator.

HERBERT New.

You are too fair, too whitely fair,
In that soft twilight, resting listlessly
On your high throne emblazoned duskily!
You turn- and gaze — and are aware

That Love sits at your feet.

You laugh now at this graceful lie
But fit to rhyme away an idle hour;
And yet one tithe of truth it hath in dower :

I cherish with a page's fealty

My lady.service sweet. Academy.

FRANCIS EARLE.

OUR CRESSY.
THROUGH noise of battle breaking round,

Earl Warwick to the monarch sped :
“ The prince is pressed !” King Edward

frowned : “My son must win his spurs,” he said. And so, when eager angels would defeat Hell's bitter wrong, and strenuous tempta

EGO AND NON-EGO; OR, ALL MY I. (Result of attempt to read Herbert Spencer.) “Here We Are,” beyond all doubt. That's a fact you feel you

know. True; but try to make it out,

tion, There flits a smile across the Mercy-seat, “Nay, let my children work their own salvaiion.”

Spectator.

Ah, then, that you find no go. Now — if anywhen elsewhere, That is neither here nor there

Here we are. How came we so?

a

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