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No. 2144.— July 25, 1885.
CONTENTS. I. THE FIRST EPOCH IN THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE,
London Quarterly Review, II. SCHWARTZ: A HISTORY,
English Illustrated Magazine, III. STUART PRETENDERS,
London Quarterly Review,
St. James's Gazette,
Field, X. THE CIVILIZATION OF SAVAGES,
St. James's Gazette, XI. NATURE IN LONDON,
All The Year Round, XII. BEE AND ANT PHENOMENA, .
Chambers' Journal, XIII, THE MATCHMAKER'S EUCLID,
246 249 250 252
254 · 255
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FROM THE ROMAIC OF SOUTSOS. I've not yet become the Premier - as I must ("Ο Καυχησιάρης.)
one day, of course –
But anid the Opposition benches bawl until Soursos, if there is a creature whom I heartily I'm hoarse. abhor,
Still, I'd sooner cut my hand off than attempt 'Tis the knave who blows his trumpet noisily to calculate from door to door.
The incalculable services I've rendered to the T'other day a blatant braggart — always at it, State,
day and night Sought to deafen me outright.
I should be a noted person, and in human Bygone grandeur, stale achievements, formed estimation the staple of his story,
Hold a most exalted station, Just as if I were a dunce
Were I not so mighty modest, – loth my deeds And a baby, all at once,
abroad to blazon ; And had never heard of greatness, or of riches, But I can not blow my trumpet, I could or of glory!
never be so brazen !
Praise me, then, dear Soutsos, do! He began to prate and prattle of the number
And I'll lay it thick on you, of his cattle,
That the world may learn at last our real Sheep and billygoats he counted, too,
merits to appraise, In an endless tittle-tattle ;
And allow no shamefaced braggart to deprive Then he told me what the acres of his property
us of our bays. amounted to.
CHARLES L. GRAVES. “Will you sell it? Name your figure!”to the
fool I nearly cried ;
Thebes or Negropont can show ;
As when some workers, toiling at a loom,
Having but little portions of the roll Every one admits of me, without a point unduly Of some huge fabric, cannot see the whole, stretching,
And note but atoms, wherein they entomb That I'm handsome, young, and fetching ; As objects fade in evening's first gray gloomThat my lips are coral red, my teeth like pearls The large design, from which each trifling dole whene'er I show 'em
But goes to make the long much-wished-for Every attitude a poem ;
goal: And that in the gay mazurka with angelic So do we seek to penetrate the doom grace I glide.
That lies so heavily upon our life, Ten fine girls for love of me have fall’n into a And strive to learn the whole that there must
sad decline ! But I don't proclaim it on the housetops, like for each day has its own completed piece. some friends of mine ;
The whole awaits us, where no anxious strife Boasting is my pet aversion, boasting I can Can mar completeness: here but God's eyes not abide.
What death shall show us when our life shall You've no notion of the numbers Greeks and foreigners renowned
J. E. PANTON. Who frequent my house on business, morn
and evening, to and fro,
Till my head spins round and round, As I watch them doff before me hats and turbans, louting low.
BED IN SUMMER. Do you know that correspondence of a nature In winter, I get up by night, manifold
And dress by yellow candle-light, With ten Cabinets I hold ?
In summer, quite the other way,
I have to go to bed and see
The birds still hopping on the tree,
Or hear the grown-up people's feet It's a most ill-starred anomaly by politics Still going past me in the street.
afforded, Genius never is rewarded.
And does it not seem hard to you, Men of most inferior metal in the Cabinet hold When all the sky is clear and blue, places ;
And I should like so much to play, While, in spite of all my talent, all my intel. To have to go to bed by day? lectual graces,
R. L. STEVENSON,
THE FIRST EPOCH IN THE ITALIAN
From The London Quarterly Review. dition “ which began to exist with the ear.
liest mediæval revival," which “did not
exist all over Italy," and "existed outside We have come to speak in a succinct Italy,” though" in Italy it was far more way of the Renaissance as an intellectual universal than elsewhere.” In this larger movement of transcendent importance in
and, as we think, more philosophical the history of modern civilization ; of the sense of the term, the Italian Renaissance literature of the Renaissance, the painting may be said to have come into being as and sculpture of the Renaissance, the ar.
early as the twelfth century in the revival chitecture of the Renaissance, as though of the study of Roman law which then the movement itself lay withio limits so took place at Bologna. How the school of clearly defined as to allow of no sort of civil law founded there by Irnerius * in the doubt in any given instance, whether the first quarter of that century grew and flourpoet, artist, or thinker we are studying be ished we know by the long list of eminent longs to the Repaissance or not. Yet, if glossators or commentators on the Code we seriously attempt to give logical preci. and Digest of Justinian whose works are sion to our use of the term, it is impossi- still extant; and the bigh repute in which ble to avoid either so extending it as to the university was held in the following make it embrace much of what is usually century is attested by the fact that in 1226 supposed to belong exclusively to the the emperor Frederick II. attempted to Middle Ages, or, on the other hand, con- suppress it, commanding the students to fining it to the period during which the transfer themselves to his newly founded energies of the Italian mind were directed university at Naples. The Bolognese almost exclusively to the resuscitation of treated his edicts with contempt, and the the antique in literature and art: a period university continued to prosper as before.f extending, roughly speaking, from the But while the severe study of the civil law latter end of the fourteenth century to the was prosecuted at Bologna with an ardor beginning of the sixteenth. If we adopt which it is difficult for a modern Englishthe latter alternative, we exclude, on the
to uoderstand, the only literature one hand, Dante, Petrarch, and Boccac- which existed in the northern provinces of cio, on the other, Pulci, Boiardo, and Italy was an exotic. During the latter Ariosto, from part or lot in the Renais- ball of the twelfth and the earlier decades sance, the typical representatives of the of the thirteenth centuries troubadours movement, so far as literature is con- from Provence visited Italy in large pumcerned, being Filello, Bembo, and Poli- bers, enjoying the hospitality the vari. tian. Properly speaking, however, the ous feudal courts, and in return practising Renaissance is, as Vernon Lee observes, their art for the diversion of their hosts. “not a period, but a condition,” —a con. Thus, at least in the north, the langue d'oc
came to be regarded by the Italians them. * 1. Renaissance in Italy. By JOHN ADDINGTON Symonds. Vols. I. and IV. London: Smith, Elder selves as the proper vehicle of poetry, and
was exclusively used by those among them 2. Euphorion: being Studies of the Antique and who first cultivated the art, such as Bonithe Medieval in the Renaissance. By Vernon Lee. facio Calvi of Genoa and Sordello of ManLondon : T. Fisher Unwin. 1884.
3. Le antiche Rime Volgari secondo la Lezione tua; so that, at the beginning of the thir. Codice vaticano 3793. Per cura di A. D' ANCONA eteenth century, the langue d’oc was in a
Bologna : 1875 fair way to establish itself as the literary 4. Cantilene e Ballate Strambotti e Madrigali nei language of Italy. The disengagement of Secoli XIII. e XIV. A cura di Giosue Carducci. the Italian mind from the Provençal inPisa : 1971.
& Co. 1880 and 1881.
5. Poesie Italiane Inedite di Dugento Autori dall' Auence, the creation of a vernacular liter. origine della lingua infino all secolo 17mo. Raccolte ature, is the most signal achievement of ed illustrate da FRANCESCO TRUCCHI. Vol. I. Prato: 1846. 6. Raccolta di Rime Antiche Toscane. Palermo: Hallam's Middle Ages, cap. ix. pt. ii. sub tit.
“ Civil Law." 1817.
7. Poeti del Primo Secolo della Lingua Italiana. † Von Savigny's Gesch. des Römischen Rechts im Firenze : 1816.
Mittelalter, iii. 161.
Vols. 1. and II.
D. COMPARETTI. and 1881.
that century. The history of a revolution | checked, the poble art of architecture, so momentous, not only for Italy, but for resulted in the cold and clumsy classicism the whole Western world, is worth writ. of Palladio. Mr. Symonds does not adopt ing with the utmost care and elaboration, either of these alternatives; his work is a and, as the movement was from first to kind of compromise between them. To last under the guidance of men learned in Dante, out of a volume containing some all the learning of their age, mindful of the five hundred odd pages, rather less than ancient intellectual supremacy of their twenty are assigned, and as at the close of country, and bent upon restoring it, no them we are again reminded that Dante account of the Italian Renaissance which was after all a merely mediæval poet, and does not deal with it in detail can fail to be that with Petrarch the Repaissance be. unsatisfactory, The fault of Mr. Sy- gins, we should be inclined to wonder why monds's elaborate work is that he has Mr. Symonds had noticed him at all were never clearly settled with himself what he not that we are already familiar with his means by the Renaissance. On the one peculiar mode of handling his subject. hand, he tells us that its golden age was This is naturally seen to least advantage inaugurated by Lorenzo dei Medici in the in his introductory chapter on “The Orilatter half of the fifteenth century, when gins.” The manner in which the thir. Italian, which had been driven from the teenth century is there treated seems to field a century before by the indifferent us singularly unsatisfactory. If we take Latinity of the humanists, was reinstated the narrower view of the subject, the chapas the literary language; on the other ter is at once seen to be irrelevant, wbile hand, he ranks Dante as a mediæval poet. as an introduction to the history of the The Renaissance, according to Mr. Sy- Renaissance in the larger sense of the monds, begins with Petrarch and ends term it is altogether inadequate. with Ariosto. Its golden age is not the We propose, accordingly, in the present golden age of Italian literature - Ariosto paper to attempt, not indeed to write the is a poor substitute for Dante - but it is a history of Italian literature in that ceo. reaction against the pedantic classicism of tury, but to fill up a few lacunæ in Mr. the humanists. It is not a revival of the Symonds's account of it. We have said antique, but a vindication of the claims of that the establishment of Italian as the the modern as against the antique. This literary language was the signal achieveseems to us a paradoxical, not to say self. ment of the thirteenth century. Both contradictory, position. If by the Renais- Bologna and Florence exerted a powerful sance we mean the attempt to recover and - the latter city a decisive — influence appropriate the intellectual heritage left upon the movement. But the original im. by Greece and Rome, then, properly petus came, not from the north, but from speaking, the Renaissance was coeval the south — from the school of poets with the earliest efforts of the Italian which during the second quarter of the mind, and is not ended yet; while, if we century formed itself in the Apulian and mean by it the imitation of antique modo Sicilian dominions, and under the patron. els in literature, art, and life, it becomes age, of the emperor Frederick II. The synonymous with the combination of ped. influence which this brilliant and versatile antry and sensualism absurdly and bar. prince, by race half Swabian, half Norbarously designated the humanistic move. man, by birth Italian, by culture cosmo. ment; movement which consigned politan, exerted on the development of Dante and Petrarch to oblivion, and Italian literature was so important that it would have made Italian a dead language is necessary briefly to recapitulate some of but for the reaction of the fifteenth and the chief events of his life. The son of sixteenth centuries; a movement which the emperor Henry VI., by Constance, prepared the way for the debasement of daughter of Roger, the great count, he was Italian painting by Giulio Romano, Cor. born at Jesi, in the Marches of Ancona, reggio, and the Caracci, and in the case December 26, 1194. Orphaned of both of the one art in which it had its way uno parents wbile yet in his fourth year, he
was educated at Palermo, nominally as Meanwhile, however, the vow which the ward of the pope, but really under Frederick had taken at his coronation at Moslem instructors, in all the learning of Aix-la-Chapelle of necessity remained unthe East and West — Latin, French, Pro- performed. In 1226 he solemnly renewed vençal, Greek, and Arabian — developing it, pledging himself, on pain of excomunder these influences an acuteness and munication, to set sail for the Holy Land subtlety of intellect, an energy and decis. in August of the following year. The ion of character, which made him even in death of Pope Honorius (March 18, 1227), his boyhood a potent force in the affairs and the election of Gregory IX. in his of the world. In bis sixteenth year he place, were fraught with momentous issues found himself called upon to defend Apu alike to Frederick, 10 the Church, and to lia, which, with Sicily, he had inherited Italy. Old enough to remember Frederfrom his mother, against an unprovoked at- ick's grandfather, the great Barbarossa, tack by the newly crowned emperor Otho. Gregory seems to have made up his mind He did so by inducing the pope to excom that the ancient theory of the two co-ordi. municate the emperor, and the electors to nate headships of the Christian world depose him in favor of himself. This would no longer work; that, if the Emdiversion recalled Otho to Germany, but pire was not to reduce the Church to a in the autumn of 1212 Frederick, accom- subordinate position, the Church must panied merely by a small body guard, become paramount. In particular, he apcrossed the Alps to assert bis title to the pears to have regarded the presence of an imperial crown. In November he met emperor on Italian soil, and the steady Philip of France at Vaucouleurs, on the consolidation of his power there, as a Meuse, and concluded a treaty of alliance standing menace to the Church, and to with him, and in the following month he have therefore determined to pick a quarwas crowned at Mayence. Two years rel with Frederick at the very first opporlater Otho sustained a crushing defeat at tunity. Nor was the opportunity long in the hands of the French king at Bouvines. offering itself. In the summer of 1227 lo 1215 Frederick was crowned at Aix-la- Frederick duly set sail for the Holy Land, Chapelle, when he pledged himself to lead but, suddenly falling ill — his health was the crusade which had just been pro. always rather weak, and the season was claimed by Innocent III. The death of unusually sultry, so that the mortality Oiho in 1218 rendered his position secure; amongst the troops had been excessive and in 1220 he returned to Italy to receive - he returned to Sicily after an absence the imperial crown from the pope's hands. of three days, the expedition, however, The next eight years were spent in grap- proceeding on its way. The pope treated pling with the chronic disorder which the emperor as a maliogerer, and promptly reigned in Apulia and Sicily, a revolt of excommunicated him. the Saracen population of the island which Frederick, however, had not the slightbroke out in 1222 being only crushed after est intention of abandoning the crusade; a severe struggle. While thus engaged for, though he cared nothing about the almost from day to day in a desperate recovery of the Holy Sepulchre on its own conflict with anarchy, he yet found time account, he felt, as he expressed bimself to spare for the encouragement of litera- to Fakreddin, that it was necessary in ture and science. He fostered the medi. order that he might "keep up his credit cal school of Salerno, he founded the with the Franks." With a small squadUniversity of Naples, he encouraged the ron he sailed from Otranto in the spring study of Aristotle, Michael Scott, better of 1228, reached Acre in the autumn, and known as an astrologer, and honored by proceeded to occupy Jaffa. He had, howDante with a place in the “Inferno" (xx. ever, no desire to use force is diplomacy 115), being commissioned to execute a would serve the turn. Accordingly, after Latin translation of the Arabic versions rendering Jaffa practically impregnable, of the Περί ψυχής and the Περί τα ζώα.* he opened negotiations with Kameel, the
sultan of Egypt, who was then in posses• Von Raumer, Gesch, der Hohenstaufen (3rd ed.),
sion of Jerusalem. Their intercourse was