you will be capable of giving him more trouble and

opposition than all the rest of the Greeks united, “ whenever you shall think fit to lay hold of any oc

casion to throw off the yoke. It must then be laid “ down as a certain maxim, that our whole fortune is “at stake, and that you cannot too much abhor the

mercenaries who have sold themselves to this man; “ for it is not possible, no, it is not, to vanquish your “ foreign enemies, till you have chastised your domes“ tic foes, who are his pensioners; so that, whilst you “ will bulge against those as against so many rocks, ,

you will never attempt to act against the other, till “ it be too late.”


“ Make this reflection, I beseech you; you think " the privilege of saying any thing is so inherent in

every man who breathes the air of Athens, that you “suffer foreigners and slaves to deliver their thoughts

on every subject; insomuch that servants are here

indulged a greater · liberty in that particular, than citizens in some other commonwealths. It is from

the rostra only, that the freedom of speech is de“ nied. Hence it is that you are grown so unaccount

ably haughty in your assemblies, and so difficult to “ be pleased. You would always be flattered in them, " and hear nothing but what soothes you : and it is “ this pride and delicacy that have brought you to the “brink of destruction. If then you remain still in “ the same disposition, I have nothing to do but to be "silent. But, if you can prevail with yourselves to “ listen to what is for your advantage, without flat

tery, I am ready to speak. For, notwithstanding “the deplorable condition of our affairs, and the seve" ral losses we have sustained thro' our neglect, they

may yet be retrieved, provided you determine to act as you ought in duty.

“You know, that whatever the Greeks suffered “ from the Lacedæmonians, or from us, they suffered

“ by


by those who were Greeks as well as themselves;

}; so that we may compare our faults to those of a son, “who, being born in a rich family, should err against

some maxim of good economy. Such a son would

justly deserve the reproachful name of a squanderer; “ but it could not be justly asserted, that he had seized

upon another man's right, or that he was not the “ lawful heir. But if a slave, or a supposititious child,

would seize an estate he had no manner of title to,

just heavens! would not such an enormity raise the “ whole world against him ? and would they not cry “ out with one voice, that it deserved exemplary pu“nishment? But we do not consider Philip, and his

present conduct, in that light. Philip, who, be“ sides his not being a Greek, is no ways allied to

the Greeks by any kind of relation, and is not dis“ tinguished even amongst the barbarians by any " thing but his being denominated from the contemp“tible place whence he comes ; and being a wretched “ Macedonian by his birth, came into the world in a

corner whence we never buy even a good slave.

Notwithstanding this, does he not treat you with “ the utmost indignity ? Is it not arrived at its high“est pitch ? Not content,” &c.

The Ertracts which follow, being taken from the orations of Æschines and Demosthenes de Coronâ, it will be necessary to give the reader some idea of the subject. This Cicero informs us of in his preamble to those two orations, when he translated them; and this is the only fragment now remaining of that excellent work.

Demosthenes was entrusted with the care of repairing the walls of Athens, which he accounplished with great honour and reputation, having contributed a great deal of his own fortune towards it. Ctesiphon decreed a crown of gold to him on that account; proposed it should be presented in the open theatre, in a general assembly of the people; and that the herald should proclaim it was to reward the zeal and probity of that orator. Æschines accused Ctesiphon, as hay. ing violated the laws by that decree “[u] So “extraordinary a contest raised the curiosity of all “Greece: people ran from all parts, and with rea

son too. What finer sight than to see two orators

contending, each excelling in his own way; form“ed by nature, made perfect by art, and besides “ animated with a personal enmity to each other.”


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Æschines, after having represented, in the beginning of the exordium, the irregularities introduced in the commonwealth, and their pernicious tendency, proceeds thus.

“ In such a situation of affairs, and in such disorders, of which you yourselves are sensible; the “ only method of saving the wrecks of the govern

ment, is, if I mistake not, to allow full liberty to accuse those who have invaded your laws. But, if you shut thein up, or suffer others to do this, I prophesy that

you will fall insensibly, and that very soon, under a tyrannical power. For you know, “ Athenians, that government is divided into three “ kinds ; Monarchy, Oligarchy, and Democracy. “ As to the two former, they are governed at the “ will and pleasure of those who reign in either; « whereas established laws only reign in a popular state. That none of



be igno“ rant, but, on the contrary, that every one may be

entirely assured, that the day he ascends the seat of “ justice, to examine an accusation upon the invasion of the laws, that very day he goes to give judgment upon

his own independence. ... And indeed, “ the legislature, who is convinced, that a free state “ can support itself no longer than the laws govern, “ takes particular care to prescribe this form of an “ oath to judges, I will junge according to the laws.

[u] Ad hoc judicium concursus morum oratorum, in gravissima dicitur è totâ Greciâ factus esse. causâ, accurata & inimicitiis incenQuid eniin aut tam visendum, aut $2 contentio? Cic. de opt. gen. tam audiendum fuit, quam sum- Orat, n. 22.

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« The remembrance' therefore of this, being deeply "implanted in your minds, must inspire you with a "just abhorrence of any persons whatsoever, who “ dare transgress them by rash decrees; and that, far “ from ever looking upon a transgression of this kind “ as a small fault, you always consider it as an enor

mous and capital crime. . . Do not suffer then, any one to make you depart from so wise a principle. ... But But as, in the army, every one of you would be

, “ ashamed to quit the post assigned him by the ge

neral ; so let every one of you be this day ashamed to abandon the post which the laws have given you

in the commonwealth. What post ? that of pro“ tectors of the government.”

This comparison, which is very beautiful and noble in itself, has a peculiar grace in this place, presenting, as it were, two faces to us; for at the same time that it affects the judges, it reflects strongly on Demosthenes’s cowardice, against whom it points a satirical stroke, which is the more delicate and malicious, the more remote it seems to be from all affectation. It is well known, that he had abandoned his

. post and fled at the battle of Chæronea. This judicious observation was made by M. Tourreil.

“ Must we, in your person (addressing himself to “ Demosthenes) crown the author of the public cala“mities, or must we destroy him? And indeed, what

unexpected revolutions, what unthought-of catas

trophes, have we not seen in our days:--The king “ of Persia, that king who opened a passage through ”mount Athos; who bound the Hellespont in chains; “who was so imperious as to coinmand the Greeks " to acknowledge bim sovereign both of sea and “land; who in his letters and dispatches presumed " to stvle himself the sovereign of the world from the “rising to the setting of the sun; and who fights “ now, not to rule over the rest of mankind, but to

save his own life; do we not see those very men, who signalized their zeal in the relief of Delphos, invested both with the glory, for which that power, ES

“ ful

" ful king was once so conspicuous, and with the “ title of chief of the Greeks, against hin? As to “ Thebes, which borders upon Attica, have we not seen it disappear in one day froin the midst of “ Greece? ... And, with regard to the unhappy “ Lacedæmonians, what calamities have not befallen " them only for taking but a small part of the spoils “ of the temple? They who formerly assumed a su

periority over Greece, are they not now going to “ send ambassadors to Alexander's court, to bear the name of hostages in his train; to become a specta

cle of misery; to bow the knee before the monarch, “ submit themselves and their country to his mercy ; “ and receive such laws as a conqueror, a conqueror

they attacked first, shall think fit to prescribe them? Athens itself, the common refuge of the Greeks; " Athens formerly peopled with ambassadors, who “flocked to claim its mighty protection; is not this city now obliged to fight, not to obtain a superio

rity over the Greeks, but to preserve itself from de“struction ? Such are the misfortunes which Demos“thenes has brought upon us, since his intermeddling “ with the administration.

“ But you, who of all men are the most unfit to "signalize yourselves by great and memorable actions, “ and at the same time the fittest to distinguish your"selves by rash speeches; dare you, and that in the

presence of this august assembly, assert, that we must “ bestow a crown, at your intercession, on the person “ who has occasioned all the public calamities? And “if this man shall presume so far, will you suffer it, “gentlemen, and shall the memory of those great “inen who died in the field for their country, die “ with them? I beg you, for a few moments, to con

vey yourselves in imagination from the rostrum to “the theatre, and imagine you see the herald ad

vancing, and proclaining the crown decreed to ! Demosthenes, On which occasion do you think, " that the relations of those citizens, who spilt their " blood for you, ought to shed most tears ; either for


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