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taken from the Scriptures." Born in sin, the Church, by these prayers, endeavours to liberate the Infant.

Afterwards follows the "commemoration" of Christ's institution of Baptism, with the commission to his disciples to baptize.

Under the Law, at the time of Circumcision, the name was given; and under the Gospel, at Baptism.

The ancient custom was to dip, or sprinkle, the child thrice, to signify the mystery of the Trinity. It was afterwards appointed to do it but once ; signifying the unity of substance in the Trinity.

Having baptized the Child, the Priest receives him into the Congregation; solemnly declaring, that he is, by Baptism, made a member of the Church.' When he thus receives him, he signs him with the sign of the Cross, as was the ancient custom, upon the forehead.'

9 Cyril, Cat. 1.

rl Cor. xii. 13. s August. in Ps. 30.-Cyprian Ep. 56. Concerning the use of the Cross in Baptism, see Canon 30, anno 1603. In the Greek Church they make the sign of the Cross from the right hand to the left; contrary to the Latin and to the Schismatic Greeks. They gave the benediction with the first, second, and little finger, stretched out, retaining the third bent down, expressing the distance of the third person of the Trinity from the first two.

At the time of Baptism, a Chrisom, or white garment, was wrapt around the child, as a token of innocence. The child was anciently anointed with Chrism, or ointment, when this garment was put on.

After thanksgiving for God's gracious admission of the Child to Baptism, and an excellent prayer, that he may lead his life as he has now begun it, this Service ends with a grave and pious exhortation to the God-Fathers and God-Mothers, to remember their duty towards the Infant.

t

The Ministration of Baptism to such as are of riper years, was drawn up by Bishop Saunderson, approved by the Convocation, and ordered to be here printed in the Liturgy.

t August. de Temp. Ser. 116.

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By Letters patent, dated May 20, 1553, about six weeks before his death, King Edward VI. commanded School-masters to teach their scholars a Catechism, entituled, Catechismus Christianæ disciplinæ summam continens.

This tract was ascribed to Poynet, Bishop of Winchester; and by some to Nowel, afterwards Dean of St. Paul's. It was examined and revised by Cranmer, Ridley, and the Divines, who in the preceding year had been employed in drawing up the “ Articles of Religion." It was intituled, “ The Catechism of King Edward, or, the short instruction into the Christian Religion ;" a work, notwithstanding its title, amounting to not less than five hundred pages. In the third and fourth year of Queen Elizabeth, Nowel, at the recommendation of Cecil, composed upon the same model a Catechism. In 1562, it was presented in

some

manuscript to the Convocation; which, with some alteration, unanimously sanctioned it, and recommended it to public use.

In 1570,

with learned notes upon it, it was published and dedicated to the two Archbishops, and the Bishop of London by name, and to all the Bishops. It was reprinted in 1572, and again in 1578, and translated by Nowel's order, into English and Greek. The Latin title is, Christianæ pietatis prima institutio ad usum Scholarum Latinè scripta.

When the Liturgy was revised at the Conference at Hampton Court, in 1603, an addition was made to the Catechism concerning the Sacraments. Before that time the Catechism ended with the answer of that question, which immediately follows the Lord's Prayer.

In answer to the second question in the Catechism, in which the term “ Child of God” occurs, it is meant, not as we were born and created by him, but that we were in that state of ignorance and wickedness, in which the Gentiles were before their conversion to Christianity. The death of Christ was properly an expiatory sacrifice; and, in its fullest sense, “ a perfect and sufficient satisfaction for the sins of the whole world,” an atonement which God, in his wisdom and goodness, was pleased to accept.

In answer to the last question but two in this Catechism, it is said, "the body and blood of Christ are verily and indeed taken by the faithful;" that is, that all those blessings and benefits which were purchased for us by the body and blood of Christ, are communicated to all faithful receivers, in and by those benefits of bread and wine which are the mystical representations of the death of Christ in this Sacrament.

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