defence from evil, and supply of good. We offer our prayers equally for those without the pale of the Church, Jews, Turks, Infidels, and Heretics ;' and for those within the Church ; for the Ministers, that they may be fit,’ diligent, a and successful;b and for the People, that they may be preserved in truth, unity," and peace.

*. In the Collects for the eighth and fifteenth Sundays after Trinity.

y In the three Collects for Good-Friday.
. In the Collect for St. Matthias.
a In the Collect for St. Peter.
b In the Collect for the third Sunday in Advent.

c In the two first Collects for Good-Friday, and in the Collect for St. John.

d In the Collect for St. Simon and St. Jude.

e In the Collects for the fifth, sixth, and twelfth Sundays after Trinity.








There is no particular form in the Gospel for the celebration of the “Holy Communion.” When the extraordinary spirit of prophecy ceased, the rulers of the Church composed forms of their own, according to the Apostolic precedent. Basil, Chrysostom, and Ambrose, composed Liturgies for their respective Churches. Pope Gelasius afterwards compiled the Roman Missal, which Pope Gregory improved. In our own country, Osmund, the Norman, who was Bishop of Salisbury, and Earl of Dorset, and in the confidence of William the Conqueror, drew up the celebrated Liturgy of Sarum. In his time there was almost in every Diocese a different service. It was his object to introduce uniformity in the service of the Church ; and his Missal, enriched and improved from the Scriptures became the standard of public worship in almost all the Churches of Great Britain and Ireland. It was this Liturgy which was administered by the Bishops and Clergy, when the “Order of Communion was published in 1547, and also when the “ Order," in King Edward's first and second Books, was published.

The « Communion” is sometimes called the “ second Service," because the “Morning Service” and Litany are used before it. It was a custom in some Churches that the Bell was tolled, while the Litany was saying, to give notice to those who were absent, that the Communion Service was about to commence.

It was an ancient custom, as old as the third Century, to sing an Anthem before this service began, called the Introit ; because, while it was singing, the Priest entered within the Septum, or rail of the Altar. It was a Psalm, or portion of a Psalm, followed by the gloria patri. The introits were ordered in the first Book of King

Edward VI.; but although afterwards omitted by the revisers of the Liturgy in the rubric of the second Book; yet it has been, and still is, used in our Cathedrals, and in places where they sing.

This service begins with the Lord's Prayer. Then follows an excellent Prayer to God, to “ cleanse our hearts by his Inspiration.”

This is a fit beginning of the Communion Service. What can be a more proper introduction to the Lord's Supper, than the Lord's Prayer; to ask for that bread of life which, in those times, was daily received ? And without purity of heart, and "without washing our hands in innocence," how can we fitly go to his Altar? It is also an appropriate preparation for the recital of the Ten Commandments. f

The Priest now “ turning to the people, rehearses distinctly the Ten Commandments."

The recital of the Commandments was first appointed in the second Book of King Edward VI. After each Commandment has been read, every communicant, recollecting and bewailing his own sins, cries out, “ Lord, have mercy upon us;" and, to strengthen his purpose of amendment, adds, " and incline our hearts to keep this law." At our Baptism, we promise and vow

Exodus xix. 14.

66 Let us

to keep the Commandments, and this vow we renew at the Lord's table.

After the Commandments, the Prayer for the King follows, after the exhortation pray." There were originally three distinct services; in each of which was a prayer for the King; in the Morning Service, in the Litany, and in the Communion Service. The Morning Service was said at the beginning of the day. The Litany was a short time before the Common Service. " The Communion was some time after the Morning Service. The usual hour, anciently, for this Service, was nine o'clock; because at that hour began our Saviour's Passion. i It was, also, at this hour the Holy Ghost descended upon the Apostles." Then follow the “ Collect" for the day, the “ Epistle," and the “Gospel.” Afterwards is read the “ Nicene Creed," so called because it was framed at the council of Nice, in

325, which was held to endeavour to suppress the doctrines of Arius.? This Creed began to

8 St. Chrysostom says, IIpwia, which is translated “in the morning," "early.”—Mark xiii. 35., John xviii. 28. Matt. xxvii. 2.

\ By the Injunction 18 of Queen Elizabeth.
i Mark xv. 25.
k Acts ii. 15.

Gregory, of Nissa, is said to have been the author of the Nicene Creed, who lived at the time of this Council.

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