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time of our Saviour we find that they were in most of its eastern and southern provinces, and had, doubtless, made many converts to the institutions of Moses. Of these dispersed Jews and proselytes, some from various nations were residing at Jerusalem at the feast of Pentecost; and owing to this circumstance, the grand truths of the gospel were, undoubtedly, more rapidly disseminated over the provinces which were distant from Jerusalem, than otherwise they would have been. We are told in the inestimable history of the Apostles, that when the Apostles, after receiving " the promise of the Father," preached the gospel in foreign languages, according as they were prompted by the Spirit, these Jews and proselytes, “from
every nation under heaven, were perplexed, because every “ one heard them speaking in his own language” (or dialect). “And they were all amazed, and wondered, saying one to “another, Behold, are not all these who speak Galileans? “How then hear we every man in our own language, in which “ we were born? Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, and "dwellers in Mesopotamia, and in Judæa* and Cappadocia, “ in Pontus and Asia,t in Phrygia and Pamphylia, in Ægypt, “and in the parts of Libya about Cyrene, and strangers from “Rome both Jews and proselytes, Cretans also and Arabians; “ we hear them speaking in our own tongues the wonderful “ works of God." They were indeed the wonderful works of God which the Apostles spake; and, if this narrative were not true, could it have been received as true, in those very countries from which these foreigners came? could it have been handed down to us as true? It is true, and the consequence inevitably follows,—“God raised up Jesus,"—the religion of Jesus is worthy of all acceptation, and his words
are to be received as the words of the Father who sent him.]
* Perhaps foreign Jews residing in Judæa, but speaking their own language,
+ Proconsular Asia, says Archbishop Newcome, whose translation is here given,---more probably the Asia round Ephesus, see $ 21.
FOR the convenience of those who prefer the opinion of the great Lardner respecting the dates of the epistles to Timothy and Titus, the following sentences are added, to be substituted for those in the foregoing pages which are inconsistent with it.
Page 11. $6. During his first imprisonment, &c. For this sentence use the following. While Paul was in Rome, A. D. 61-63, he is supposed to have written the letter to the Ephesians, the second to Timothy, and the letters to the Philippians, the Colossians, and Philemon.
Page 12. $ 8. It does not appear that Paul, &c. Lardner supposes that Paul travelled into Illyricum, and taught there the Christian religion, sometime in the year 57, or 56.
Page 14. § 11. Here it is probable, &c. Here Lardner supposes that Paul passed his winter, A. D. 56–57; after having written his first letter to Timothy and that to Titus, from some of the neighbouring parts of Macedonia.
Page 15. 13. It is probable, &c. Lardner supposes that Paul visited Crete in the year 56. He then left Titus there; and before the close of the year, wrote to him from the neighbourhood of Nicopolis.
Page 20. $ 27. It is probable, &c. Lardner supposes that Trophimus was left at Miletus, in Paul's first voyage to Rome.*
Page 23. § 35. It is of considerable importance to the right understanding of the narratives of our Lord's ministry, that we gain accurate ideas as to the extent of Galilee; for this purpose we cannot have better authority than that of Josephus. Galilee is usually understood as extending to the Mediterranean. We might argue that this was not the case, from the mode in which the Evangelists speak of the little Lake of Galilee; but the testimony of Josephus is very express. He says,t that the “ territories of Ptolemais bound the
* Lardner, after Lightfoot, seems to found his opinion on what Luke says, Acts xxvii. 2. “ meaning to sail to some places along the coast of Asia,” (probably using the term Asia in the sense given, § 21.). But this argument is entirely obviated by the fact stated in the 6th verse. If Lardner's opinion on the very difficult question of the date of the second epistle to Timothy be correct, would it not be attended with less difficulty if we suppose that the Miletus mentioned 2 Tim. iv. 20. was the town of that name in Crete ?
+ De Bell. Jud. Lib. III. Cap. III. (Huds. Ed.)
6 Galilees on the west, and also Carmel, a mountain formerly be“ longing to the Galileans, but now to the Tyrians.”
Pp. 30, 31. § 49. 53. Josephus, in the same chapter, uses an expression which leads to the inference, that in the time of our Saviour, Judæa occupied the coast of the Mediterranean, as far as the southern limits of Phænice;" Judæa is not destitute of the conveniences af6 forded by the sea, as it extends along the maritime parts as far as 66 Ptolemais.” Were a change of any consequence in connexion with the New Testament history, it would be right to assign the limits of Judæa and Samaria according to this passage: but as this is not the case, it seems most expedient to employ the limits usually given.
A Table of Distances, calculated from D'Anville's Map, (1794.)
Miles. From Bethabara to Jerusalem
38 Cæsarea to Jerusalem
33 Cæsarea Philippi to Damascus
202 Capernaum to Jerusalem
53 Cæsarea Philippi
28 Gaza to Jerusalem
23 Jerusalem to Joppa
14 Jericho to the Jordan
5 Machærus to Tiberias
34 Nazareth to Capernaum
59 Ptolemais to Tyre
25 Sychar to Cana
Table of the Names of Places, &c. mentioned in the preceding
Work, accented and divided.
[REMARKS.-1. Every vowel with the accent on it at the end of a syllable, is
pronounced as in English with its first long open sound. Thus: Ca'na, Me'dia, Chi'os, Ico'nium, Dalmanu'lha, have the accented vowels sounded exactly as in the English words pa'per, me'tre, spi'der, noʻble, tu'tor.-2. Every accented vowel not ending a syllable, but followed by a consonant, has the short sound, in English. Thus: Ath'ens, Lesbos, It'aly, Pon'tus, have the short sound of the accented vowels in man'ner, plen'ty, printer, collar.-3. The dipthongs æ and æ, are pronounced like e in the same situations.-4. Every final i forming a distinct syllable, has the long open sound; but every unaccented i ending a syllable not final, is pronounced like e short-5. Before a vowel, ch is always to be pronounced like k.
6. The c, and g, where to be pronounced like s and j, are printed in italics.] Ab-i-le'-ne Cæs-a-re'a
Ga-la'-ti-a, GalaAd-ra-myt'-ti-um Ca'-na-an
shea A'-dri-a Cap-ern'-a-um
Cap-pa-do'-ci-a Gau-lo-ni -tis
E'-non or Ænon