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more especially with the advantage of real voice, of accommodated eloquence, and of living sympathies, over a dead letter. These advantages are sufficient; and, as the true object of education is not to render the pupil the mere copy of his preceptor, it is rather to be rejoiced in, than lamented, that various reading should lead him into new trains of thinking; open to him new mines of science and new incentives to virtue ; and perhaps, by a blended and compound effect, produce in him an improvement which was out of the limits of his leffons, and raise him to heights the preceptor never knew.

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ESSAY XVI.

OF EARLY INDICATIONS OF CHARACTER.

A FEW remarks will not perhaps be unprofitably set down, on the subject of juvenile character, and the promising and unpromising indications that early display themselves in the manners of youth.

Calumny has long been privileged to stalk the world at large, and to shed its poison upon the fairest flowers. It can show a very ancient title, and will not easily suffer ejectment. Secret resentment often delights to add new malignity to its venom ; and often a mere gaiety of humour, sporting in thoughtless fallies, will fix a sting that neither time, nor all the healing arts of wifdom and virtue, shall be able to cure. The wound rankles unseen. The grandest efforts of genius, and the purest energies of benevolence, thus become enfeebled, discouraged, annihilated. Nothing more easy than to barb the flander; nothing more difficult than to extract the dart. The whole appearance of the man becomes difcoloured and disfigured ; all his virtues are

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more especially with the advantage of real voice, of accommodated eloquence, and of living fympathies, over a dead letter. These advantages are sufficient; and, as the true object of education is not to render the pupil the mere copy of his preceptor, it is rather to be rejoiced in, than lamented, that various reading should lead him into new trains of thinking; open to him new mines of science and new incentives to virtue ; and perhaps, by a blended and compound effect, produce in him an improvement which was out of the limits of his lessons, and raise him to heights the preceptor never knew.

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demned untried, and not for what they have done, but for what we presume to foretel they will do, is an aggravation of the calamity.

The argument against calumny however has been carried too far. It is an erroneous system of morality which would teach us, that we judge not, left we should be judged, and that we speak evil of no man. Falfhood is vice, whether it be uttered to a man's cornmendation or censure; and to suppress that which is true, is to be regarded as a species of falshood. We ought not to desire for ourselves, not to be judged, but that we may not be judged unjustly; and the like equal measure we ought to deal to others. I feel no exultation in that man's applause, who is not also endowed with a republican boldness to censure. Frankness is perhaps the first of virtues ; or, at least, is that without which virtue of a manly and liberal dimension cannot exist. To give to our thoughts their genuine and appropriate language, is one of the most wholfome exercises in which we can be engaged. Without this exercise it is scarcely poslible that we should learn to think with precision and correctness. It teaches us to review our thoughts ; to blush for their absurdity, their groundless singularities, and their exaggeration. It ripens what at first was merely opinion, into fyftein and fcience.

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transformed into vices; all his actions are mifrepresented, misunderstood and vilified. It matters not with how much generosity he sets himself to act : the glass of truth shall never be turned on him; nor shall he in any instance obtain justice.

But calumny is doubly execrable and unmanly, when it attacks the first promising dawnings of youth. A man sufficiently adult, has attained fome strength, and can cope with it. He can plead his own cause. He has tried the passions of men, and the magic of undaunted truth; and uses both, as tools with the powers of which he is acquainted. Beside, a man inust expect some time or other to encounter adversity : if he be hardly pressed upon, and unjustly dealt with, his case is indeed worthy of regret ; but it is the lot of inan, and the condition under which he was born. It is worse than this, when a weak and defenceless youth is made the butt of these attacks. It is more worthy of regret, when he is refused the common period of probation; is maimed and dismounted at the very entrance of the course, and sent to languish long years of a baffled existence, with his limbs already withered and shrunk up by the shocks of calumny. That men should be condemned unjustly, is that which ought not to be ; that they should be con

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