feet higher than the valleys imme- ly cause the wind to rush thither, diately below. This might be con- with all its contents, and with greatsidered a weighty objection against er impetuosity. The coolness of my theory; as heat, considered in the atmosphere on elevated situathe light of an elastick Auid, ex- tions may be ascribed also to the pands equally on all sides; and, from evaporation of the uppermost strawhatever cause it proceeds, it should ta of the clouds, which accompany be supposed to extend even further the land-winds. where it meets with less resistance, Many arguments I have dispensed as from the air in higher regions, with, which might have been pro. which is known to be lighter and duced to elucidate and to establish more penetrable than the my theory, as they were chiefly such earth.

as could be collected from simple But the reverse takes place; for inference, and from affirmative apalmost immediately above the clouds plication of doctrines advanced be. no other heat is perceptible than fore. what might be owing to the nature I will only add, that both the siof the climate.

rocco and samiel may be owing to This circumstance may be ac- similar causes as those which apcounted for by the diminished den- pear to be productive of the pernisity of the air in the lower parts of cious, or rather disagreeable, effects the country, produced by the heat of our land-winds. of the season, which would natural.




SO little is really known of the as well from that cause as from the biography of Cervantes, that those curiosity of their contents. Spaniards who design to do him In the first page of the History honour by learning the particulars of Don Quixote, it is said that on of the life of a man whose writings Saturday the Don's dinner consisted have had so great an effect on their of duelos y quebrantos. Shelton (the own country, and have so greatly first English translator) calls it colamused all parts of the world, know lops and eggs: all the other translanot by what means to procure com- tors say, griefs and grouns; gripes plete memoirs of him. Of the inci- and, grumblings; Pellicer has thus dents authenticated, the following is explained the meaning in a note. a part. The accuracy with which his “ It was customary in some parts work has been investigated, the ve- of la Mancha for the shepherds to nial failures of memory detected in convey to their masters' houses, the it, and the account obtained of the carcases of the sheep or cattle which property of its author, are so many had died during the week. After proofs of Spanish zeal and industry, taking out the bones, the flesh was in behalf of the literature of their salted and preserved for culinary use: country. They will, therefore, be and broth was made of the broken found interesting by British readers, bones. In allusion to the painful recollection of the loss of part of their continued to the 29th flocks, the sorrow it occasioned, December

87 days and the breaking of the bones, such He returned home, fell ill food was called duelos y quebrantos; next day, and on the 8th sorrows and breakings."

of January, 1605, he died 10 do. The books which have been

165 days printed in Spain during these last forty years, both in verse and prose, or five months and twelve days. have constantly the mark of interro

But although Cervantes intended gation reversed before a question,

that the third and last sally should and also at the end, in the usual

be interwoven with the two first, and way.

without any further interval than M. de Florian has suited his the above stated months, it, nottranslation to the present French

withstanding, appears from the contaste. He says he is convinced that text of the history that no less than Cervantes composed the first part ten years intervened: supposing the of Don Quixote, at a single cast hero contemporary with several [d'un seul jet] or as the Italians say, events in the year 1614. Such as the by the first intention, without even expulsion of the Moors; the advengiving himself the trouble of revi. tures of Roque Guinart; the date of sing his manuscript, as is evident Sancho's letter to his wife from the from the number of anachronisms.

duke's castle, July 20, 1614; the saThe duration of the history of tyrical remarks on the second part Don Quixote, is thus computed by published in the same month and Senor Rios in the three splendid year by Avellaneda, and the age of editions made of that history, under the housekeeper which in the first the direction of the Royal Academy chapter is stated to be above forty, at Madrid, published in four large and in the last chapter but one more quarto volumes, 1780, in 4 vols. 8vo. than fifty. 1782, and in 6 smaller 8vo. volumes

The principal purpose of the his. in 1787, with 36 copper-plates and tory of Don Quixote, was, as Cer. a map of Spain on which is traced

vantes himself tells us in his prothe route of the Don, specifying logue to the first part, “ to invali. where every one of the adventures date the authority and favour in is supposed to have happened. which the world, and especially the

The first edition of Don Quixote vulgar, held books of chivalry," was in 1605, and as we are to ima- which delicate method of ridicule, gine Cervantes described the man- happily became effectual, according ners of his own times, we shall, to that wise sentence of Horace: from the text, state the following

Ridiculum acri computation.

Fortius et melius magnas plerumque se1604. July 28, he sallies

Lib. I. Sat. X. forth and returns the day after,

2 days

“ Ridicule often decides matters of imHe remains at home

18 do. portance more effectually and better than

severity." His second excursion from August 17th to Septem

Cervantes was redeemed from ber 20

17 do.

slavery at Algiers in the year 1580, He returns home and stays 31 do. for 500 gold crowns [1121.] partly The third sally began on

supplied by his mother and sister, the third of October and

and completed by the brothers of the

cat res.

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order of Holy Trinity, two of whom on her 100 ducats, or about 121. bewent purposely to Algiers to ransom ing one tenth of all he possessed, one hundred and eighty five captives, which thousand ducats would at among the list of whom was mention- present be equivalent to between ed, “ Miguel de Cervantes, 30 years three and four hundred pounds sterof age, native of Alcalà de Henares.” ling.

After his return from captivity, In the following year he went to he found himself nearly in the con- reside in Seville, where he remaindition of Horace after the battle of ed till 1598. We know nothing of Philippi, destitute of every thing; him after that time, till the year and obliged to write verses and 1604, when he lived in Valladolid, compose comedies, which he sold

and was employed as an agent in bufor his maintenance.

siness. In 1605, a gentleman was

murdered in the street in which paupertas impulit audax

Cervantes resided, and in conseUt versus facerem. Epist. 2. Lib. II.

quence of the inquests which were

made, we learn that in the apart"s Imperious poverty urged me on, to write ments which were occupied in one verses.

of the houses in that street, there He wrote between twenty and lodged Miguel de Cervantes, aged

67, Dona Catalina, his wife; Dona thirty comedies, which were sold at

Isabel de Saavedra, his natural 800 reals each (which, at 90 reals to 11. sterling, is less than 91.]

daughter, spinster, 20 years of age, In 1584, he married Dona Catalina Dona Andrea, his sister, twice a de Salazar, who brought him a for

widow, above 50 years old, her tune of near 601. sterling [adequate to daughter, aged 28, and Maria Ce. 1501. or 2001. at present] which, ac.

vallos, their only servant, aged 18. cording to the inventory, consisted Cervantes, his daughter, his sister, of a vineyard, a garden, and a plan- and her daughter, were sent to pritation of olive and almond trees, es

son, but the next day they were all timated at 371. and the remainder, released upon bail

, although confiof household furniture; and the fol ned to their own house, from which lowing articles, which we insert as

confinement they were soon liberamatters of curiosity:

ted, and the court returning to

Madrid, Cervantes followed it thid.

ther, and remained there during the Four bee-hives

19 8.

remainder of his life. Five pounds of wax Six bushels of flower


Cervantes was always complainOne bushel of wheat

1 ing of his poverty, and notwithstand45 hens and chickens, 1 cock 9 9 ing his military services, and his An alabaster image of our

merits in the republick of letters, he 5

could never Lady with the child Jesus


from that miseAn oil picture in a frame

rable state, because 6 we know not

3 of ditto

how it happens," says Petronius, A silver image of our lady?

6 that poverty is the sister of good

3 3 of Loretto

understanding." Two images of the child Jesus with their shirts 2 8

Nescio quomodo paupertas soror est boand jackets

næ mentis.

Satir. p. 84. A crucifix

O 10

And, as our author makes Gines A picture of St. Francis


de Pasemont say, This fortune was to remain at her

“ Genius is always persecuted by misforown disposal, and Cervantes settled




0 0 9




At last, Cervantes, undeceived, which day, died likewise, the celeand convinced that he could not ob- brated English poet, William Shaktain any establishment, being conti- speare, aged 53." nually persecuted by envy and igno- A very good book may do much rance, resolved to struggle no long- harm, witness Don Quixote. Cerer, but to live in retirement, and vantes extinguished the brilliant return, as he says, to his leisure, ideas of chivalry; and since that which he, however, employed in period, Spain has been on the decomposing new works, and impro- cline. It is dangerous to cure a peoving others.

ple of its chimeras and irregulariCervantes received a small pen- ties, when those chimeras form the sion from the archbislıop of Toledo, very essence of its character, and and another from the count de Le- that character is a good one. There mos, which barely kept him out of are certain follies which are worth prison. Cervantes became a brother preserving." of the order of St. Francis, in his The first English translation of own house, where he was confined Don Quixote was by Thomas Shel. through illness on the 2d of April, ton, in 2 vols. 4to. 1620. The second 1616, like those, who

edition of this book, was in 1652, in

folio, 274 leaves, London, by Richard -to be sure of Paradise Dying, put on the weeds of Dominick,

Hodgkinsonne. In the dedication Or in Franciscan think to pass disguised.” Shelton says, he “ translated the Parad. Lost, book 3. Historie of Don Quixote, out of the

Spanish tongue into the English, in He died three weeks after, and the space of fourty dayes." 274 was buried in the poorest manner, leaves are 548 pages [in folio] 55 in a convent in Madrid, without any lines to a page and 16 words to a epitaph, so that the precise place is line, are contained in this edition; not known.

so that he translated 14 pages every The Spanish edition of Don Quix day, or 770 lines, which would, ote, which was published in Madrid, even at this time, be considered as 1797, in four volumes, in quarto, by very laborious work. Perhaps this is Juan Antonio Pellicer, contains, in the best English translation, or that the life of Cervantes, the following of Smollet, as being the most moparagraphs:

dern: but a new edition of Jarvis's “ Afteran illness, of seven months, translation has been lately publishdied Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, ed, with all thë modern Spanish ada on the 23d of the month of April, ditions. Anno 1616, in Madrid, aged 69. On

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To the Editor of the European Magazine. SIR,

THERE is a pathetick and written by Mr. Penn to his wife and elegant simplicity in the writings of children,' a little before his first great and good men, which I take voyage to AMERICA, and found after to be the natural result of conscious his death among some old MSS. goodness and exalted virtue. I was, never published. I have permission therefore, highly delighted with a to copy it, and here send it you. The letter, which a neighbour of mine, sentiments are not studied, novel, or a quaker, has communicated to me, sublime, but simple, sincere, and natural; adapted to the occasion, a zeal and love to his glory, dwell flowing from the heart, and conso- richly in thy heart; and thou wilt nant with the rules of the true epis- watch for good over thyself and thy tolary writing. Mr. Penn (as observed dear children and family, that no of Shakspeare) appears not so pro- rude, light, or bad thing be comperly to “ speak from Nature, as mitted; else God will be offended, that she speaks through him."- and he will repent himself of the

. Whether we view this great man in good he intends thee and thine. the light of a legislator, historian, 2dly, Be diligent in meetings of or chronologist, we must allow he worship and business; stir up thyself had great extent of knowledge, ac- and others herein; 'tis thy duty and curacy of judgment, and quickness place; and let meetings be kept once of invention: and I think it is but a day in the family to wait upon the justice to his memory to observe, Lord, who has given us so much that in all his writings, the gentle time for ourselves: and, my dearest, man, scholar, and Christian, are to make thy family-matters easy to eminently conspicuous. J. W. V. thee, divide thy time, and be regu. London, 14th February, 1811. lar; 'tis easy and sweet; thy retire.

ment will afford thee to do it: as in MR. WILLIAM PENN'S LETTER.

the morning to view the business of MY DEAR WIFE AND CHILDREN, the house, and fix it as thou desirest,

My love, that sea nor land, nor seeing all be in order; that by thy death itself, can extinguish or lessen counsel all may move, and to thee toward you, most endearedly visits render an account every evening. you with eternal embraces, and will The time for work, for walking, for abide with you for ever; and may meals, may be certain, at least as the God of my life watch over you, near as may be; and grieve not thyand bless you, and do you good in self with careless servants, they will this world, and for ever. Some disorder thee; rather pay them, and things are upon my spirits to leave let them go, if they will not be betwith you, in your respective capa- ter by admonitions; this is best to cities, as I am to one a husband, and avoid many words, which I know to the rest a father, if I should never wound the soul, and offend the Lord, see you more in this world.

3dly, Cast up thy income, and see My dear wife, remember thou what it daily amounts to; by which wast the love of my youth, and much thou mayst be sure to have it in thy the joy of my life; the most beloved sight and power to keep within as well as the most worthy, of all compass; and I beseech thee to live my earthly comforts: and the reason low and sparingly, till my debts are of that love was more thy inward paid; and then enlarge as thou seest than thy outward excellencies (which it convenient. Remember thy moyet were many.) God knows, and ther's example when thy father's thou knowest it, I can say it was a publick-spiritedness had worstcıl his match of Providence's making; and estate (which is my case.) I know God's image in us both was the first thou lovest plain things, and are thing, and the most amiable and en- averse to the pomp of the world; a gaging ornament in our eyes. Now nobility natural to thee. I write not I am to leave thee, and that without as doubtful, but to quicken thee, for knowing whether I shall ever see my sake, to be more vigilant herein; thee more in this world, take my knowing that God will bless thy counsel into thy bosom, and let it care, and thy poor children and thee dwell with thee in my stead while for it. My mind is wrapt up in a thou livest.

saying of thy father's, “ I desire not Ist, Let the fear of the Lord, and riches, but to owe nothing;” anel

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