trasted with a gloomy and severe look. The American race, after the hyperbore an race, is the least numerous; but it occupies the greatest space on the globe. Over a million and a half of square leagues, from the Terra del Fuego islands to the river St. Laurence and Baring's Straits, we are struck, at the first glance, with the general resemblance in the features of the inhabitants. We think we perceive that they all descend from the same stock, notwithstanding the enormous diversity of language which separates them from one another."

"In the forests of Guiana, especially near the sources of the Oronoco, are several tribes of a whitish complexion, the Guaicas, Guajaribs, and Arigues, of whom several robust individuals, exhibiting no symptom of the asthenical malady which characterizes albinos, have the appearance of true Mestizoes. Yet these tribes have never mingled with Europeans, and are surrounded with other tribes of a dark brown hue."

"The Mexican Indians, when we consider them en masse, offer a picture of extreme misery. Banished into the most barren districts, and indolent from nature, and more still from their political situation, the natives live only from hand to mouth. We should seek almost in vain

among them for individuals who enjoy any thing like a certain mediocrity of fortune. Instead, however, of a comfortable independency, we find a few families whose fortune appears so much the more colos sal, as we least expect it among the lowest class of the people. In the intendancies of Oaxaca and Valladolid, in the valley of Toluca, and especially in the environs of the great city of la Puebla de los Angeles, we find several Indians, who, under an appearance of poverty, conceal considerable wealth. When I visited the small city of Cholula, an old Indian woman was buried there, who left to her children plantations of maguey [agave] worth more than 360,000 francs. These plantations are the vineyards and sole wealth of the country. However, there are no caciques at Cholula; and the Indians there are all tributary, and distinguished for their great sobriety and their gentle and peaceable manners. The manners of the Cholulans exhibit a

singular contrast to those of their neighbours of Tlascala, of whom a great number pretend to be the descendants of the highest titled nobility, and who increase their poverty by a litigious disposition and

a restless and turbulent turn of mind.— Among the most wealthy Indian families at Cholula, are the Axcotlan, the Sarmi15,000 sterling.

entos, and Romeros; at Guaxocingo, the Sochipiltecatl; and, especially, the Tecuanouegues in the village de los Reyes. Each of these families possess a capital of from 800,000 to 1,000,000 of livres.† They enjoy, as we have already stated, great consideration among the tributary Indians; but they generally go barefooted, and covered with a Mexican tunick of coarse texture and a brown colour, approaching to black, in the same way as the very lowest of the Indians are usually dressed."

Of negroes, this country contains very few: of creoles it contains many; and these, we conjecture, are destined to become the ruling powers, when the convulsive struggle is over. From these extracts our readers may form their opinion on the contents of this work. It would have been, at any time, an accession to our stock of information; but the present moment imparts to it an importance in which it is altogether unrivalled. The subject has never been so scientifically treated. But the present volumes do not contain the natural history, or other philosophical illustrations: they are to be sought elsewhere.

If we were criticising the labours of a translator who had been allowed full leisure to execute his task, and revise it with diligence, we should think it our duty to complain of many offences against propriety, which occur in these volumes: but it seems that haste has domineered over talent on this occasion. We know not whether to censure with severity the translator who undertakes more than he can perform, or to wish him a greater allowance of time on the next occasion: but of this we are certain, that maugre the commands of his master the bookseller, his labour would have been more honourable to his abilities had he carefully reinspected it, before it was committed to the press. The plates annexed to this edition, equally bear marks of hurry: those who have seen the originals will bestow but moderate commendation on these translations.

From £33,336 to £41,670 sterling.


The Select Works of Antony Van Leeuwenhoek; containing his Microscopical Disco.

veries in many of the Works of Nature. Translated from the Dutch and Latin Editions published by the Author. By Samuel Hoole. Vol. 2d. 4to. 21. 2s. Boards.

SEVERAL years having elapsed bable, by many of the facts which since the first volume of this trans- are adduced. Respecting the bodies lation was published, we almost vulgarly called ant’s eggs, it is redespaired of its continuance; but we marked, that they are found nearly were glad to perceive that our fears as large as the ant itself, and, there. were unfounded, and to have it in fore, must have grown after they our power to announce its comple- left the body of the parent. This tion. The present volume, like the consideration led the author to exaformer, consists of a number of un- mine more particularly into their naconnected treatises on different ture, when he found them to be branches of natural history, the chief maggots, in which the rudiments of interest of which depends on the the future animal may be perceived; microscopical observations for which the proper eggs are much smaller, the author is so justly celebrated. and may be detected in great nume We shall mention the subjects of bers in the nests. It is for the supthe different articles in the order in ply of these maggots that the old which they stand, enlarging on some ants carry food during the summer, of the most curious of them.

the maggots being themselves incaThe first essay is on the forma. pable of motion. M. Leeuwenhoek tion of different kinds of wood, elm, conjectures that the food is first rebeech, willow, alder, &c. accompa- ceived into the stomach of the ant, nied by plates of the appearances and there undergoes some change, which they exhibit, when highly which renders it more proper for the magnified; the principal object be- support of the young animal. This, ing to point out the relative size and altogether, forms one of the most situation of the perpendicular ves- curious articles in the volume, and sels, as affected by the annual growth announces information, which has of the tree. We have next some obe not, perhaps, been sufficiently noservations on the herring, particu- ticed by subsequent naturalists. larly on its food; and afterward an An amusing paper occurs essay on the ant. In his account of specting the flea. As soon as the the latter, the author combats some young worm leaves the egg, it spins opinions which have been generally for itself a web, in which it lies for adopted respecting it, and which some time quite concealed; and it still form a part of the popular be- appears that there is an immediate lief. He was led to conclude “that necessity for this process, because a the ant, as well as the weevil and minute insect of the mite kind exists, other minute animals in these cold which would prey on the worm, if regions) does, in the winter season, it had not this protection. Perhaps lie without motion, and does not no animal exhibits a greater distake any nourishment; and that the play of curious mechanism; and the collections of food which ants are author seems to have examined and observed to make, and to heap to. described it with the most minute gether in their nests, during the accuracy. The succeeding observasummer season, is for no other pur- tions are on the seeds of some difpose than to feed their young." ferent kinds of trees, on the generaThis opinion is rendered very pro- tion of eels, and on the eye of the


beetle. So far from the last animal these small globules, there were possessing an imperfect sight, ac- some larger ones, of which," he cording to the vulgar proverb, it is says, “I judged that six would be furnished with above 3,000 eyes, equal in size to one globule of hu. each of them possessing a distinct man blood.” Some curious remarks lens and optick nerve. The same follow on the minute fleshy fibres. essay contains some remarks on the The author was able, by means of brain of the gnat, and the circulation his glasses, to detect them when of of the blood in the crab. The next so small a size, that a million occu. object that is described, is, the pro- pied only the size of a square inch. turberance which is occasionally He particularly examined the musfound on the leaf of the willow; and cles of a flea's foot; and, by comparwhich is the work of an insect that ing them with those of the larger lays its eggs on the surface of the animals, he inferred that the ultileaf, and, at the same time, seems

mate fibres of all were of the same. to penetrate into its substance, and size. act on it in such a way as to produce this excresence, which serves

“ I continued my observations,” he says, as a receptacle for the future ani. "by examining the flesh taken out of the

feet of a flea, and I saw no difference bemal. A section on the loadstone fol

tween the formation and figure of the lows, which is less interesting than fibres, taken out of the breast and the some other parts of the work, be- feet, and I saw more than twelve of such cause our knowledge of the pro- fibres in the foot of a fea, joining to each perties of this substance is

other, and also many smaller fibres, in

very much extended since Leeuwenhoek wrinkles; these last I took to be exceed.

which I could not distinguish the folds or wrote. We cannot assent to an opi- ing small blood vessels and nerves. nion advanced by the translator, that " I also took the flesh out of the feet of any analogy subsists between the small flies, and saw the fleshy fibres in loadstone and the polypus, merely them to be formed in the same manner as

beforementioned. because every fragment of a magnet " 'The fibres which compose the subbecomes itself a perfect magnet, in

stance of a whale, I also found to be each the same way as the parts of a di- enclosed in a membrane, and to be com. vided polypus each form a perfect posed of still smaller filaments; and with animal.

regard to the size of these fishy fibres, The next essay, on the brain of each single fibre was no larger than in the turkey, the sheep, and the spar. the fibres in some codfish, eight times the

the smaller fish; and, indeed, I have seen row, is particularly to be noticed, size of those in a whale. as containing many observations on “ I also examined the component fibres the size of the particles of the blood. in the flesh of a mouse, a calf and a hog, The hypothesis which the author and found their formation to be the same formed of a descending series of

as before described, namely, each sur. globules, which was afterward taken rounded with a particular membrane, and up and embellished by Boerhave in the flesh of all these animals was nearly

composed of smaller filaments: the fibres and the other humoral pathologists, of the size I have before laid down, so that seems to be one of the few instances I may say, the fleshy fibres composing the in which M. Leeuwenhoek suffered body of an ox are not, singly taken, larger his fancy to warp his accuracy of than those which go to the substance of a observation. He informs us in his mouse, though, as I have computed, the essay, that he saw

one animal is thirty thousand times the size fluid issue

of the other.”
from the vessels of the brain,
composed of

minute glo-

From some interesting remarks bules, 36 of which would not be on the external membrane of the huequal in size to a globule of the hu- man skin, it appears to consist of a man blood;" and that, “ besides continuous layer of proper scales,


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so 'extremely minute that 200 of “regard to the shape of the globules or them «

may be covered by a com- component particles of the blood, for they inon grain of sand;" they are dispo- sometimes appeared of a spherical, and sed with great regularity, and are

sometimes of an oval and even a flat shape,

and sometimes an irregular figure; this I of a pentagonal figure. It would

sometimes attributed to my glasses not seem that the skin has no proper being of sufficient magnifying power to pores, except such as exist in the distinguish them, and sometimes to the interstices of these scales. The au.' position in wrich they appeared to the thor thinks that their number is the eye, for, while in circulation, they tumbled

one over another, sometimes presenting same at all ages, and that there. fore, as the body increases in size, view; and I also thought that it might be

one part and sometimes another to the each individual scale must grow owing to the straightness of the vessels, proportionably. We have next some in which the particles of blood, being of a observations on gouty and urinary yielding nature, might, by the compresconcretions, and on the nature of sion, lose their spherical figure.

“ In order to satisfy myself in some degunpowder; subjects on which the author's knowledge was necessarily the tails of several small, flat fish, such as

gree on this head, I cut off pieces from very deficient; and we afterward plaice and founders, in order to view the come to a train of microscopical ex- blood when drawn out of the vessels, and periments on the louse, which, were the rather, because I could not persuade it not for the disgust excited by the myself

, that the natural shape of the par

ticles of blood in fishes was an oval; foras. object, we should rank among the

much, as a spherical seemed to me to be most attractive parts of the volume.

the more perfect form. For I was of opiWe shall only notice one fact, which nion, that the particles of blood in fishes the writer seems to haye discovered, were composed of six globules, in like that the sensation of itching, produ- manner with the blood in man, and in terced by these animals, is not caused

restrial animals: and I several times saw by their bite, but by a sting which

the particles of fishes' blood, the original

texture of which was broken, and in the male protrudes from the extre- which I could distinctly see four or five, mity of its body.

and in some few of them six component M. Leeuwenhoek's next investi. Particles. I, however, thought it worthy of gations relate to some of the most blood appeared to me of an oval shape,

note, that many of these particles of minute animals that are perceptible

some few others roundish, and others of a to the naked eye, viz. the mite, the perfect spherical figure. different kinds of insects which in- • In order farther to prosecute my in. jure fruit-trees, and the animalcules quiries on this subject, I took the blood that are found in the sediment of of a salmon not quite read, which was water. To the subsequent paper,

received into a glass lube, about the size which gives an account of the circu

of a small writing pen: this blood, after a lation of the blood in the tail of the ving restored it in part to its fluidity, I put

short time, became coagulated; but haeel, the translator subjoins a de- it into a smaller glass tube, in which I scription of the microscopes which viewed it, holding it so, that the particles were employed, taken from the wri. of blood might be kept in motion continutings of Mr. Baker. In the next es

ally, by which means many of the parti.

cles appeared before my sight with a fiat say, on frogs, and on the manner in

and oval shape; in others, the sides of which they are produced from tad

which were turned towards me, I could poles, we have a number of addi- scarcely perceive any sensible thickness; tional observations on the globules of and in short, others, where their sides the blood, especially respecting were not exactly turned towards me, aptheir shape and size:

peared somewhat broader in proportion to

their size; but I could not discover one “ In my several observations on the cir- particle of blood of a perfect spherical culation of the blood in fishes, I have not

shape.” been able clearly to satisfy myself with We have quoted this description VOL. v.

2 v


at length, because it is a subject tre, and thus support them at some which has given rise to much con- distance from the earth's surface. In troversy, and the passage must im- some remarks on the circulation of press the reader with a favourable the blood, the principal object is to opinion of the author's candour. show that the circuit must be comApparently, he could scarcely be plete in different times, according deceived respecting the shape of the to the distance of the parts from the globules, although we do not assent heart. By comparing together the to his theory of their composition. observations which he has made on

We now come to some remarks various subjects, the author conon phosphorus, and on the sting of cludes that the blood circulates the gnat; experiments on insensible through the tail of the eel thirteen perspiration; observations on the times in an hour, while in the upper common fly, and on the eggs of the parts of the body it will circulate shrimp; essay on the salts contained ninety six times. Provided that the in pepper, tea, and cantharides; on blood in the human body moves at the embryo plant discoverable in the same rate as in the eel, it will seeds and buds; and on the struc- pass through the lower extremities lure of the nerves. The observations only between two and three times on the nerves are very curious; and in an hour, through the upper extrehad they obtained more general at- mities above four times; and through tention, they might, perhaps, have the head eight times: but, in an hour, prevented the appearance of some as much blood will pass through the of those idle hypotheses which have heart as is equal to fourteen times been formed respecting the origin the quantity contained in the whole of the sensations. The author speaks body. The proportions of these numof the nerves as being a composed bers may probably be correct, but of very

minute vessels of an incre- we think that the whole estimate is dible thinness, which, running by considerably too low. With some the sides of each other, constitute a remarks on the nature of lime, on nerve.” As to the size of them, the wood that has been worm-eaten, and vessels are described as being so on the eyes of fish, the volume consmall, that “ some hundreds of them cludes. go to the composition of a nerve no The estimate of Leeuwenhoek's larger than the hair of a man's merits as a naturalist must be conbeard; and although (says the wri- siderably raised in the minds of ter) these cavities, or the orifices of those who peruse these volumes; these vessels, are so wonderfully and who, though they may have freminute, I have seen living creatures quently heard him quoted, or have in the waters, which could have occasionally examined some parts of moved and swam about in them with his works, had not before so fully freedom.” We are informed that conceived the extent of his labours. the author, at the time when he His writings have certainly been too made these minute observations, much neglected, and therefore we was not less than eighty five years cannot but express our obligation to

Mr. Hoole for putting them in so A paper succeeds on the quantity commodious a form, in a translation of air contained in water and other which seems to be well executed; fluids; and afterward a description and we must not omit to render a of an ingenious contrivance for il- due tribute of applause to the exlustrating the effect which the cellence of the engravings. The earth's motion about its axis must notes, which are occasionally addhave on the atmosphere. It is sup- ed, do not, in our opinion, increase posed that the centrifugal force will the value of the work: but they are throw off the clouds from the cen- not very numerous.

of age.

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