standing in a frame above it, and taking at Derby with Mad Tom. The Doctor also hold of a chain that was fastened thereto. heard him sing a solo to the organ (then

“ Dr. Hutton, of Birmingham, speaking the only one in Derby) in St. Werburgh's of Topham, is right in asserting that he church; but though he might perform also kept a publick house at Islington; he with judgment, yet the voice, more terrilikewise confirms what was said of him ble than sweet, scarcely seemed human. by Dr. Desaguliers; besides his lifting two The ostler at the Virgin inn, where Tophogsheads of water, heaving his horse ham put up, having insulted him, he took over the turnpike gate, carrying the beam one of the kitchen spits from the mantleof a house as a soldier carries bis firelock. piece, and bent it round his neck like a These, Dr. Hutton observes, were the re- handkerchief; but as he did not choose to ports circulated respecting Topham in the tuck the end in the ostler's bosom, the country. But, however belief might be cumbrous ornament only excited the laugh staggered, he observes, she recovered of the company, until Topham undertook herself, when this second Samson appear. to untie his iron cravat. Had he not abound. ed at Derby as a performer in publick, at ed with good nature, the men might have a shilling each. Upon application to alder. been in fear for the safety of their persons, man Cooper, to exhibit, the magistrate and the women, for that of their pewter was surprised at the feats he proposed; and on the shelves. One blow from him would as his appearance was like that of other for ever have silenced those heroes of the men, he requested him to strip, that he fist, who boast so much of boxing. might examine whether he was made like “ But the circumstances here related by them, but he was found extremely mus- Dr. Desaguliers and Dr. Hutton, were only cular. What were hollows under the arms the common place performances of Topand hams of others, were filled up with ham, when he went about purposely to ligaments in him.

show himself; some aged persons who “ From the jerk he received from the knew him in his neighbourhood, relate a two horses, Dr. Hutton observed, that he variety of pranks which he was occasional. limped a little in his walk; and though a ly in the habit of playing; for instance, one well made man, had nothing singular in night finding a watchman fast asleep in his appearance.

his box, near Chiswell street, he took both, “ The performances of this wonderful and carrying the load with the greatest man at Derby, in whom the doctor ob

ease, at length dropped the watchman and serves, the strength of twelve men were bis wooden case over the wall of Tindall's united, were the rolling up of a pewter burying ground, where the poor fellow, dish of seven pounds, as a man rolls up a only half awake, and doubting whether he sheet of paper. Holding a pewter quart at was in the land of the living, in recovering arm's length, and squeezing the sides to from his fright, seemed to be waiting for gether like an egg-shell. Lifting two hun. the opening of the graves around him. dred weight with his little finger, and Another time, sitting at the window of moving it gently over his head. The bodies a low, publick house, in the same street, he touched seemed to have lost the power while a butcher from a slaughter-house of gravitation. He also broke a rope fasten- was going by with nearly half an ox on his ed to the floor, that would have sustained back, Topham relieved him of it with so twenty hundred weight; lifted the oak much ease and dexterity, that the fellow, table with half a hundred weight to it; a almost petrified with astonishment, swore piece of leather being fixed to one end for that nothing but the devil could have his teeth to hold, and while two of the feet flown away with his load. A third time, stood upon his knees, he raised the end of thinking to enjoy a little sport with some it, with the weight, higher than that in his bricklayers, by removing part of a scaffold mouth. Mr. Chambers, then vicar of All just before they intended to strike it, from Saints, in Derby, who weighed twenty a small building, his grasp was so rude, seven stone, he took and raised with one that a part of the front wall following the hand, his head being laid on one chair, timber, the fellows conceived it had been and his feet on another. Four people, also, the effects of an earthquake, and immefourteen stone each, sat upon Topham's diately ran, without looking behind them body, and these he heaved at pleasure. At into an adjoining field. Here, however, one blow he struck a round bar of iron, Topham was near paying dearly for his one inch in diameter, against his naked jest, as one of the poles struck him on his arm, and bent it like a bow. Weakness and side, and gave him great pain. feeling seemed fled together.

“ Another time, being persuaded by Being a master of some musick, Dr. one of his acquaintance to accompany, in Hutton says he entertained the company on board a West India-man in the river

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and being presented with a cocoa nut, he threw one of the sailors into the utmost astonishment, by suddenly cracking it close to his ear, with the same facility as we crack an egg shell: and upon some remark being made upon an observation dee ed rather insolent, by the mate of the ship, Topham replied, that he could have cracked the bowsprit over his head; and of the truth of which there was not the least doubt

"Another time, a race being to be run on the Hackney road, when a fellow with a horse and cart would attempt to keep close to the contending parties, much to the displeasure of the spectators in general, Topham, who was one of them, steping into the road, seized the tail of the cart, and in spite of all the fellow's exertions in whipping his horse to get forward, he drew them both backwards, with the greatest ease and velocity: and while the pleasure of the beholders was at the highest point of gratification, the surprise and rage of the driver seemed to be beyond ali expression; nothing preventing him from exercising his whip, upon the immediate cause of his chagrin, but the probable fear of his being pulled or crushed to pieces.

“During_the_time he kept a publick house, two fellows, extremely quarrelsome, though patiently born with for a consider ale time, at length proceeded so far, that nothing would satisfy them but fight

ing the landlord. But as they could be appeased no other way, Topham, at length, seizing them hoth by the nape of the neck, with the same facility as if they had been children, he knocked both their heads together, till perfectly sensible of their errour, they became as abject in asking pardon, as they had before been insolent in giving offence.

History of Brazil. By Robert Southey.

IT is by no means easy to mention a style of composition which Mr. Southey has not attempted, and it would be still harder to point out one in which his talents might not be expected to raise him to distinguished eminence. Few authors of the present age, have written so much as he has done, and still few er of any age, have written so well. As a poet, we conceive his name has not yet arrived at the reputation which it is hereafter destined to attain; and, as a historian, the expectation excited by his previous and less important essays, will not be disappointed by the present, bulky

"There is a report, that being opened after his death, the ribs, which are detached in other persons, were found in him in a manner connected into one solid substance.

"He is said to have been extremely irritable in his temper, but had sometimes such a command over himself, that. to prevent its effects, he would lock himself up in a room till he found himself calm To his own violence, however, he at length fell a victim; his jealousy of his wife induced him to beat her so severely, that fear and remorse, as to the consequences, had such an effect upon him, that he mut an end to his own existence. A plate was engraved, representing him in the act of lifting the hogsheads of water in Cold Bath Fieldds; but this was the last feat he ever exhibited.

"There were several signs some years ago in different parts of the metropolis referring to Topham's strength; one of the last of these was in East Smithfield, where he was represented as The strong man pulling against two horses.”


Part the First. 4to pp. 660. London, 1810. volume. With a share of genius and fancy equalled but by few; an honesty surpassed by none; and an extent and variety of information marked with the stamp of that industrious and almost forgotten accuracy which brings us back to the severer days of English study, he possesses a commanding knowledge of his mother tongue, which, though the ostentation of power sometimes produces pedantry, and its attendant negligence betrays him too often into antiquated homeliness, is strongly, however, and, we think, advantageously contrasted with the monotonous and unbending dignity which

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distinguishes the greater part of it were, the grammar of political modern historians. No author could man. And, however inglorious the be fixed upon to continue, with agents in the colonization of Brazil, greater prospect of success, the task the mariners, the missionaries, the of American history, which Robert- exiles of one of the least of our Euson left unfinished; and none is bet- ropean nations; it cannot be an unter adapted to correct and supply, important labour to trace the process by superiour minuteness, zealous by which their slender means achievresearch, and lively painting of na- ed effects so apparently disproporture and manners, the cold, and of- tioned. In these rude efforts of an ten inaccurate outline of that sen- insant states, these struggles with sible and pleasing, but, certainly, their savage neighbours, or the more * superficial writer.

important warfare which they have That portion of American annals* carried on against the beasts of the which, in this literary colonization, wood, the dragons of the fen, and has fallen to Mr. Southey's share, the unkindly effects of strange and has less, indeed, of the usual com- adverse ciimates, we are reading the mon places of history, less that is original history of every civilized refined, or splendid, or illustrious, nation in the world; the tales of Cadthan is offered by the revolutions of mus and Jason devested of fable: it Europe and of Asia, or even by the is to such expeditions as these that transactions of the Spaniards in Europe owes its present glories: Mexico and Peru.

Sic fortis Etruria crevit " I have to speak,” are Mr. Southey's Scilicet, et rerum facta est pulcherrima words, " of savages so barbarous, that lit. Roma! tle sympathy can be felt for any sufferings and if the end of history be, inwhich they endured, and of colonists, in whose triumphs no joy will be taken, be. deed, instruction, what better lesson cause they added avarice to barbarity.

can she afford to individual and priIgnoble men, carrying on an obscure war.

vate exertion than the contemplafare, the consequences of wirich have been greater than were produced by the con

tion of their gigantick result? What quests of A lexarder or of Charlemagne, more important warning and examand will be far more lasting. Even the few ple to those high-souled men, who higher characters which appear, have (should the increasing calamities of obtained no fame beyond the limits of their Europe produce another age of coown religion, scarcely beyond those of lonies) may bear, with equal coutheir language.”

rage, and with greater mercy, a With all these defects incidental purer faith and better constitution to his subject, we agree with him in than those of the conquerors of rating its importance highly. Much Brazil, to shelter beyond the reach yet remains to be learned concern

of despotism amid the forests of ing the habits and character of sava- New Zealand, or the countless isles ges, and it is a topick on which er- of the Polynesian Archipelago ? roneous opinions have done such It was Vicente Yanez Pinzon, a infinite harm, that a philosophick Spaniard, and a distinguished assomind can hardly bestow its atten- ciate of Columbus, who, in the year tion better, than in illustrating those 1500, discovered the coast of Brazil. barbarous manners and strange su- As usual, in those days, the Castiperstitions which, wild as they seem, lians met with gold and giants, and are the rudiments, perhaps, and, as

carried as many

infidels as they The title of “History of Brazil” is hardly adequate to the subject, as Mr. Southey's work comprises the rise and progress of all the European colonies, from the Andes to the Atlantick, and from the Plata to the river of Amazon.

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could catch, into exile and slavery. his monks, and that of Mr. SouthBut this was all the profit which ey's Cambrian Hero, may be added they derived from their discovery. the extraordinary expedition of The land was to the east of Pope Dante's Ulysses, whom the poet Alexander's famous boundary line; conducts in a second ramble, far and Pinzón had not yet brought the more adventurous than the first, and, news of his success to Europe, when by the same track with Columbus, the fleet of Portugal, under Cabral, to suffer shipwreck on the dusky was driven, by a fortunate storm and mountainous shore of the Terwhich befel them in their way to restrial Paradise.[Inferno, canto 26.] India, to that country which had Two fabulous, Atlantick islands, of been thus blindly allotted to their the names of Brazil and Antilia, future empire. Cabral was followed occur in maps anteriour to the Spaby the famous Amerigo Vespucci, nish voyage. The first of these may a really able navigator, who, while have been taken from an old Irish he narrowly missed the honour of superstition, founded on a natural discovering the Straits of Magellan, phenomenon, and a name once fa

. has, by a singular fortune, been re- mous might have been easily transcompensed far above his de rts, in ferred, as was at least the case with imposing, perhaps unconsciously, Antilia, to the discoveries afterhis name

on a mighty continent. wards made. The country thus partially explored, But Chaucer, when he mentions bore, according to Garcia, the native the red die of Brazil, in the same name of Arabutan. Cabral, however, breath with “ graine of Portingale,' called it Santa Cruz, and, within a dispiays a premature knowledge of few years after its discovery, both its produce which is very perplexappellations were forgotten in the ing, and the more so, because we new one of Brazil, derived, as Mr. cannot find any sufficient authority Southey thinks, from the valuable to prove that the wood existed in wood which was brought from the ancient hemisphere, or that thence, or, as appears to us also Brazil has a meaning in any eastern possible, from the Milesian Fables, or European language. Is it absurd introduced to our acquaintance in to suppose that specimens of Amerithe notes to the poem of “ Madock," can timber may have been cast on and to the present volume. With- the western shores of Europe in sufout, indeed, recurring to the Plato- ficient quantities to become a rare nick Atlantis, or the lucky guess of and valuable article in dying ? Or Seneca, who foresaw, according to that such arrivals may have been Garcia, the discovery of America, thought to proceed from the en« como suelen adivinar los freneticos chanted Island of O-Brazil ? This i poetas por calentarse demasiada- wood, however, which, except parmente el celebro;" it is a very per- rots and monkies, was the only arti. plexing and curious question, nor, cle of exportation Brazil was then as yet, by any means sufficiently ex- known to afford (for gryphons and plained, from what source, prior to tiger's wool, though mentioned in Columbus, the suspicion arose, so an old English statement, must have prevalent in the darker ages, of been very rare commodities indeed, countries

and Pinzon was mistaken in his gol. “ Farre in the sea, beyond West Spayne.” to make the country of any great

den tales) was not of sufficient value To the voyage of St. Brandan and importance in the estimation of the “Lords of the conquest and com- marched against the Tapuyas; the fame of merce of India.” The land was ne. this dreadful engine went before them, and glected and left like a common to the Tapuyas filed. From a slave, Caramuwhoever chose to traffick there, and ru became a sovereign. The chiefs of the

* Him needeth not his colour for to dien

With Brazil or with graine of Portingale. Nonnes Preest's Tale.

savages thought themselves happy if he even when its value was better un

would accept their daughters to be his derstood, the government of Lisbon wives; he fixed his abode upon the spot was long more anxious to exclude where Villa Velha was afterwards erectthe French from its commerce, than ed, and soon saw as numerous a progeny to profit by the possession them- as an old patriarch's rising round him.

The best families in Bahia, trace their selves. Almost all which has been

origin to him.”-P. 30, 31. done in Brazil has been effected by private exertion. At first, a trade Caramuru, however, and persons was carried on with the Indian inha- in the same condition with himself, bitants in the same manner, and for

were not the only colonists. Many nearly the same commodities as

individuals founded little factories that now maintained by the English in different parts of the country; and and Americans with the savages of small forts and establishments, rePolynesia.

sembling nearly those at present By degrees, occasional adventu- scattered along the coast of Guinea, rers, thrown by shipwreck on the appear, though this stage of Brazicoast, or led by idleness and aver- lian history is not very clearly told, sion to restraint, united themselves to have been founded by governwith the natives, and became inter- ment; yet the persons sent out to preters or supercargoes. Of these, these feeble garrisons, were, of all one of the first and most remarkable, others, least adapted to serve the was Diogo Alvarez, a young Portu. real interests of their country, or to guese, whose story might supplant contribute to the advantage of the Philip Quarl or Robinson Crusoe in natives, a docile race, whom a wiser the nursery,

and set inany an ardent policy might have soon reclaimed. boy on fire for voyages and disco

A majority, at least, of these covery.

lonists were criminals, not sent as “ He was wrecked upon the shoals on prisoners or labourers, like our conthe north of the bar of Bahia. Part of the victs in New South Wales, but emcrew were lost; others escaped this death ployed as soldiers, or as free settlers, to suffer one more dreadful; the natives

and sometimes even as commanders seized and eat them. Diogo saw that there was no other possible chance of saving and governours. But if the system of his life, than by making himself as useful Port Jackson be erroneous, and tend as possible to these cannibals. He there

to immorality, what must have been fore exerted himself in recovering things the effect of sending the same defrom the wreck, and, by these exertions, scription of characters in responsisucceeded in conciliating their favour. Among other things he was fortunate

ble and important situations? Was enough to get on shore some barrels of there Portuguese gentleman powder, and a musket, which he put in whose vices were intolerable in his order at his first leisure, after his master's

mother country? He was sent with were returned to their village; and one day arms in his hands to prey upon the when the opportunity was favourable, wretched Americans. Was there an brought down a bird before them. The women and children shouted Caramuru ! Indian governour, whose lust and Caranuu! which signified a man of fire !

cruelties had forced themselves on and they cried out that he would destroy the notice of government? he was them: but he told the men, whose asti. punished by the permission to tynishment had less of fear mingled with it, rannize, with still less restraint upon that he would go with them to war, and

his actions, in Brazil. For many gekill their enemies,

" Caramuru was the name which, from nerations this extraordinary policy thenceforward, he was known by. They

was the curse of the South Ameri



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