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agreed, that notwithstanding the progress preserved by their magnitude; and of the arts, within these last thirty years, they manifest the exertions of proit is much less, from the grandeur and

digious labour and perseverance,
beauty of the monuments, than from the
breadth and straightness of the streets, commanded by despotisn, under
and much less from its edifices, than from the influence of superstition. In fact,
its uniform regularity, its extent and po. the Mexicans were invaders of the
sition, that the capital of New Spain at- country they inhabited, and they
tracts the admiration of Europeans. treated the people whom they had

“Nothing can present a more rich and
varied appearance, than the valley, when, continued original enmity,

conquered, with a harshness which

The in a fine, summer morning, the sky without a cloud, and of that deep azure which whole surrounding territories wilis peculiar to the dry and rarefied air of liugly lent the assistance of their pohigh mountains, we transport ourselves to pulation, when they understood that the top of one of the towers of the cathe. Mexico, then besieged by Cortez, dral of Mexico, or ascend the hill of Chapoltepeck. A beautiful vegetation sur

was to be demolished. The simirounds this hill. Old, cypress trunks, of larity discovered by M. de Hummore than 15 and 16 metres in circumfe. boldt, in the remains of the Mexirence, raise their naked heads above those can temples, with those of the old of the schinus, which resemble, in their world, is striking. The pyramid is appearance, the weeping willows of the the form of their sacred edifices; east. From the centre of this solitude, the

and the construction of it is nearly, summit of the porphyritical rock of Chapoltepeck, the eye sweeps over a vast

or altogether, the same as that of plain of carefully cultivated fields, which those still extant in Egypt. Certainextend to the very feet of the colossal ly the Mexicans had arrived at a mountains covered with perpetual snow. state of civilisation, and of art, highThe city appears as if washed by the ly creditable to their policy. They waters of the lake of 'Tezeuco, whose ba. sin, surrounded with villages and ham.

even possessed some advantages in lets, brings to mind the most beautiful science over the Greek, and the Rolakes of the mountains of Switzerland. man nations, which are honoured Large avenues of clms and poplars lead, in among us with the name of clasevery direction, to the capital; and two sicks. aqueducts, constructed over arches of very great elevation, cross the plain, and Mexicans, painted on stag skins

The hieroglyphical pictures of the exhibit an appearance equally agreeable and interesting. The magnificent convent dressed, on cotton cloth, and on of Nuestra Sonora de Guadaloupe, appears leaves of the agave, a plant, prejoined to the mountains of Tepeyacack, pared as the Egyptians prepared among ravines, which sheiter a few date their papyrus, are monuments of and young yucea trees. Towards the south, literary skill, and valuable as pubthe whole tract between San Angel, Ta- lick records. Such, perhaps, were eabaya, and San Augustin de las Cuevas, the national archives of their ancesappears an immense garden of orange, peach, apple, cherry, and other European tors, at the period when they fruit trees. This beautiful cultivation branched off from the main body of forms a singular contrast with the wild their parent state. appearance of the naked mountains which enclose the valley, among which the fa.

The present population of Mexi. nious volcanos of La Puebla, Popocate

co is estimated at. 135 to 140,000 petl, and Iztaccicichuatl are the most dis- individuals. It probably consists of iinguished. The first of these forms an enormous cone,

of which the crater, continu- 2,500 white Europeans. ally inflamed, and throwing up smoke 65,000 white Creoles. and ashes, opens in the midst of eternal 33,000 indigenous [copper-coloured.]

26,500 Mesitzoes, mixture of wbites

and Indians.
There still remain several very

10,000 Mulattoes.
curious antiquities in the neighbour-
hood of this city. They have been 137,000 inhabitants.

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There are, consequently, in Mexico caste, which attributes to colour and 69,500 men of colour; and 67,500 whites;

race the distinction due only to virbut a great number of the Mesitzoes are almost as white as the Europeans and

tue, appears to be the bane of soSpanish Creoles !

cial life in Mexico, and in all the “ In the twenty three male convents Spanish colonies. Pride exalts itself, which the capital contains, there are without constraint, in the whites; afnearly 1200 individuals, of whom 580 are fects a very close equality in those priests and choristers. In the fifteen fe- but one degree polluted in blood; male convents there are 2100 individuals, and discerns, in every shade and of whom nearly 900 are professed religieuses.

mixture, as it deepens, a cause

for a distinct appellation, and a proThe clergy of the city of Mexico portionate degree of diminished reis extremely numerous, though less spect. The copper coloured Indian numerous by one fourth than at Ma. is the lowest on the list. This never drid. It is under 2,500 persons. And

was the intention of the great Fawithout including lay brothers and ther of all. novices, scarcely exceeds 2000. The As we must resume our report archbishop of Mexico possesses a

on these volumes, we close the prerevenue of 18,4201. The consump

sent article by the following general tion of wine has greatly increased, remarks of this intelligent observer: since the Brunonian theory has been known to the Mexican physi- “ Among the colonies subject to the cians. That invigorating liquor, how. king of Spain, Mexico occupies, at present,

the first rank, both on account of its ter. ever, can only be procured by the rich; being imported from Old vourable position for commerce with Eu.

ritorial wealth, and on account of its faSpain. The Indians, Mestizoes, Mu

rope and Asia. We speak here merely of lattoes, and the greater number of the political value of the country, consider. white Creoles, prefer the fermented ing it in its actual state of civilisation, juice of the agave, called pulque; which is very superiour to that of the other and every morning carts go about Spanish possessions. Many branches of the streets of the capital to pick up higher degree of perfection in the province

agriculture have undoubtedly attained a the drunken. Such is the weakness

of Caraccas than in New Spain. The fewer of man, savage or civilized! Yet the mines a colony has, the more the industry present state of Mexico, as a city, of the inhabitants is turned towards the is very respectable. There are insti- productions of the vegetable kingdom. tutions in almost every branch of in

The fertility of the soil is greater in the struction; botany, geography, mili- and Venezuela; and it is greater on the

provinces of Cumana, of New Barcelona, tary arts, natural history, &c. The banks of the Lower Orinoco, and in the polite arts also are studied. There northern part of New Granada, than in the is an academy for that purpose fur- kingdom of Mexico, of which several renished with the best models, casts gions are barren, destitute of water, and from the antique, living subjects, incapable of vegetation. But on considering &c. and M. de H describes the un

the greatness of the population of Mexico,

the number of considerable cities in the happy bigotry of caste as suspended proximity of one another; the enormous by this pursuit. The white, the value of the metallick produce, and its brown, the copper coloured, all meet influence on the commerce of Europe and on a level, and sit by the side of each Asia; in short, on examining the imperfect other, insensible to the feelings of state of cultivation observable in the rest

of Spanish America, we are tempted to pride, while excited by the spur

of

justify the preference which the court of emulation.

Madrid has long manifested for Mexico, That evil spirit, the principle of above its other colonies.”

FROM THE UNIVERSAL MAGAZINE.

Memoirs of Robert Cary, earl of Monmouth. Written by himself. And Fragmenta Re

galia; being a History of Queen Elizabeth's Favourites. By Sir Robert Naunton, With Explanatory Annotations.

THIS is a republication of no or- tice, they aid the studies of the antiquary dinary importance; and we should and the moral philosopher. While, therethink ill of the state of publick taste, fore, it is to be regretted, that the reser. if it were colilly received. We could deterred our soldiers and statesmen from

ved temper of our nation has generally wish, indeed, it had been printed recording their own story, an attempt to with a little more economy of paper preserve, explain, or render more geneand type. All works of real value rally accessible, the works which we posand importance should be given to sess of this nature, seems to have some

" the literary world as cheaply as pos- claim upon publick favour.” sible. It is a hard tax, in these hard

The preface to this volume contimes, upon a poor scholar, that he

tains some interesting, historical remust either starve his body or his mind. If he buys books, he must

marks, which tend considerably to want his muiton: if he buys his elucidate the memoirs, and the ex

planatory notes, by the present edi. mutton, he must want books. The following advertisement will tor, judiciously supply the omissions

of the former one. explain the origin and republication of this work:

The memoirs themselves are emi

nently amusing. They exhibit a “ The memoirs of sir Robert Cary were

fresh and faithful picture of the first published from the original MS. by

court of Elizabeth, and of herself, the earl of Corke and Orrery. They con- whom they sometimes display in a tain an interesting account of some im- light not very amiable, though writportant passages in Elizabeth's reign, ten by a man who deemed highly of and throw peculiar light upon the person; her, and crouched beneath her imal character of the queen. The original edition having now become very scarce,

perious sway.

The author relates it is presumed that a new impression will nothing but what he saw, and he be acceptable to the publick. Several ad. was engaged in many of the most ditions have been made to the earl of important events of her reign. Corke's explanatory notes, particularly Among the extracts which we to such as refer to Border matters. These additions are distinguished by the let

propose to make from this volume, ter E.

it would be unpardonable to omit As a suitable companion to Cary's the following account of the destrucMemoirs, the Fragmenta Regalia, a tion of that numerous fleet which source from which our historians have Spain equipped for our destruction: drawn the most anthentick account of the Spain, that country for whom we court of the virgin queen, have also been reprinted. The author, sir Robert Naun

are now fighting, on her own shores! ton, lived in the element of a court, and Strange mutability of human events! had experienced all its fuctuations. His characters of statesmen and warriours are “ The next year (1588) the king of drawn with such spirit, Rs leaves us only Spain's great armado came upon par coast, to regret their brevity, and the obscurity thinking to devo'r us all. Upon the . in which he sometimes thinks it prudent to news sent to court from Plymouth of their involve them. To lessen this inconveni- certain arrival, my lord Cumberland and ence, a few explanatory notes have been myself took post-horse, and rode straight added.

to Portsmouth, where we found a frigate “ Memoirs are the materials, and often that carried us to sea; and having sought the touchstone of history, and even where for the fleets a whole day, the night after they descend to incidents beneath her no- we fell amongst them; where it was our

fortune to light first on the Spanish fleet; new fight with them o a farewell; but by and finding ourselves in the wrong, we two in the morning, there was a flag of tacked about, and in some short time got to council hung outin our vice-admiral, when our own fleet, which was not far from the it was found that in the whole fleet there other. At our coming aboard our admiral, was not munition sufficient to make half a we stayed there awhile; but finding the fight; and therefore it was there conclu. ship pestered, and scant of cabins, we left ded, that we should let them pass, and our the admiral, and went aboard captain Rey- fleet to return to the Downs. That night man, where we stayed, and were very we parted with them, we had a mighty welcome, and much made of. It was on storm. Our fleet cast anchor, and endured Thursday that we came to the fleet. All it; but the Spanish fleet, wanting their an. that day we followed close the Spanish chors, were many of them cast ashore on armado, and nothing was attempted the west of Ireland, where they had all on either side; the same course we held their throats cut by the kernes;* and all Friday and Saturday, by which time some of them on Scotland, where they the Spanish ficet cast anchor just before were no better used; and the rest, with Calais. We likewise did the same, a very much ado, got into Spain again. Thus did small distance behind them, and so conti- God bless us, and gave victory over this med till Monday morning about two of the invincible navy; the sea calmed, and all clock; in which time our council of war our ships came to the Downs on Friday in had provided six old hulks, and stuffed safety." them full of every combustible matter fit for burning, and on Monday, at two in the Elizabeth wished to monopolize morning, they were let loose, with each of the affection of all her courtiers. them a man in her to direct them. The tide serving, they brought them very near

She was jealous of every step they the Spanish fleet, so that they could not

took, if without her permission.miss to come amongst the midst of them: When our author married, it gave then they set fire on them, and came off her high offence, and the manner themselves, having each of them a little in which he calmeil her boat to bring him off. The ships sct on fire shows him to have been an acute

anger, came so directly to the Spanish feet, as they had no way to avoid them, but to cut politician, and Elizabeth, a woman all their halsers, and so escape; and their whose vanity grossly blinded her. haste was such, that they left one of their judgment. four great galeasses on ground before Ca. lais, which our men took and had the spoil Having ended my business, I meant of, where many of the Spaniards were to return to Carlisle again. My father slain, with the governour thereof, but wrote to me from Windsor, that the queen most of them were saved with wading meant to have a great triumph there on ashore to Calais. They being in this disor. lrer coronation day, 1593, and that there der, we made ready to follow them, where was great preparation making for the began a cruel fight, and we had such ad- course of the field and tourney.t He gave vantage both of wind and tide, as we had me notice of the queen's anger for my a glorious day of them; continuing fight marriage; and said it may be, I being so from four o'clock in the morning till almost near, and to return without honouring her five or six at night, where they lost a do. day as I ever before had done, might be zen or fourteen of their best ships, some a cause of her further dislike, but left it sunk, and the rest ran ashore in diverse to myself to do what I thought best. My parts to keep themselves from sinking business of law, therefore, being ended, After God had given us this great victory, I came to court, and lodged there very they made all the baste they could away, ' privately; only I made myself known to and we followed them Tuesday and Wed. my father and some few friends besides. nesday, by which time they were gotten i here took order, and sent to London to as far as Flamboroughi-headi. It was resol. provide me things necessary for the trived on Wednesday at night, that, by four umph: I prepared a present for her mao'clock on Thursday, we should have a jesty, which, with my caparisons, cost

a

* Irish banditti.-E.

Plays, masks, triumphs, and tournaments, which the author calls tourneys, were small branches of those many spreading aliurements which Elizabeth made use of, to draw to herself the arections and the admiration of her subjects. She appeared at them with dignity, case, grace, anci atiability:

me above four hundred pounds. I came and not to see her. But my father told into the triumph unknown of any. I was me plainly, that she would neither speak the forsaken knight that had avowed so- with me, nor see me. “Sir,' said I, if shie litariness, but, hearing of this great tri. be or such hard terms with me, I had need umph, thought to honour my mistress be wary what I do. If I go to the king with my best service, and then to return without her license, it were in her power to pay my wonted mourning. The triumph to hang meß at my return; and, for any ended, and all things well passed over to thing I see, it were ill trusting her.' My the queen's liking. * I then made myself father merrily went to the queen, and told known in court; and for the time I stayed her what I said. She answered, if the there, was daily conversant with my old gentleman be so mistrustful, let the secrecompanions and friends; but it so fell out tary make a safe conduct to go and come, that I made no long stay there: it was and I will sign it.' upon these terms I upon this occasion.

parted from court, and made all the haste My brother, sir John Cary, that was for Scotland. I stayed but one night with then marshal of Berwick, was sent to by my wife at Carlisle, and then to Berwick, the king of Scots, to desire him that he and so to Edinburgh, where it pleased the would meet his majesty at the bound road king to use me very graciously: and after at a day appointed: for, that he had a three or four days spent in sport and matter of great importance to acquaint merriment, he acquainted me with what his sister, the queen of England withal; he desired the queen should know, whichi, but he would not trust the queen's am- when I understood, I said to his majesty, bassadour with it, nor any other, unless Sir, between subject and subject, a mesit were my father, or some of his children. sage may be sent and delivered without My brother sent him word he would glad. any danger; between two so great moly wait on his majesty, but durst not until narchs as your majesty and my mistress, he had acquainted the queen therewith; I dare not trust my memory to be a relaand when he had received her answer he tor, but must desire you would be pleased would acquaint him with it. My brother to write your mind to 'her, if you shall sent notice to my father of the king's de. think fit to trust me with it, I shall faith. sire. My father showed the letter to fully discharge the trust reposed in me.' the queen. She was not willing that He liked the motion, and said it should my brother should stir out of the town;t be so, and accordingly I had my despatch but knowing, though she would not know, within four days.ll that I was in the court, she said: ', I hear “ I made all the haste I could to court, your fine son that has lately married so which was then at Hampton Court. I arriworthily, is hereabouts; send him, if ved there on St. Steven's day in the afteryou will, to know the king's plcasure.' noon. Dirty as I was, I came into the preMy father answered, he knew I would sence, where I found the lords and ladies be glad to obey her commands. “No, dancing. The queen was not there. My fa. said she, .do you bid him go, for I have ther went to the queen, to let her know that nothing to do with him.'+ My father I was returned. She willed him to take my came and told me what had passed be message or letters, and bring them to her. tween them. I thought it hard to be sent He came for them, but I desired him to

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* The queen was undoubtedly advertised, that her forsaken knight (for such, in. deed, he was) had issued forth from his solitariness to bask himself in the sunshine of her luminous countenance, and to gather courage and prowess from the beams of her bright eyes. Nothing, not even trifles, passed abroad or at home, with which she was not acquainted. But as she had no immediate occasion for the services of sir Ro. bert Cary, her majesty was determined still to continue the outward show of her Fesentment, till she wanted him.

+ The town of Berwick, from wherce the queen would not have him stir, because she did not deem him to be a proper messenger, knowing there was a better within call.

# Still maintaining her dignity, yet impatient to have bim go. Ś By this expression may be seen the terrour in which this mighty princess govern. ed her subjects. By the unrelaxed tightness with which she grasped the reigns of government, she was at once beloved and feared.

|| The purport of this interview with James VI. does not appear. James was, in 1593, greatly embarrassed with Botliwell on the one hand, and the Catholick earls of Huntley and Errol on the other. Probably the conference regarded some request of assistance from England.

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