are capable of exerting. If it be shall we think," continues he, « of meant, by such an instrument, to those eloquent declamations against measure the quantity of strength the perfection of social order, deduthat one man can exert, by pulling, ced from the extraordinary physical more than another, we presume it powers of the man of nature !! will not answer the purpose for And he concludes by congratulating which it was invented. The idea himself on being the first to oppose, seems to have been thrown out by by direct experiment, an opinion too M. Coulomb, in a memoir presented commonly admitted, that the physical to the institute, which had for its degeneracy of man proceeds from the object the ascertaining the quanti- perfection of civilisation. ty of daily action which men are The second subject is a memoir able to furnish by individual labour, on a new genus of Molusca, which according to the different mode in is named Pyrosoma, and which is which they employ their strength." the only animal in the book that is This problem M. Péron has by no scientifically described. means solved. A great many circumstances, besides those of cli. “ PYROSOMA. Corpus gelatinosum rigimate, food, and stature, must be ta

diusculum, liberum, tuberculis asperatum,

subconicum, extremitate ampliore apertum, ken into consideration. There is,

vacuum aperturæ margine intus tuberculis moreover, a knack acquired by long cincto. habit in calling forth muscular pow- Pyrosoma Atlanticum. Æquatorio-ater to its utmost exertion, which of.

lanticum, gregaré-pelage-vagum, vrvidis. ten enables a weak man to supply simé phosphorescens, coloribus eximiis tunc a greater quantity of labour than a effulgens; 10, 12, 14, 16 [3 1-2 to 6 inches]

centimetros æquans.stronger man is capable of. A Chinese porter, for instance, who feeds

The discovery of this new genus on rice, the least nutritive, probably, is introduced in a manner sufficientof all grain, will carry a greater load ly interesting to induce us to close than an English sailor, who lives on

the present article with it. good beef, biscuit, and rum; but the same sailor will haul a rope, or drag “On the evening of the 14th of Decema weight, with double the force of a her, we experienced a violent tropical Chinese porter. We cannot follow squall. The horizon was loaded with hea. him through forty pages of disserta- wy clouds, and the darkness was intense:

The wind blew furiously, and the run of tion on this subject, but must con

the ship was most rapid. We discovered, tent ourselves with giving his con

at a little distance ahead, a broad belt of clusions from five series of ex

phosphorick light spread upon the waves. periments, though we attach little This appearance had something in it roimportance to them. Having found mantick and imposing, and a general attenthe inhabitants of Van Dieman's tion was fixed on it. We presently reached Land capable of a manual force by an innumerable quantity of animals

it, and found that the brilliancy was caused equal to

50,6 which, lifted by the waves, floated at dif. Those of New Holland 51,8 ferent depths, appearing under a variety of Those of Timor

58,7 shapes. The pieces that were more deeply Frenchmen


immersed, presented the idea of masses of Englishmen

burning matter, or of enormous redhot he deduces the following general resembled large cylinders of iron, heated


balls, whilst those on the surface perfectly. result:

to whiteness." p. 488. “ That the development of physical strength is not always in a di. These were collective bodies of the rect ratio to the want of civilisation, Pyrosoma above described. nor a necessary consequence of the The atlas is of quarto size. It consavage state.” (p. 458.] “ What then tains not a single chart, nor any


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sketch or plan of a coast, island, bay, Dieman's Land, New Holland, and
or harbour, though frequent referen- Timor, and the coloured engravings
ces are made to such in the margin of animals, especially those which
of the printed volume. It has, how. belong to the class of Moluscas and
ever, five or six plates, consisting of Zoophytes, are creditable to the
views of land, which can be of no talents of the artist; some of them,
use either to science or navigation, indeed, are executed in a manner
and which look like so many strips peculiarly neat, and beautifully co-
of coloured riband. The portraits loured.
and landscapes, relating to Van


Rural Sports. By the Rev. William B. Daniel. 3 Vols. 8vo. pp. 1627. 57. 58. Boards.

SOME of our literary friends on to much better purpose, than in re. the north of the Tweed will doubt. commending and promoting an aless indulge a sarcastick smile at musement so incompatible with his seeing a work on rural sports from sacred function. Though we readily the

pen of an English clergyman. In admit, that those creatures, which Scotland, we believe, hunting is are the object of this sport, must be scarcely ever practised by the cler. slaughtered for our subsistence, and gy, and even shooting is by no means that foxes and other beasts of prey a com:non amusement among gen- must be destroyed, for the havock tlemen of that profession. In En- which they commit among our dogland, the case is very different. mestick animals; yet we would so Here, hunting parsons, shooting far extend the hand of mercy, even parsons, and even boxing parsons, to our enemies, as to put them to are by no means rare; and where the death by the speediest and least practice of those liberal and truly painful means. In fact, however, the Christian recreations is so general, destruction of these animals is altowe must not be surprised that some gether a secondary object with hunone of their reverend professors ters, and the preservation of foxes should occasionally take pen in hand, is promoted by every possible means. and communicate instructions on Witness the following extract of a such important topicks, both to his letter from a nobleman in London, clerical and his lay brothers of the to his agent in the country, which field. We have now before us, a sys- we copy from the work before us: tem of hunting, fishing, and shooting, from one reverend gentleman; « I must desire that all those tenants and, perhaps, at some future period, who have shown themselves friends to the we may be favoured, from the same

several fox hunts in your neighbouring

counties, may have the offer and refusal quarter, with a complete treatise on

of their farms, upon easy and moderate the pugilistick art.

terms; and, on the other hand, that you We cannot say that we are fond of will take care and make very particular those sports, in which a harmless inquiry into the conduct of those tenants animal is put to unnecessary pain, who shall have shown a contrary disposifor the sake of affording recreation tion, by destroying foxes, or encouraging

others so to do, or otherwise interrupting to the country gentleman; and we do

gentlemen's diversion, and will transmit think, that a Christian divine might

me their names, and places of abode, as it have employed his time and labour is my absolute determination, that suche

Ver. v.



p. 233.

persons shall not be treated with in future naturally attracted our peculiar atby me, upon any terms or consideration tention, and led us to expect somewhatever. I am convinced, that land owners, as well as farmers and labourers, thing above the common style of of every description, if they knew their writing, we should have been disown interest, would perceive, that they posed to view the work in a favour owe much of their prosperity to those po- able light; but, keeping the profespular hunts, by the great influx of money sion of the author in the back that is annually brought into the country. ground, and considering the volumes I shall, therefore, use my utmost endea.

as the performance of a sportsman, vours to induce all persons of my acquaintance, to adopt similar measures; and, I possessing rather more intellectual am already happy to find, that three gen. endowment than most of his bre. tlemen, of very extensive landed pro. thren, we think that they form an inperts, in Leicestershire, and on the bor. teresting publication. Mr. D. howders of Northamptonshire, have positively ever, has shown himself to be an insent, within these few days, similar direc. dustrious, rather than a judicious, tions to their stewards, which their tenants will be apprised of, before they retake compiler. He has brought together their farms at next Lady Day." vol. i. a great mass of valuable and enter,

taining matter, respecting the natu

ral history of beasts, birds, and fishWe will venture to say, that this es; the mode of breeding, training, association, against the liberty and and feeding dogs; with a complete property of one of the most useful body of instruction for pursuing the and industrious classes of the com- various sports of which he treats; munity, has scarcely been equalled, and a digest of the game, forest, and for i!liberality, in any age or coun- other sporting laws and statutes. But try. Giving the noble landlords full' these subjects are by no means well credit for the object professed in this arranged, and are interspersed with letter, “ the good of the community," much useless or irrelevant digreswe may, at least, hint a suspicion, sion. In estimating his merits, we that they have mistaken the means may consider him in three different of attaining that object; and that the points of view; as a naturalist, a greater consumption of hay and sportsman, and a lawyer. corn, and the increased influx of mo. First, as a writer on the natural ney, which his lordship, and the history of the animals, which are ei. reverend editor regard as the na- ther the agents or the objects of rutural consequences of these popular ral sports, Mr. Daniel appears in hunts, are more than balanced by the most amiable and most favourthe havock committed by the pro- able light; and we have derived much tected foxes, among their protectors' pleasure, and some information, from lambs and poultry, and by the mis- this part of his work. He has, inchief done by the members of the deed, copied largely, and not always hunt, to the fields, fences, and crops very judiciously, from Pennant, Bufof the tenants,

fon, White, and other eminent naTo come now to the author's ob- turalists. But he has done more than ject, in the present performance. this; for, though he modestly styles It is stated to be, to įmpart a certain his work a compilation, and always degree of previous knowledge, which speaks of himself as the “ comis requisite, to enable sportsmen to piler," he has introduced several inprosecute the pastimes of the field teresting facts and anecdotes from with facility and success. We wil. his own observation, or that of his lingly allow, that he has attained thi sporting friends. We shall select a end; and, had it not been for the few of these, both because they will unfortunate word reverend, display- be new to many of our readers, and ed in the engraved title page, which because they afford good specimens of Mr. Daniel's manner, as an origi. when he mentioned the name of Phil. nal writer.

lis. For a long time it was unable to eat or Much of the first volume, and part drink, and it was kept alive by the susteof the third, are occupied with the

nance it -received from its mistress, whe)

used to feed it with a tea spoon. At lengti! natural history of the dog; and, in it recovered.” vol. i. p. 28. particular, with an account of the fox hound, the terrier, the harrier,

We have seldom seen a more rethe beagle, the gray hound, the

markable instance of unnatural afpointer, the setter, and the spaniel.

fection between animals which are

, Speaking of the great capability of the declared enemies of each other,

than is contained in the subsequent dogs to support life, under very long abstinence from food, he pre

paragraph: sents us with the following affecting “A singular instance of ferocity and narrative:

affection, in a terrier bitch, which occur.

red some years since, may be here men. “ In 1789, when preparations were

tioned. After a very severe burst of upmaking at St. Paul's, for the reception of wards of an hour, a fox was, by my own bis majesty, a favourite bitch followed its hounds, run to earth, at Heney Dovehouse, master up the dark stairs of the dome. near Sudbury, in Suffolk. The terriers were Here, all at once, it was missing, and calling lost; but, as the fox went to ground in and whistling was to no purpose. Nine view of the headmost hounds, and it was weeks after this, all but two days, some

the concluding day of the season, it was glaziers were at work in the cathedral, resolved to dig him, and two men from and heard, amongst the timbers which Sudbury brought a couple of terriers for support the dome, a faint noise. Thinking that purpose. After considerable labour, it might be some unfortunate human be. the hunted fox was got, and given to the ing, they lied a rope round a boy, and let hounds. Whilst they were breaking the fox, him down near the place whence the

one of the terriers slipt back into the sound came. At the bottom, he found a

earth, and again laid. After more digging, dog, lying on its side, the skeleton of a bitch fox was taken out, and the terrier another dog, and an old shoe, half eaten.

killed two cubs in the earth, three others The humanity of the boy led him to res

were saved from her fury, and which were cue the animal from its miserable situa. begged by the owner of the bitch, who tion, and it was accordingly drawn up,

said he should make her suckle them. much emaciated, and scarce able to stand. This was laughed at, as impossible. HowThe workmen placed it in the porch of the

ever, the man was positive, and had the church, to die, or live, as it might hap- cubs. The bitch fox was carried away, and pen. This was about ten o'clock in the

turned into an earth in another county. morning. Some time after, the dog was

The terrier had behaved so well at earth, seen, endeavouring to cross the street, at

that I, some days afterwards, bought her, the top of Ludgate hill; but its weakness

with the cubs she had fostered. The bitch was so great, that, unsupported by a wall, continued regularly to suckle, and reared he could not accomplish it. The miserable them, until able to shift for themselves. appearance of the dog again excited the What adds to this singularity, is, that the compassion of a boy, who carried it over.

terrier's whelp was near five weeks old, By the aid of the houses, he was enabled and the cubs could just see, when this exto get to Fleet market, and over two or change of progeny was made." vol. i. p. 122. three narrow crossings in its way to Holborn bridge; and about eight o'clock in

It is, we believe, a povelty in the the evening, it reached its master's house natural history of the fox, that the in Red Lion street, Holborn, and laid female should deposit its young itself down on the steps, having been ten within the hollow of a tree, at a conhours on its journey from St. Paul's to

siderable distance from the ground. that place. The dog was so much altered, the eyes being sunk in the head, as to be

Hence the ensuing circumstance, scarce discernible, that the master would observed by Mr. Daniel, merits atnot encourage his old faithful companion, tention. who, when lost, was supposed to weigh 20 lbs. and now only weighed 3 lbs. 1402. “ In April, 1784, the compiler's hounds The first indication it gave of knowing found at Bromfield-Hallwood; by some its master, was by wagging the tail, accident the whipper-in was thrown out,

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and, after following the track two or drophobia in the human body. In three miles, gave up the pursuit. In re- this farrago we particularly notice turning home, he came through the fields

the observations of Mr. Meynell, near the cover where the fox was found. A terrier that was with him whined, and communicated to Dr. Arnold, and was very busy at the foot of an oak polo published by him in his “ Case of lard tree. This induced the man to dis- Hydrophobia, "which seem to convey mount, and examine if there was any hole the most accurate ideas of the sympat the bottom, supposing it might be the toms of this terrible disease, as it harbour of a polecat, or some small ver

occurs in dogs. Perhaps the most min. Upon examination he could discern no hole; but the dog was still anxious to

valuable part of the author's miscelget up the tree, which was covered with laneous observations on hydrophotwigs from the stem to the crown, and bia is that which relates to the pracupon which was plainly to be seen the tice and effects of worming dogs, dirt left by something that had gone up though he evidently does not underand down the boughs. He lifted the terrier stand the nature of the operation: as high as he could, and the dog's eager. ness increased. He then climbed the tree,

“The prevention of the direful effects of putting up the dog before him. The instant canine madness,” says Mr.Daniel, the dog reached the top, the man heard to have been attempted in the early ages. him seize something, and, to his great To accomplish this, Pliny recommends the surprise, found him fast chapped with a worming of dogs; and, from his time to bitch fox, which he secured, and four the present, it has most deservedly had cubs. The height of the tree was 23 feet, its advocates. Very strong proofs have and from the top there was a hole about 3 been adduced of its utility; nor is it natufeet down, in which the fox had littered; ral to imagine so easy and effective an so that the height from the ground to operation would have been omitted, had where the cubs laid was 20 feet. There not more virtue been attributed to it than was no mode of the fox getting to or from it really possesses, and wherein it failed. her young, but by the outside boughs, and

The absolute prevention of madness was the tree bad no bend to render that path said to be the consequence; whereas the an easy one. It was considered, by num- fact was, and is, that taking out the worm bers of people who inspected the tree, to has nothing to do with annihilating the be a most extraordinary incident, and the disorder, although it will most certainly cubs were begged, and three of them binder the dog seized with it, from doing reared up tame to commemorate it. One any hurt to man or beast. A late author of them the late Mr. Leigh had, and which asserts he had three dogs that were is well remembered at Wood's Hotel, in

wormed, bit by mad dogs, at three several Covent Garden, where he used frequently periods; yet, notwithstanding they all died to run tame about the coffee room." - Vol.

mad, they did not bite nor do any mis. I. p# 231.

chief; that, being determined to make a

full experiment, he shut one of the mad Mr. Daniel has given a rather full dogs up in a kennel, and pụt to him a dog account of the diseases incident to

he did not value. The mad dog often run dogs, with a large catalogue of their at the other, to bite him; but his tongue usual remedies. In particular, he

was so swelled that he could not make

his teeth meet. The dog was kept in the describes, at considerable length, kennel until the mad one died, and was chiefly from Mr. Blane's pamphlet, purposely preserved for two years afterthat affection which is called the wards, to note the effect; but he never distemper; and he treats at large on

ailed any thing, although no remedies canine madness. On this last disease might have been received from the con

were applied to check any infection that he has collected a voluminous mass

tact of the mad dog. of heterogeneous matter, both from “ The compiler has had various oppor. sporting and from medical writers; tunities of proving the usefulness of wormand he has given the opinions of ing, and inserts three of the most striking Drs. Bardsley, Darwin, Mede, Tis- instances, under the hope of inducing its sot, Rowley, 1hornton, Arnold, and general practice. several other physicians, on the kept in the kennel with forty couple of

“ A terrier. bitch went mad, that was symptoms, causes, and cure of hy, hounds. Not a single hound was bitten, nor

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