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to show the ignorance and frivolity and Romanists, is extreme; and M. de of the modern Greeks; pursuing

Puuw has said with truth, tbat the first us the arguments through a string of which the Greeks would make of their extracts from M. Koraes and rejoin

recovered freedom, if left to themselves, ders from himself, to a degree of would be a religious war. The Turks are

most vigilant in turning these dissensions prolixity which, we apprehend, has to their own advantage, by extorting moput the patience of all his readers ney from both parties. The monks of the to a severe test. We decline to Greek church practise every sort of impoenter this controversy; which sition; they are the blood-suckers of the indeed, may be cut short in M. BAR- people, and find means at all times to apTholdy's favour, by the obvious propriate to themselves whatever is best whom travellers find it necessary to lodge, occupy a considerable rank among only a very small proportion possess culti. books of travels: but, unfortunately, vated minds. I have always met with most kindness and good sense among the poorer

of its kind. They have been compared to remark that it is impossible for any the Franciscans and other mendicant or. nation, so long subjected as the ders of the Catholick church, but with Greeks have been to despotick great injustice to the latter. government, to be in the state of “ Although the literature of the modern improvement that is described by M.

Greeks has been enriched by translations Koraes,

of the most useful foreign works, yet the

number of books in Greece itself is very We conclude our extracts from small such as there are, they are general. these travels with the author's ob- ly theological, and the principal sale is in servations on the pernicious influ- the islands. No booksellers exist in Greece; ence of the ecclesiasticks in Greece, nor is there a good printing office in the and on the consequent degradation Levant, not even in Constantinople. The

medical men in Greece make a mere of literature in that country, which

traffick of their profession, and act the was so long the fountain of know

part of quacks. ledge to the rest of the world:

“ Much ridiculous family pride prevails “ After the fill of Constantinople in among the Greeks. Exclusively of their 1453, a great number of Greeks moved claims to distinction from descent, they westward to Italy, and established them, make a pretension to consequence on the selves, some as grammarians, and others score of employment in the service of as translators of their classicks; but the European nations; and to be a consul, or whole number did not afford a single emi. vice consul, in a port however insignifinent genius or artist, in the true sense of cant, is a magnificent distinction. A flag the word. The same may be said of the is displayed before the house of the perĜreeks of the present day, whose great son in question, and renders it inviolable. misfortune is their subjection to an igno- Monsieur Paul, at Patras, is consul or rant and superstitious clergy. The influ. vice consul to eight different nations, and, ence of this clergy is employed to excite as he wears a European dress, he appears a general hatred against other religions, to day in one uniform and to morrow in especially the Roman Catholick; and they another. He gives, however, a preference are always ready to grant absolution to to the Spanish dress, on account of its those of their flocks who either lave de- scarlet lace. Nothing is of such importceived or mean to deceive the members of ance in the Levant as to meet with comthat communion. In other cases, when plaisant and active men in the capacity of they are disposed to make their hearers consuls, and nothing so unpleasant as to pay more dearly for indulgences, the be concerned with foolish, proud, or selpenance imposed is generally the building fish men in this situation. The French or thic repair of a church. Accordingly, and Russian consuls are generally well the number of religious etlitices in several chosen. The French government makes of the islands is prodigious A general be, it a rule to appoint native Frenchmen in lief prevails that severe fasts constitute all seaports of any consequence. The the chief part of our duties, and the Russian government sometimes appoints Greeks, therefore, accustom their children foreigners, but seldom Greeks, and always to these absurd ceremonies, from their men who have a vigilant eye to its interest, tenderest reals. Simony is currently prac: and are approved both by character and tised in Greece, and, as the bishops and by services. The English exercise less archbishops have generally paid heavily precaution in the choice of their consuls, for their several dignities, they indemnity and in consequence are sometimes very themselves by all kinds of extoruon. The ill served. mutual hatred of the iwo sects, the Greeks Among the Greek primates, with through Greece. He may be a very change consists in the leader (who is relieved from time to time) quickening or

we discern several symptoms of ecclesiasticks, and have consequently pre passages being introduced for no ferred to take up my quarters with them. other purpose than that of swelling One of the most remarkable traits of the the book beyond its legitimate size. Greek character is their superstition; they The war of Ali Pacha against the are perpetually thinking of the power of inhabitants of the mountainous dis. witchcraft

; and Europeans travelling in trict of Souly, and the extracts from Greece are incessantly annoyed by people asking directions for the discovery of Koraes and from Eton, appear to us hidden treasures, or offering their own to come under this description. In services to aid in effecting those discove- these, as well as in several other zies, which they believe to be the sole parts, the information is of very object of such distant journies. The subordinate interest, and might have Greeks are habituated to walk in the sha- been compressed into much smaller dow of those whom they wish to injure; and they drive nails into their shoes, and space. These transgressions are to bury them under a heap of stones, after be found chiefly in the second vohaving pronounced the words of the curse lume: but throughout the book vari. which they wish to inflict on their enemies. ous instances of insignificant detail The women at Athens are accustomed to slide down a certain rock, as a remedy for occur; and the translator's preface

is barrenness. To cure sick or ill shaped

expressed in that style of hackchildren, they are in the habit of dragging neyed puff, which cannot fail to exthem by moon light across a kind of ca- cite the suspicion of persons who vern, in the neighbourhood of what is are conversant with the artifices of called the prison of the Areopagus; and the Parisian booksellers. All these in Arcadia, it is customary to kill kids and lambs on particular days, for the sake of expedients to augment the size of drawing inferences from the state of their

the work form so many deductions bones and entrails, particularly from the from its value as a literary performshoulder bone.

ance, and reduce it to a kind of “The passionate fondness of the ancient middle rank among the publications Greeks for the exercise of dancing has not of the day. It contains several small disappeared among their posterity, who onit no opportunity of gratifying their engravings, which are chiefly reprepredilection for this exercise. Subjugated sentations of the persons and dresses nations in general adopt the fashions of of the inhabitants of different parts their conquerors, but Greek vivacity has of Greece. They are plain, and withnever been able to imbibe the aversions out pretensions to elegance of exe. which the Turks entertain for all measured cution: but they are, notwithstanding, movements, or rather for all movements which are quicker than the necessity of very useful in conveying a clearer the case requires. The national dance of idea of the objects delineated, than the Greeks is regarded as an imitation of could have been furnished by any that of the Labyrinth introduced by The- description. The original designs seus, and is extremely simple. The dan. were sketched by M. Gropius, the cers move uniformly in a circie,ir cadenced traveller's companion in his tour steps, holding each other by the hand, but never quitting the ring; and the only worthy man; but his imagination does

not seem to soar any higher than slackening the step, and extending or nar.

that of M. BARTHOLDY. His designs rowing the circle. The Greeks dance at embrace no landscape, and indeed all hours and in all places, whether in a no ornamental subjects whatever; tavern, in a street, or on ship-board."

and his taste appears to be of the Were the whole, or even the domestick kind, and to confine itself greater part, of this work equal in to the familiar and homely objects of merit to the extracts which we have common life. made from it, it would deserve to

FROM THE MONTHLY REVIEW

Voyages dans l'Amérique Méridionale, &c. i. e. Travels in South America, by

Don Felix de Azara.

Concluded from vol. iv. p. 295.

THIS intelligent author's remarks turalists; and he will not, we believe, on the principal rivers, which he had have many European readers who occasion to survey, are extremely will reckon themselves the wiser for interesting. The Paraguay, at As- being told that the Plata produces sumption, when at its lowest level, manguruyús, surubys, pacús, patys, is 1332 Parisian feet in breadth, and, pexesreyes, and mojarritas. If this at its ordinary height, discharges nomenclature be hard of interpre196,618 cubick toises of water per tation, the following case of two hour. Its periodical rise commences beheaded turtles is not less hard to about the end of February, and gra- believe: “ I observed,” says the audually and equally continues till the thor, “with astonishment that they end of June, when it again begins to escaped, and leapt into the river, fall, and decreases by the same gen- without reappearing on the surface, tle gradations. The Parana, at its and with as much rapidity, regulajunction with the Paraguay, is esti- rity, and address, as if they had mated as equivalent to a hundred of never lost their heads. This fact the largest rivers in Europe. Having may supply matter of reflection to united with the Uruguay, it forms the learned; and some, perhaps, may the Plata, which is reckoned the lar- be inclined to explain it on the pringest river in the world, and which is ciples of galvanism: but we should probably equal to the aggregate of recollect that the procedure of these all those of Europe. The falls of the turtles was not limited to a muscuParana are described in a manner lar movement of the limbs, like that which will not bear abridgement, of frogs and other animals subjected but which imparts animation and to experiment, but that they acted grandeur to the general picture. with method and even with reason; From the short account which is for I observed, also, that they turnhere exhibited of the ports on the ed towards the water, as if they still Plata, we may infer that Maldonado retained the reasoning faculty, is at once the most capacious and though deprived of their heads.” the most secure, though it is shel- The wild and the cultivated vegetered only to the lecward of the tables of these countries are discusisland of Gorriti.

sed in two separate chapters, but in Scarcely seven pages of text are such a vague and rambling manner, allotted to the fishes, among which that the botanist finds himself conthe traveller, strangely enough, in- stantly tantalized by general and cludes land-crabs and turtles. The provincial names, which the editor former he very unphilosophically is either unable or unwilling to refer supposed to have been originally to their proper synonyms. The chacreated in the various districts which racter of the prevailing vegetation in the race at present occupies, as he the plains appears to be nearly uni. ascribes the production of a parti- form, and even of a somewhat monocular eel to equivocal generation. Of tonous aspect; consisting, if we the few species of fishes to which rightly comprehend the author's he alludes, not one is so defined as meaning, of gramineous plants, two to be recognised by scientifick na- or three feet high, which completely conceal the soil: while, on the Bra- determines in any assignable pesilian frontier, where the country riod. is checkered by elevations, a dif

In the whole tract of country ferent race of plants, of a singu- which extends from the Plata to the larly, hoary appearance, diversifies straits of Magellan, scarcely a the scene. Different species of Agáve tree or a shrub exists. Near the Spaabound in low and humid situations; nish frontier are found viznagas, a and, beyond the 40th degree of lati. species of large, wild carrot, and tude, the whole vegetable kingdom thistles; which, with the bones and 'seems to partake of the saltness of fat of cows and mares, constitute the the soil. When the herbage has be- only fuel. At Buenos Ayres and come rank and dry, it is often pur- Monte Video, peach trees are purposely burned, to give birth to a more posely planted for firing, and used tender and delicate pasture; and the as such with bones and fat. Chaco, conflagration, which is propagated on the contrary, contains extensive by the wind, is arrested only by green woods and orange groves. In the woods, rivulets, or roads. The author native forests, the species are so ditravelled over an extent of plain of versified, that a person may someupwards of two hundred leagues, to times traverse a considerable quanthe south of Buenos Ayres, which tity of surface before he meets with had been previously subjected to a twelve individuals belonging to the single act of combustion, and over same kind. Several of the trees, which the new herbage began to which are indigenous to Paraguay, spring. Multitudes of insects, rep- furnish a more compact, solid, and tiles, and small quadrupeds perish in desirable timber than any that is these extensive burnings; and even produced in the forests of Europe. horses are often involved in the ge- Various qualities, either of an unneral destruction, because they want common or a useful description, are courage to pass over the flames. here attributed to different species:

Not satisfied with noting the but the constant recurrence of Inchange of vegetable produce which dian or Spanish names, and the total takes place, in consequence of the absence of scientifick characters, regular depasturing of herds and renders these notices of very little flocks, or of the settlement of fami- benefit to the publick. lies on tracts which were formerly The leaf called the Paraguay herb uninhabited, the author recurs, in a is the produce of a tree, or rather triumphant tone, to his favourite hy- large shrub, which grows wild in the pothesis of local, multiplied, and re. woods; and which, according to Mo

; cent acts of creation. Yet, surely, the lina, is the Psoralea glandulosa of least violent mode of solving the Linné. To render it fit for the purphenomenon is to suppose that the poses to which it is destined, the seed lay imbedded in the soil, but leaves are slightly heated, by drawdid not germinate, till placed in cir- ing the branches through the flame cumstances requisite for its deve- of a common fire. They are then lopment; such as exposure to the toasted, and afterward bruised, so as influences of the atmosphere; con- to keep, when closely pressed; for tact with a particular modification of they have no very pleasant flavour soil; the presence of certain kinds of in the first stage of preparation. In manure; a change in the depth of its 1726, the quantity prepared. was position, &c. We are not furnished only twelve thousand five hundred with sufficient data to warrant the quintals, and it now amounts to fifty inference that the suspension of ve- thousand. A handful of the leaves getable life, in situations debarred being put into a cup, or a small pipfrom the essential stimuli of growth, kin, it is filled with very hot water;

which is immediately drawn into which each foot is placed in an the mouth by suction, through a earthen vessel, filled with water, small tube, pierced at the lower end Yet, says the writer, “I have seen with small holes, which retain the these ants, by clinging to one ano: leaves, and allow only the liquor to ther, form a bridge, of an inch in pass. Some persons sweeten the breadth, and a palm in length, along infusion with sugar. The people which the others passed. If you sus drink it at all hours; and the daily pend the table, or the board, the ants consumption of each inhabitant is climb up the wall to the ceiling, till averaged at an ounce. A workman they reach the cord, which enables can gather and prepare one, and them to descend to the sugar, &c. I sometimes even three, quintals (or have myself attempted to keep them hundred weights) in a day.

off by wrapping the feet of the table With regard to cultivated vege- round with wool or horse-hair, withtables, the produce of wheat, wine out success. Nothing but soft tar and tobacco, which formerly was prevents their passing. The sweet very considerable in Paraguay, has meats must also be placed in a rebeen nearly annihilated by the natu- mote apartment; for these ants will rai indolence of the inhabitants, and not, in that case, soon discover them: the injudicious interference of go- but if one ant be inadvertently left vernment. The cotton and sugar in the room, it immediately informs crops are also of very inconsiderable the rest, which follow it in a body." amount, and they are liable to be A still more destructive species is injured by the first approaches of distinguished by its offensive odour, cold; the Jatrophư manihot is suc- and by suddenly issuing from its recessfully cultivated, and yields both treat during the night, and overrunfarinaceous food and excellent starch. ning the floors, walls, and cieling of Varieties of maize and batiatas like. an apartment, two days previously wise prosper. Aimond and plum- to any remarkable change of wear trees grow rapidly, and display a ther. Their ordinary food is ungreat profusion of blossoms, but known; but, in these formidable sorproduce no fruit. The pears are indif- ties, which take place at the distance ferent, and the cherries scarcely of months, and sometimes of years, eatable; but oranges, figs, pomegra- they indiscriminately devour every nates, bananas, &c. are excellent and spider, cricket, or beetle, that falls in abundant.

their way. A mouse, on seeing them Under the seventh chapter, which crawling out, runs off in dismay; or, treats of insects, the number of spe- if it cannot escape, it is assailed by cies particularized is extremely li- numbers, and eaten up in an instant; mited, and the author's ignorance of even men have been known to make entomology requires the frequent their retreat in their shirts; but the correction of his editor. Some of the whole band may be dispersed by matters of fact, however, which M. throwing among them a bit of lightDE AZARA himself observed, are ed paper, or by spitting on them. well caiculated to amuse even the The introductory remarks on uninformed reader. Of a small spe- toads, snakes, and lizards, are exa cies of ant, for example, we are told tremely desultory, and chiefly rest that they act in concert, and move in on the unauthenticated reports of the procession, when any of their senti- natives; while the descriptions of nels announce a discovery of meat, the different species, from the uniand especially of sugar or comfits, form adoption of the provincial which they prefer to all other food. names, and the absence of proper, These articles are sometimes pre- discriminating characters, are nearly served by being put on a table, of unintelligible.

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