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will not, in future, want protectors tachment to his own peculiar tenets; or imitators. There is a possibility there is a chance, which (if not of even greater advantages. When spoiled by indiscreet zeal on the one we witness, as in the present tour, hand, or selfish indifference on the the reverence with which a Mussul. other) will grow stronger every day, man has learnt to regard the foun- that the cause of religion, as well as der of our religion; and when we that of civilisation, may profit by our consider that internal divisions are connexions with Asia. at this moment, weakening his at
FROM THE MONTHLY REVIEW.
Voyage en Grèce fait dans les Années 1803, 1804, &c. i. e. Travels in Greece, performed in
the Years 1803 and 1804, by J. L. S. BARTHOLDY; containing Details on the Mode of Travelling in Greece and the Archipelago; a Description of the Valley of Tempe; a Delineation of the most remarkable Situations in Greece and the Levant; a View of the Condition of Turkey, and of the State of Civilisation among the modern Greeks; a Journey from Negropont into several Parts of Thessaly, in 1803; and an Account of the War of the Inhabitants of the District of Souly against Ali Vizir. Translated from the German by A du C. 2 vols. 8 vo. pp. 565. Paris. Price 11. 4s.
SINCE Switzerland, Italy, and we believe, is the first work on Sicily, the countries which formerly Greece which has fallen into our engaged the attention of tourists, hands; and we must acknowledge have been so frequently visited, and that its author has discovered no so fully described, the traveller who small share of the national phlegm, is ambitious of novelty must direct in his manner of passing sentence his steps elsewhere. Greece has ac. on the present inhabitants of that cordingly become of late years an celebrated country. We find here object of great attraction. Although none of those ardent effusions which it is devoid of that interest arising might be expected to be poured forth from modern works of art, which on treading the soil of Socrates and rendered Italy so inviting, and is Epaminondas;-none of those flatinferiour to Switzerland in the stu. tering resemblances between the pendous objects of nature, it has, modern Greeks and their ancestors, notwithstanding, a powerful claim on which kindled the imagination, and the attention of the traveller, from drew forth the eloquent encomiums the variety of its natural beauties; of Mons. Guys. Every thing from the from the vestiges, still apparent, of pen of M. BARTHOLDY bears the its ancient grandeur; and, above all, stamp of unadorned reality, of delifrom the classick recollections which berate observation, and of a cold even a distant prospect of its shores prudence which nothing can shake cannot fail to revive. Great Britain from its fixed purpose. He has not has long been noted for sending forth given his narrative in the form of a travellers, and her sons of the pre- journal, but has preferred the plan sent age have taken the lead in of a series of essays. He begins with visiting Greece, in the same manner a number of general observations on as their countrymen, above half a the manner of travelling, and on the century ago, were among the first to nature of the accommodations in climb the glaciers of Savoy.
Greece, both in diet and lodging. Of German travellers, the present, We are next presented with a long
description of the valley, or rather by a Tartar. These people are full of defile, of Tempe; which, although activity, perfectly acquainted with the enclosed by lofty mountains, did not country, and have a certain degree of appear to our traveller so rich in the capacity of state-messengers. It is well
authority, from frequently appearing in picturesque scenery as the magnifi- known that they are not born in Tartary, cent representations of the poets and that their designation of Tartar is would lead him to imagine. From merely nominal. The posts in Greece are Tempe, he proceeds to Asia Minor; very long, generally from twenty to thirty
miles: but, if a traveller understands the and in enumerating its principal cities, he makes a few brief allu- way of stimulating his guide's pace, he
gets on rapidly. The accommodations for sions to the events of its ancient travelling in Greece are very bad. Prohistory. After having passed the Ar. visions are by no means abundant. Mutton chipelago, and given a detail of the and poultry are the most frequent artiscenery and climate of the chief cles of diet; oil is served up instead of islands, he arrives at Athens; in his butter; rice also is common. In the season
are likewise to be found eggs, honey, account of which, he introduces a
dried figs, and the various fruits belongdescription of the remains of the ing to warm climates, such as raisins, place of publick assembly for the pomegranates, oranges, and apples. Selcitizens; and the volume is con- dom cherries, plums, or pears; and never cluded by a view of the scanty ves. gooseberries or strawberries. The Greek tiges of Mycenæ, with an essay on
and Turkish cookery has great varieties,
but is too much loaded with spices and the private habits of the Turks. fat. We seldom see a solid joint of meat This people, he thinks, we judge too on their tables: but every thing is hashed harshly; and he takes no small pains in small pieces, and boiled to rags, which to relieve them from a portion of the suits very well with their mode of eating odium which is attached to their without either knife or fork. If the natives character. We extract the passages time for the sake of pleasing Europeans,
happen to use these instruments at any relative to travelling, and give them they are observed to forget themselves
a favourable specimen of the every moment, and to substitute their book:
fingers. As to tables, none are to be found
in the Levant, unless it should acciden“ We no longer find any carriage-roads tally happen that one had been imported. in Greece. Those which are mentioned by People even write on their knees. Neither the ancients are generally in such a state, have they any chairs, but they sit on in the present day, that it is difficult to couches placed all round the room. When imagine how a carriage can ever have the dinner hour arrives, a servant brings rolled over them. We often meet also in a stool, which he places with the feet with such awkward passes, that a prudent upwards; and a round tin plate, put on the traveller will get off his horse, which is top of the stool, makes the table. It stands particularly the case near Delphos, be- about a foot from the ground; and in the tween Scyon, Nemea, and Argos; and on way in which they sit, the guests are just the sacred road from Athens to Eleusis. within reach of the dishes. Cushions are At the same time, all these quarters ex- placed around, and every one sits down, hibit occasional traces of the old roads. and crosses his legs. The servant then To travel on foot is not advisable, because brings in a long, narrow table-cloth, which the inhabitants, and particularly the he lays round the table, and of which each Turks, would take such a traveller either guest appropriates the part that is oppofor a beggar or for a person wholly out of site to him. Next comes bread cut in smalt his senses; so that the only alternative is pieces, somewhat in the way in which we to go on horseback. It is common for inex- cut it for children; each person takes perienced travellers to take as a guard twenty or thirty slices, and places then the janissaries of their respective consuls before him. The dishes are next brought or ministers: but these janissaries are in, one by one, generally without a spoon, much despised by the Turks at large, on even when there is sauce, in which the account of their frequent intercourse with custom is to dip the bread; and every Christians; and they have sellom much person puts his hand in the dish, and takes courage, but a great portion of selfishness. out whatever piece he likes. The most It is a far better way to be accompanied amusing sight is in the case of poultry;
which, although always over-boiled, it is dissatisfaction very significantly, when the no easy matter to disjoint with the fingers. farewell present falls short of their expecA Turk thinks nothing of dipping his tations. It must at the same time be ad. fingers into a plate of honey, so that this mitted, that many travellers seem to take is not the country for a delicate eater, or a pleasure in forcing them to such con. an epicure to visit; and the wines in parti- duct, and in extinguishing even the sem. cular would not suit him, since they have blance of disinterested hospitality, by an unpleasant taste like rosin. However, treating the reception given to them as a at Smyrna and Constantinople, much good duty, and by behaving to the master of the living is be seen.
house as if he were a servant. The En. “ în regard to lodging, the accommo. glish, in particular, are guilty in this dation throughout the Levant is as poor as respect, of an intolerable degree of rudein diet. Between Smyrna and Ephesus, we ness; and only the servility which is consewere forced to pass the night in an inn so quent on long subjection, could create in badly sheltered from the weather, that the Greeks a disposition to put up with it, we had much difficulty in avoiding the I met in my travels with one of these gen. rain. The adjoining apartment was a stable tlemen, who was in the habit of addressing without a door, and the camels put their his Greek hosts in the most disagreeable heads very familiarly into our room. At and humiliating manner. If they comMauromati, the ancient Messene, which is plained of the Turkish yoke, he would say, now a wretched village, we were lodged the present state of things is advantain an old, deserted tower, where the posts geous to England, and she does well in were so rotten as to be likely to tumble exerting herself to keep it up, since the over our heads. Insects also cause a great Turks are her faithful allies." annoyance to travellers: the sofas swarm with them; and the bugs also are exceed
It will scarcely be expected that ingly troublesome. At Athens, my fellowtraveller swung up his bed like a ham
a writer of so negative a character mock; and I had recourse to the expedient
as Mr. BARTHOLDy should join in of changing every night the situation of ascribing to the modern Greeks that mine. Gauze curtains should always be beauty of person, which several of carried on a journey in this country. On his predecessors in travelling have board of ship, the annoyance from the
ranked among their inheritances insects is shocking. I never found it necessary to put on the Turkish dress, which from their ancestors. He admits that is requisite only for those who travel in the traveller seldom meets with bad Egypt, Arabia, Persia, and Judea, where shapes in that country, but he mainEuropean clothing is a novelty. The ac- tains that the Grecian profile, or incommodations, however, will increase
deed extraordinary beauty of any with the number of travellers. The En. kind, falls as rarely to the lot of the glish have hitherto been the principal visi.
natives of these as of other regions. ters, and the title of milorde has consequently become generally applied to all
The Greeks, however, are not likegentlemen who do not happen to be phy- ly to suffer in this respect from the sicians or merchants. I often heard of recent admixture of the Albanians; Dutch and Swedish lords, and I passed a robust and comely race, who form for a Prussian lord. At Patros, I saw one
the best soldiers in the Turkish serAchmet, who had a smattering of seve. ral European languages, and was accord.
vice, and very naturally desire to ingly styled a Turkish lord. Next to the turn their superiority, to account by English, the Russians are the chief visiters appropriating to themselves a porof Greece: united to the Greeks in reli. tion of the fair provinces in which gious belief, and feared by the Turks for
they happen to be stationed. Under their victories, they traverse the Turkish
such a government as the Turkish, possessions like landholders visiting te. nants, whose lease is drawing to a close.
where everything is decided by “ One of the most unpleasant circum..
dint of force, it is no wonder that stances, in travelling in the Levant, is the these hardy mountaineers should obligation of lodging in the houses of the have made considerable progress in Greek primates. A traveller may comment assuming possession of the plains on this custom without committing the sin of Egypt, or the fertile valleys of of ingratitude, since these hosts have gene
Greece, rally their interest in view, and show
The few remains of Grecian architecture, which have survived the waste of time and the ravages of barbarians, are, after Athens, to be found at Nemea, Mycena, Corinth, Messene, and Phigalea. These have either escaped the notice of M. Bartholdy, or have been described by him with an unsatisfactory brevity: but, in treating of Athens, he rises to a degree of animation which we do not often discover in the course of his work. We transcribe this passage, together with some others, in which he communicates his observations on the general aspect of the country throughout Greece:
"The traveller who visits Greece must not expect to find there, as in modern Italy, the enjoyments of life; he will see only Greece herself. There remains for us,' says Winckelman, a shadow only of the object of our wishes: but we are not the less desirous of recovering what we have lost. We turn over every stone, and our researches lead to probabilities approaching to certainty, and which are more instructive than the accounts that have been left by the ancients; accounts which, except a few descriptions, are confined to historical narratives.' Evěry traveller should bear in mind this passage, that he may keep himself out of bad humour at the sight of the apparently insignificant ruins of Delphos, Delos, Olympia, and Sparta. Athens alone is an exception; a particular Providence seems to have watched over her. She has preserved a part of her monuments of art; she displays them still with splendour; and would to God that lord Elgin had not, by stripping the Parthenon, given a sanction to future violations. Throughout Boeotia, Phocis, Locris, Thessaly, Eubæa, Acarnania, Etolia, and Epirus, I cannot record a single architectural work in a state of preservation, nor even a single column which stands erect.
"The climate of Athens is the healthiest mildest, and purest in all Greece. The clearness of the atmosphere, which is exempt from all moisture, permits the view to extend to the utmost range of the eye; and so favourable is it to the preservation of works in sculpture and architec ture, that the ruins have still the gloss and polish of newly finished works. No corrosion nor traces of the influence of the sea-air are visible, nor is any part crum
bling into dust. On the other hand, they want the dark and venerable tinge of the Roman ruins, and the tufted grass which
binds itself round the latter; a circumstance which may probably be owing to the less porous nature of the marble. It would exceed m powers to describe the delightful prospects from Mount Hymettus, from the Acropolis, and from the ruins of the castle of Phyle, whence the Athenians saw that liberty re-enter which the Spartans had banished from their city. The description of these prospects would be attended with the greater difficulty, be cause they consist in lines and contours, which baffle delineation; for the mountains are bare and yellow-coloured, as in Provence, to which, indeed, Attica has been, not inaptly, compared.
"In consequence of the hard and stony quality of the soil, most of the remains of antiquity at Athens are still entirely above ground. At the temple of Theseus, for example, the building does not seem to have sunken above an inch; while at Rome, on the contrary, it is a work of considerable labour to disengage the base of the Colosseum, and of the triumphal arch of Constantine, from the surrounding earth. In some parts of Athens, however, there must have been a considerable sinking; and discoveries of sculpture may be ex pected to reward those who will undergo the labour of clearing away the earth.
"The olive, we are told by the anci ents, was the finest present which Minerva could make to her favourite people, and it still forms the riches and ornament of Attica. A forest of a league in length, all consisting of olives, extends along the plain, covering the tract which was formerly occupied by the Ceramicus, the academy, and the gardens of the philoso phers. Its direction is from northeast to southwest. The sacred road of Eleusis filled with the relicks of tombs and an cient monuments, leads to this delightful walk, in which also several other paths terminate. Nowhere are finer olive trees to be seen than here; scarcely can those of Palermo, or of the river of Genoa, be compared to them; their strength appears inexhaustible and their youth perpetual; and they incessantly produce new branch es and new suckers. It should also be mentioned that nowhere are greater pains bestowed on the culture of the olive. The modern Athenians have a kind of country houses in this forest: but they are nothing more then small, square towers, containing a single room, in which a whole family crowds itself. This small apartment is at the top, and is entered by a steep ladder;
the landing-place being shut with a trap- larly if viewed from the height of Ithomé door, for the sake of safety against any towards the plain of Steniclerlos, or the unforeseen attack.
banks of the Pamisos and the Neda. "'The Ilissus at Athens is in summer a From a convent near Messene, situated on small stream, and is reduced almost to a height opposite to Mount Evan, is an nothing by being tur ied off to water the exquisite sea prospect; and in Phocis we gardens of the citizens. Even the most have a very striking view, in that part celebrated rivers of Greece are deficient where the road from Delphi to Libadia in beauty; their banks being often bare; forms a kind of fork, and where tradition their waters troubled; and their size equal says that Edipus embrued bis hands in only to our rivers of the third or fourth his father's blood. The ruins still visible rate. Such are the Asopus near Thebes, there are probably those of the tomb of the Sperchius near Thermopylæ, and the Laius; and large masses of stones are - Alpheus of Elis. The Peneus, which tra- scattered around. He who travels in verses the celebrated vale of Tempe, is Greece should pay particular attention to far from being a clear, transparent stream. the rivers, springs, and wells. It often The Achelous, the king of Acarnania, is happens, as at Athens, that the situation the only Grecian river which presents a of ancient villages may be traced by the striking spectacle by its width and impe. wells, or by the mason's work around tuosity. The most limpid of them are the them. The stream of Persea runs, at the Eurotas of laconia and the Pamisos of present day, on one of the eminences of Messenia, which is a beautiful river Mycenæ, with the same freshness and through its whole course. It is remarka. clearness as in former ages, when Perseus ble that, while the Greek towns have in is said to have made it spring from the general preserved the ancient names with mushroom which he had plucked, and "very little alteration, the names of their which seems to have given a name to this rivers have frequently undergone a com- celebrated city.” plete change. The Sperchius is now the Ellada; the Eurotas is the Iris; the Ache. Volume II. is divided into three loüs, the
Aspropotamos; the Alpheus, the Roféo. The ancient names of their cele parts; the first treating of the state brated wells and springs are likewise lost
of civilisation among the modern in oblivion, with the sole exception of the Greeks; the second, describing a Athenian Callirhoë. Of the Grecian lakes, voyage from Negropont to Thessaly, only a few afford picturesque scenery. with an account of the city of LaThe lake of Acherusia has a wild and un. rissa; and the third relating the cultivated appearance, except towards the sanguinary war between Ali Pacha town of Janina. It is singular that, in so
of Janina and the inhabitants of the hilly a country, we can hardly find a cataract that deserves the name. În Arcadia, mountainous district of Souly. In the water-falls are inconsiderable, and the our late account of Mr. Leckie's celebrated Castalian fountain forms a cas.
Historical Survey (vol. lix. p. 283) cade only in winter. The abundance we mentioned that a Greek of the of water in Greece has progressively led, name of Koraes was retained at in the neglected state of cultivation, to the formation of marshes and stagnant ment, to be brought forth in due
Paris by Buonaparte, as a fit instruроо so that Larissa, Sparta, Argos, Corinth, and the banks of the Alpheus, season, for the purpose of exciting but above all, Patras, are affected with his countrymen against the Turkish epidemicks.
yoke. This gentleman, whose name “ Of the Grecian prospects, the most the French with their usual promptistriking are those of Attica; and next, those of Thessaly, particularly the neigh tude in new-modelling foreign apbourhood of Mount Eta. The country pellations, have metamorphosed into around Sparta unites abundance with Coray, discovers a vehement desire beauty, and possesses, likewise, the advan- to exalt his countrymen in the opitage of a fresh colouring, as well as the nion of foreigners, and wishes the foggy Bæotia, and Arcadia so fertile in world to believe that they are regesprings, which next to Acarnania is the most abundant in wood of any part of nerated, and ripe for the enjoyment Greece. Parnassus is a fine mountain: but of liberty. These assertions are the groves of Helicon exist no longer. stoutly resisted by M. BARTHOLDY, Messenia is a romantick region; partici- who enters into a variety of details