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CHAPTER II.

DISCOVERIES AND INVENTIONS,-FACTS IN ARTS,

SCIENCES AND PHILOSOPHY.

A new mineral has lately been 6.0 x 8.0, yet Mr. Perkins condiscovered in the parish of Eyer, siders it sufficient for a thirty-horse in the South of Norway, and it is power. He can apply his infound in nodules of quartz, dis- vention to engines on the old posed in granite. The crystals construction. appear to radiate from the granite Dr. Brewster has discovered that into the quartz. From its pointed the plants Chara vulgaris and form it has received the name of Hispida are phosphorescent, and, Achmite, from the Greek word when laid upon heated iron, disachme, a point. It contains silica, play their entire outlines in the 55.25; oxide of iron, 31.2 ; do. of dark. manganese, 1.08; lime, 0.72; soda, The meteoric stone of Epinal 10.40.

has been analyzed by Vauquelin. Dr. Brewster has discovered It was covered with a fused black two new fluids in the cavities of coating. A quantity of 4 grammes, minerals, which are immiscible, or 61.8 grains, gave silica, 1.40; and possess • remarkable physical oxide of iron, 2.51; sulphur, properties.—Dr. B. conceives this 0.09; oxide of chrome, 0.01 ; circumstance to weigh strongly on oxide of nickel, 0.02 ; magnesia, the side of the aqueous formation 0.17; lime and potash, 0.50. of minerals, and against the ig- Mr. Farraday has announced neous system.

the discovery, that gases may be A remarkable flint battle-axe condensed into liquids. was found at Claremont near St. Dr. R. Knox had discovered Andrew's, on the property of James the foramen centrale of the retiNairn, Esq. It is a foot long, its na to exist in the eyes of rep

thickness 26 inches, its tiles. He also observes the vision weight llb. 14oz. It is polished, of the horse to be weak and imand perfectly smooth. It is be- perfect. lieved to be unique.

The polarisation of sound has Mr. Perkins has invented a been established in experiments new Steam Engine, in which the upon vibration, by Mr. Wheatsteam is compressed, and thus stone. its power_most wonderfully in- Under the tropics, Colonel creased. That at work in his own Wright observes, mercury rises manufactory is a ten-horse power, and falls twice in twenty-four although the cylinder is only 2 hours so regularly that time may inches in diameter and 18 inches be measured by it. long, with a stroke of only 12 A whirlwind occurred at Scarinches. full work,

con- borough on the 24th June. It sumes only 2 bushels of coals per tore up two large elm-trees, and day. It occupies a space of only proceeded to the sea, into which it

mean

drove nine machines : one was not, like the human ear, adapted whirled about several times; it for hearing musical sounds. Exthen entered the harbour, and periments were tried upon the drove three large vessels from their clephant and the lion at Exeter moorings. Its sound resembled 'Change: they did not move at the rattling of several carriages the sharp notes, but at the flat together. Its base appeared to tones the lion became greatly invary in diameter from 60 to 80 furiated, attempted to break loose, yards, and its height about 700 feet. and lashed his tail, yelling at the

Mr. Perkins has crystallized same time; all which ceased with acetic acid, by pressure of 1000 the music. atmospheres. The crystals thus In August 1823, a water-spout formed are pure acid. He has also was seen near the village of Boncompressed atmospheric air into court in France. Its broad base fluid.

rested on the ground, and its sumA quantity of acid earth has mit was lost in the clouds. It conbeen brought from Persia, by sisted of thick black vapour, and Colonel Wright. The inhabitants flames issued from it. It tore up use it in making sherbet : it con- trees, levelled houses, overturned tains sulphuric acid.

and broke carts to pieces although M. Julius Leo of Berlin has heavily laden, and destroyed many proved that earthworms multiply lives. A similar water-spout ocby eggs.

curred near Genoa, in September Mr. Barnes, of Cornwall in 1823. America, has discovered that steel Mr. Perkins has invented a may be cut by the rapid motion of small apparatus, acting as a gun a circular saw of soft iron.

by steam. It discharged 240 In November 1822, a tremend- musquet-balls in a minute. ous eruption issued from the moun- In the 97 parishes within the tain Preanger Regencies in Java. walls, 17 parishes without, 23 outMasses of rock were thrown from parishes in Middlesex and Surrey, the volcano, and the courses of and in the 10 parishes of Westrivers were stopped by them. The minster, during the past year, country twenty miles round was there have been born and christencompletely destroyed, and 6000 ed, 13,945 males; 13,734 females; persons lost their lives.

total, 27,679; - buried, 10,455 Mr. Davis has shewn that the males ; 10,132 females ; total, Chinese year is a lunar year, con- 20,587.—Among the diseases and sisting of twelve months of casualties, the most striking items twenty-nine and thirty days alter- are-consumption, 5012; inflamnately, with the intercalation of a mation, 2189; small-pox, 774; thirteenth month seven times in apoplexy, 332 ; drowned, 118; nineteen years, to make the year burnt, 39; suicide, 24; excessive correspond more nearly with the drinking, 6; executed, 22; mursun's course.

dered, %; poisoned, 6; starved, Sir E. Home has found that 1.-The burials are stated to have the ears of animals generally increased 1722. It is gratifying, having the ty anum oval and however, to remark, that above a the radii of different lengths, are twentieth part of the persons who

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died, had attained the ages of 70 called Kahlenstein. They lately and 80 years; more than 100 ex- discovered several bones of the ceeded 90 years; four had mammoth, of an extraordinary reached to 100; and three died size. Besides a molar tooth, alrespectively at 102, 107, and 109. most reduced to powder, thirteen

A recent table of the popula- feet seven inches long without tion of Russia makes the total reckoning the cavity of the tooth, number 40,067,000. Of these there were several vertebre and only 3,724 are manufacturers. ribs, a great piece of the hip-bone, The commercial capital is esti- another molar tooth, and several mated at 319,660,000 roubles; (a fragments of the occiput. In rouble is worth about 10d.) the course of their work they Of gold, the mines of Europe pro- also found

the

upper bone duce, in sterling, only 185,0201.; of the fore-foot, the thickest part Northern Asia, 76,7701.; Ame- of which is a foot in diameter, rica, the rest of the total of and a fragment of a molar tooth 2,467,2601. in the following pro- seven feet and a half long. All portions :-New Spain, 229,6301.; these bones are in a layer of clay New Granada, 672,500l. ; Peru, mixed with sand, eighteen feet 111,5301.; Potosi, and Provinces below the upper surface of the east of Buenos Ayres, 72,1801. ; mountains, and eighty-two above Chile, 400,5501.; and Brazil, the level of the river Neckar. 980,8701.

They are the largest that have yet Of silver, the total amount of been found in Wurtemberg. which is 7,319,6701., Europe pro- Succinic Acid in Turpentine.duces 484,5801., and Northern MM. Lecanu and Serbat have Asia 199,7301. America furnishes ascertained with certainty the the rest; as New Spain, 4,945,3401; presence of succinic acid in turPeru, 1,292,4407.; Potosi, &c. pentine. It rises when the oil 1,019,0701.; and Chile, 62,8201. is distilled, towards the end of

Professor Dobereiner of Jena the operation, and has all the has discovered that platina, in a properties of true succinic acid. spongy state, occasions the com- They have pointed out, also, that bination of hydrogen and oxygen the presence of acetic acid takes at common temperatures, and that from succinic acid the power of the extrication of heat that results forming precipitates, with prepais sufficient to make the metal rations of iron, copper, lead, or red-hot.

barytes. Neither will a mixture Blumenbach has ascertained of acetate and succinate of potthe irritability of the tongue to ash precipitate these substances; exceed by far that of the heart. on the contrary, the succinates, He made his experiment upon the when produced, are soluble withtongue of a four-year old ox, out difficulty in a sufficient quanwhich had been killed in the tity of acetate of potash. usual way. It moved at the prick Heart of a Mummy.--The Royal of a knife several minutes after College of Physicians have been it was cut out.

presented with a human heart, Stutgard.—Workmen had been which was found in a sarcophagus employed in digging at a place dug out of the ruins of an Egyp

ness.

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tian temple, and which still re- 41—Total 11,419. Total of both tains its full size and fleshy soft- sexes, 23,269.- -Children dead

The sarcophagus was im- born, 795 male, and 626 female ported into Malta before being --Total 1421. opened, where its contents were Total Births...

26,880 explored in the presence of seve- -Deaths.

. 23,269 ral persons, and some of the medical men of the island.

The most

Balance in favour of population 3,611 persevering force of the hammer Rock Crystal.-Spallanzani reand chisel was required before the marks that the beautiful rock lid of the sarcophagus could be crystals in the cavities of the removed. It was found to be Carrara marble, continue still to filled with bituminous matter, and form, and from a pure acid fluid. contained a fluid of the colour and Ripetti, in his tract Sopra l'Alpe appearance of old port wine, and Apuana ei Marmi di Carrara, 1811, which fluid immediately enveloped adduces some new observations in this most unique relic of human favour of this opinion, and says mortality. The heart is now pre- that on opening a drusy cavity served in spirits in the usual man- there was found one pound and a ner of anatomical preparations. half of the above fluid, and among The fluid is kept in a phial sepa- the solid crystals, a soft mass, the rately, and, according to the ana- size of a fist, which hardened on lysis of Sir Humphrey Davy, con- exposure to the air into the characsists principally of vegetable ex- ter of chalcedony. The opal of tractive matter, with a portion of Hungary is said to be sometimes resin.

found in a soft state. By the official returns for 1822, Utility of Sparrows. – Mr. it appears that the population of Bradly shews that a pair of sparParis has thus increased during rows, during the time they have

their young to feed, destroy, on

an average every week, 3360 Births (in marriage) (out of marr.-known) 1.126 1,144 2,270 caterpillars. This calculation be -unknown) 3,765 3,716 7,481

founds upon actual observation.

13,562 13,318 26,880 Several chemists have analyzed Marriages - Young men and the lava of the last eruption of young girls, 5933—Young men Vesuvius, and M. Pepe has disand widows, 329— Widowers and covered in it the following ingreyoung girls, 685—Widowers and dients :-sulphate of potash, sulwidows, 210---Total 7157. The phate of soda, sub-sulphate of adoptions of children are register- alumine, of chalk, and of maged at 8. Deaths-Males unmar- nesia ; hydro-chlorate of potash, ried, 7978 Married, 2755 that of soda, a good deal of oxid Widowers, 914–At the Morgue, of aluminium, calcium, silicium, 203––Total 11,850.-Females and magnesium; much trioxid of unmarried, 6537_Married, 2597 iron, antimony, and a little gold ---Widows, 2244–At the Morgue, and silver.

that year :

Males. Females. Total.
8,671 8,458 17,129

GENERAL

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