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are carnivorous to the perpetual its phenomena were decisive in
fissure at Duncombe now disproved; and I pointed Park.
out the inference with respect to Many of the arguments aris- a probable change of climate in ing from the detail of facts we the northern hemisphere, which have been describing in Yorkshire seems to follow from this circumare applicable to the illustration stance. of analogous phenomena, where
“ Another important the evidence of their history is quence arising directly from the less complete. In our own coun- inhabited caves, and ossiferous try there are seven other instances fissures, the existence of which of bones similarly deposited in has been now shown to extend caverns, the origin of some of generally over Europe, is that the which, though not before satisfac- present sea and land have not torily made out, becomes evident changed place; but that the anteas a corollary from the proofs af- diluvian surface of at least a forded by the cave at Kirkdale : large portion of the northern these are in the counties of Somer- hemisphere was the same with the set, Derby, Devon, and Glamor- present; since those tracts of dry ganshire."
land in which we find the ossifeHis accounts of the other Eng- rous caves and fissures must have lish caves, and of the caves in been dry also, when the land Germany, are very curious. The animals inhabited or fell into them, latter, where animal remains occur in the period immediately prered in the same manner as at Kirk- ceding the inundation by which dale, he agrees with M. Cuvier in they were extirpated. And hence ascribing to bears ;* in other it follows, that wherever such cases to natural effects of deluge. caves and fissures occur, i. e. in The general argument is thus laid the greater part of Europe, and in down:
whatever districts of the other “ In the conclusion of my ac
Continents such bones may be count of Kirkdale, I stated, that found under similar circumstances,
# “ M. Cuvier in his first edition states, that the bones found in these caverns are identical over an extent of more than 200 leagues ; that three-fourths of the whole belong to two species of bear, both extinct-the ursus spelæus and ursus arctoideus, and two-thirds of the remainder to extinct hyænas; a very few to a large species of the cat family, heing neither a lion, tiger, panther, or leopard, but most resembling the jaguar of South America ; with them is found a species of glutton, and a wolf or dog (not distinguishable from a recent species,) a fox, and polecat."
there did not take place any such dours name which at once interchange of the surfaces occu- presents to the fancy, the tourpied respectively by land and nament and the court of love, the water, as many writers of high bower and the castle ; bright authority have conceived to have ladies and gallant knights, capaimmediately succeeded the last risoned steeds and tented fields, great geological revolution, by an with all the dazzling enchantments universal and transient inundation of chivalry. which has affected the planet we When, in the tenth century, the inhabit."
nations of the South of Europe Mr. B. is also of opinion, that attempted to give a consistency to all human bones found in caves or the rude dialects which had been strata are post-diluvian ; that at produced by the mixture of the the date of the English and Ger- Latin with the northern tongues, man caves, this part of the hemi- one of the new languages appearsphere was entirely inhabited by ed to prevail over the others. beasts, and became only at a later Sooner formed, more generally era the abode of man; that these spread, and more rapidly cultivabeasts were all extinguished at ted than its rivals, it seemed to one period by an overflow of assume the place of the forsaken waters ; that this inundation pro- Latin. Thousands of poets flouduced all the varieties of cavern- rished, almost contemporaneously, ous deposits, and of loam and in this new language, who gave it gravel, in which they are deposit, a character of originality which ed; that their various states of owes nothing to the Greeks or preservation depend on natural the Romans, or to what is called and local causes; and that all the classical literature. They spread traces on the surface of the globe their reputation from the extredemonstrate the truth of the mity of Spain to that of Italy ; Mosaic history of a Universal and they have served as models Deluge.
to all the poets, who afterwards succeeded them in other languages,
to those of the 27. Historical View of the Lite
north, and amongst these to the rature of the South of Europe. English and the German. All at By J. Č. L. Simonde de Sis.
once, however, this ephemeral remondi, of the Academy and putation vanished. The voice of Society of Arts at Geneva, the Troubadours was silent; the Honorary Member of the Uni- Provençal was abandoned, and, versity of Wilna, of the Italian undergoing new changes, again Academy, &c. Translated from became a mere dialect, till after a the original, with Notes, by brilliant existence of three cenThomas Roscoe, Esq.
turies, its productions were ranked The names both of the author amongst those of the dead lanand translator of the above work, guages. From this period, it reafford a sufficient guarantee for ceived no additions. its excellence. We give the fol- “The high reputation of the lowing extract from the chapter Provençal poets, and the rapid deupon the literature of the Trouba- cline of their language, are two
phenomena equally striking in single wonder of the gardens, in the history of the cultivation of the production of which the artifithe human mind. That litera- cial exertions of man have secondture, which has given models to ed the efforts of nature, but by the other nations, yet, amongst its brilliant flowers of the fields, and crowd of agreeable poems, has by the prodigality of the meanot produced a single master- dows." piece, a single work of genius des
“Raymond Berenger tined to immortality, is the more and his successors introduced into worthy of our attention, as it is Provence the spirit both of liberty entirely the offspring of the age, and chivalry, and a taste for eleand not of individuals.
gance and the arts, with all the veals to us the sentiments, the sciences of the Arabians. The imagination, and the spirit of the union of these noble sentiments modern nations, in their infancy. gave birth to that poetical spirit It exhibits what was common to which shone out, at once, over all and pervaded all; and not Provence and all the South of what genius, superior to the age, Europe, like an electric flash in enabled a single individual to ac- the midst of the most palpable complish. Thus the return of darkness, illuminating all things the beautiful days of Spring is by the brightness of its flame." announced to us, not by some
The following is translated from Guillaume de St. Gregory, and of the class called " Sirventes," Martial or Political Songs.
The beautiful Spring delights me well,
When flowers and leaves are growing ;
In the echoing wood;
And my spirit finds it good
It pleases me, when the Lancers bold
Set men and armies flying;
And joy is mine,
And I see the foemen join
Lances and swords, and stained helms,
And shields dismantled and broken,
And the vassals are there,
The noblest warrior's care
Or banqueting or reposing,
Where the horses neigh,
In the foss together lie;
Barons! your castles in safety place,
Your cities and villages, too,
haste to the battle-scene :
The above was dedicated to Beatrix of Savoy, the wife of Raymond Berenger V. the last Count of Provence. Beatrix was the mother of four queens, of France, of Germany, of England, and of Naples.
Song by Richard I.t written during his imprisonment in the
Tour Ténébreuse, or Black Tower.
No wretched captive of his prison speaks,
Unless with pain and bitterness of soul ;
Whose voice alone misfortune can control.
Whose face I ne'er beheld without a smile?
The smallest portion of his treasures vile?
* The name of the Troubadour's Jongleur, or page.
Though Though none may blush that, near two tedious years,
Without relief, my bondage has endured,
Not one of you should thus remain inimured :
Had I been free, a ransom should have found ;
Yet still I wear them on a foreign ground!
“ Nor dead nor captive, friend or kindred find;"
For lack of gold my fetters to unbind.
That no compassion from my subjects flows:
If, while a prisoner, death my eyes should close ?
To find, in spite of all his solemn vows,
While none my cause has courage to espouse.
Yet through the dungeon's melancholy gloom,
"Perpetual thraldom is not yet thy doom."
Of Chail and Pensavin, aloud declare
My foes against me wage inglorious war.
Did breach of faith, deceit, or fraud appear ;
The insults I receive, while captive here.
And every bach'lor knight, robust and brave,
and love, alike are vain,
The wretched captive of a powerful foe,
Nor leaves you aught, but pity, to bestow.
There sate upon the linden tree,
A bird, and sang its strain ;
My heart went back again.