are carnivorous to the perpetual its phenomena were decisive in
danger of falling into any fissures establishing the fact, that animals
or imperfectly closed chasms that which are now limited exclusively
may lie in their way ; and in this to warmer latitudes, e. g. the ele.
circumstance we see an explana- phant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus,
tion of the comparatively rare oc- and hyæna, were the antediluvian
currence of the remains of beasts inhabitants of Britain, and not
of prey in the osseous breccia of drifted northwards by the diluvian
the antediluvian fissure, although currents from more southern or
they also occasionally perished in equatorial regions, as had often
them, as the dogs do at this day been suggested, and was never till
in the

fissure at Duncombe now disproved; and I pointed Park.

out the inference with respect to Many of the arguments aris- a probable change of climate in ing from the detail of facts we the northern hemisphere, which have been describing in Yorkshire seems to follow from this circumare applicable to the illustration stance. of analogous phenomena, where

“ Another important the evidence of their history is quence arising directly from the less complete. In our own coun- inhabited caves, and ossiferous try there are seven other instances fissures, the existence of which of bones similarly deposited in has been now shown to extend caverns, the origin of some of generally over Europe, is that the which, though not before satisfac- present sea and land have not torily made out, becomes evident changed place; but that the anteas a corollary from the proofs af- diluvian surface of at least a forded by the cave at Kirkdale : large portion of the northern these are in the counties of Somer- hemisphere was the same with the set, Derby, Devon, and Glamor- present; since those tracts of dry ganshire."

land in which we find the ossifeHis accounts of the other Eng- rous caves and fissures must have lish caves, and of the caves in been dry also, when the land Germany, are very curious. The animals inhabited or fell into them, latter, where animal remains occur in the period immediately prered in the same manner as at Kirk- ceding the inundation by which dale, he agrees with M. Cuvier in they were extirpated. And hence ascribing to bears ;* in other it follows, that wherever such cases to natural effects of deluge. caves and fissures occur, i. e. in The general argument is thus laid the greater part of Europe, and in down:

whatever districts of the other “ In the conclusion of my ac

Continents such bones may be count of Kirkdale, I stated, that found under similar circumstances,

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# “ M. Cuvier in his first edition states, that the bones found in these caverns are identical over an extent of more than 200 leagues ; that three-fourths of the whole belong to two species of bear, both extinct-the ursus spelæus and ursus arctoideus, and two-thirds of the remainder to extinct hyænas; a very few to a large species of the cat family, heing neither a lion, tiger, panther, or leopard, but most resembling the jaguar of South America ; with them is found a species of glutton, and a wolf or dog (not distinguishable from a recent species,) a fox, and polecat."





there did not take place any such dours name which at once interchange of the surfaces occu- presents to the fancy, the tourpied respectively by land and nament and the court of love, the water, as many writers of high bower and the castle ; bright authority have conceived to have ladies and gallant knights, capaimmediately succeeded the last risoned steeds and tented fields, great geological revolution, by an with all the dazzling enchantments universal and transient inundation of chivalry. which has affected the planet we When, in the tenth century, the inhabit."

nations of the South of Europe Mr. B. is also of opinion, that attempted to give a consistency to all human bones found in caves or the rude dialects which had been strata are post-diluvian ; that at produced by the mixture of the the date of the English and Ger- Latin with the northern tongues, man caves, this part of the hemi- one of the new languages appearsphere was entirely inhabited by ed to prevail over the others. beasts, and became only at a later Sooner formed, more generally era the abode of man; that these spread, and more rapidly cultivabeasts were all extinguished at ted than its rivals, it seemed to one period by an overflow of assume the place of the forsaken waters ; that this inundation pro- Latin. Thousands of poets flouduced all the varieties of cavern- rished, almost contemporaneously, ous deposits, and of loam and in this new language, who gave it gravel, in which they are deposit, a character of originality which ed; that their various states of owes nothing to the Greeks or preservation depend on natural the Romans, or to what is called and local causes; and that all the classical literature. They spread traces on the surface of the globe their reputation from the extredemonstrate the truth of the mity of Spain to that of Italy ; Mosaic history of a Universal and they have served as models Deluge.

to all the poets, who afterwards succeeded them in other languages,

to those of the 27. Historical View of the Lite

north, and amongst these to the rature of the South of Europe. English and the German. All at By J. Č. L. Simonde de Sis.

once, however, this ephemeral remondi, of the Academy and putation vanished. The voice of Society of Arts at Geneva, the Troubadours was silent; the Honorary Member of the Uni- Provençal was abandoned, and, versity of Wilna, of the Italian undergoing new changes, again Academy, &c. Translated from became a mere dialect, till after a the original, with Notes, by brilliant existence of three cenThomas Roscoe, Esq.

turies, its productions were ranked The names both of the author amongst those of the dead lanand translator of the above work, guages. From this period, it reafford a sufficient guarantee for ceived no additions. its excellence. We give the fol- “The high reputation of the lowing extract from the chapter Provençal poets, and the rapid deupon the literature of the Trouba- cline of their language, are two



phenomena equally striking in single wonder of the gardens, in the history of the cultivation of the production of which the artifithe human mind. That litera- cial exertions of man have secondture, which has given models to ed the efforts of nature, but by the other nations, yet, amongst its brilliant flowers of the fields, and crowd of agreeable poems, has by the prodigality of the meanot produced a single master- dows." piece, a single work of genius des

“Raymond Berenger tined to immortality, is the more and his successors introduced into worthy of our attention, as it is Provence the spirit both of liberty entirely the offspring of the age, and chivalry, and a taste for eleand not of individuals.

gance and the arts, with all the veals to us the sentiments, the sciences of the Arabians. The imagination, and the spirit of the union of these noble sentiments modern nations, in their infancy. gave birth to that poetical spirit It exhibits what was common to which shone out, at once, over all and pervaded all; and not Provence and all the South of what genius, superior to the age, Europe, like an electric flash in enabled a single individual to ac- the midst of the most palpable complish. Thus the return of darkness, illuminating all things the beautiful days of Spring is by the brightness of its flame." announced to us, not by some

It re

The following is translated from Guillaume de St. Gregory, and of the class called " Sirventes," Martial or Political Songs.

The beautiful Spring delights me well,

When flowers and leaves are growing ;
And it pleases my heart, to hear the swell
Of the birds' sweet chorus flowing

In the echoing wood;
And I love to see all scatter'd around,
Pavilions and tents, on the martial ground;

And my spirit finds it good
To see, on the level plains beyond,
Gay knights and steeds caparison'd.

It pleases me, when the Lancers bold

Set men and armies flying;
And it pleases me, too, to hear the sound,
The voice of the soldiers crying ;

And joy is mine,
When the castles strong besieged shake,
And walls uprooted totter and quake,

And I see the foemen join
On the moated shore, all compass'd round
With the palisade and guarded mound.


Lances and swords, and stained helms,

And shields dismantled and broken,
On the verge of the bloody battle-scene,
The field of wrath betoken;

And the vassals are there,
And there fly the steeds of the dying and dead ;
And where the mingled strife is spread,

The noblest warrior's care
Is to cleave the foeman's limbs and head,
The conqueror less of the living than dead.
I tell you that nothing my soul can cheer,

Or banqueting or reposing,
Like the onset cry of “Charge them” rung
From each side, as in battle closing;

Where the horses neigh,
And the call to “ aid,” is echoing loud,
And there, on the earth, the lowly and proud

In the foss together lie;
And yonder is piled the mingled heap
Of the brave, that scaled the trench's steep.

Barons! your castles in safety place,

Your cities and villages, too,
Before ye

haste to the battle-scene :
And, Papiol !* quickly go,
And tell the lord of “Yes and No,"+
That peace already too long hath been!

The above was dedicated to Beatrix of Savoy, the wife of Raymond Berenger V. the last Count of Provence. Beatrix was the mother of four queens, of France, of Germany, of England, and of Naples.

Song by Richard I.t written during his imprisonment in the

Tour Ténébreuse, or Black Tower.

No wretched captive of his prison speaks,

Unless with pain and bitterness of soul ;
Yet consolation from the Muse he seeks,

Whose voice alone misfortune can control.
Where now is each ally, each baron, friend,

Whose face I ne'er beheld without a smile?
Will none, his sovereign to redeem, expend

The smallest portion of his treasures vile?

* The name of the Troubadour's Jongleur, or page.
+ Richard Cour de Lion.

Though Though none may blush that, near two tedious years,

Without relief, my bondage has endured,
Yet know, my English, Norman, Gascon peers,

Not one of you should thus remain inimured :
The meanest subject of my wide domains,

Had I been free, a ransom should have found ;
I mean not to reproach you with my chains,

Yet still I wear them on a foreign ground!
Too true it is—so selfish human race!

“ Nor dead nor captive, friend or kindred find;"
Since here I pine in bondage and disgrace,

For lack of gold my fetters to unbind.
Much for myself I feel, yet ah! still more

That no compassion from my subjects flows:
What can from infamy their names restore,

If, while a prisoner, death my eyes should close ?
But small is my surprise, though great my grief,

To find, in spite of all his solemn vows,
My lands are ravaged by the Gallic chief,

While none my cause has courage to espouse.
Though lofty towers obscure the cheerful day,

Yet through the dungeon's melancholy gloom,
Kind Hope, in gentle whispers, seems to say,

"Perpetual thraldom is not yet thy doom."
Ye dear companions of my happy days,

Of Chail and Pensavin, aloud declare
Throughout the earth, in everlasting lays,

My foes against me wage inglorious war.
Oh, tell them, too, that ne'er, among my crimes,

Did breach of faith, deceit, or fraud appear ;
That infamy will brand to latest times

The insults I receive, while captive here.
Know, all ye men of Anjou and Touraine,

And every bach'lor knight, robust and brave,
That duty, now,

and love, alike are vain,
From bonds your sovereign and your friend to save.
Remote from consolation here I lie,

The wretched captive of a powerful foe,
Who all your zeal and ardour can defy,

Nor leaves you aught, but pity, to bestow.
The following Song is the production of Dietmar von Aste:-

There sate upon the linden tree,

A bird, and sang its strain ;
So sweet it sang, that as I heard

My heart went back again.

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