spikes, about one third of an inch crevasses are supposed to be, in
long, and screwed deeply into thick some places, several hundred feet
soles. It was intimated that easier deep; and their sides generally
play might be given to the foot, assumed the light blue tints of
if the shoes were covered with two the sky."
soles ; the first extending the “ Fronting rose the summit of
whole length, the second not Mont Blanc, more than 7000 feet
covering the hollow of the foot. above the height upon which they
He also provided himself with a stood ; while on their left, a range
wide brimmed straw-hat, as a of numerous Aiguilles soared
shelter from the rays of the sun ; above them more than 4000 feet,
two veils, one black and the other stretching eastward from below
green ; and a plaster of Burgun- the summit, with outlines mellow-,
dy-pitch to be placed upon the ed into aërial softness. Sometimes
chest and between the shoulders, they presented fissured declivi-
to defend the lungs : provisions in ties, clothed with glittering man-
sacks for three days, consisting of tles of ice; and sometimes clus-
wine, spirits, vinegar, several ters of sun-gilt spires, pinnacled
kinds of meat, and other neces- on roofs sparkling with snow. On
saries; ropes of ten or twelve feet their right, and of about the same
long, for the purpose of tying height with the Aiguilles, rose
the adventurers together, when the white Dôme du Gouti, which
they were to pass over hazardous derives its name from its form,
ground; a baton or pole for each and is joined to the western
about six feet long, armed at the shoulder of the summit by a
end with an iron-spike ; and an rising narrow ridge. Nearly in
axe to cut steps in the ice or the midst of the snowy vale, be-

tween the Dôme and the Aiguilles,
He started on the night of the was seen a line of rocks, called
18th August, at half-past ten the Grands Mülets; the nearest
o'clock with six guides: there being and highest of which is elevated
no moon, they took a lantern. about 300 feet above its surround-
They reached the Aiguilles du ing glaciers. This vale rose at
Midi at half-past three in the an angle of 30 deg., and was
morning, where they rested : at crossed by three successive pla-
four they departed, and put on teaus, elevated one above the other,
their spiked-shoes and crampons. at right angles with our line of
They next arrived upon “ a long ascent: the highest, which is also
plain of ice, intersected with cre- the largest, is called the grand
vasses, which ran in parallel direc- plateau ; from which abruptly
tions, and at right angles with the rises the summit of Mont Blanc,
straight line of ascent. These to an elevation of about 3000
chasms were seldom more than feet, appearing at a distance in-
ten feet wide; but varied consi- accessible.”
derably in their depths, which are Mr. Clissold shortly afterwards
generally proportioned to those came to a perfect column or
of the ice ; the depths of the ice tower of smooth blue shining ice,
varying as the irregularity of the pierced, as it were, with elegant
surface over which it runs. The lancet windows, supporting an





overhanging roof, and almost lean- yards. After some hundred feet ing over its centre of gravity. It of ascent, they were opposed by a

about five-and-thirty feet parapet of congealed snow, about high, and four in diameter: it had eight feet high, and of the hardall the appearance of being artifi- ness of ice. This they scaled by cial." —Next, he “caught a glance means of steps cut as before, and of an icy forest of miniature pin- in the vicinity found dead bee." nac!es and spires, still freezing in “ It was nearly six o'clock bethe morning air. However ele- fore they came in view of the gantly these fairy structures may Roche Rouge, a rock on the eastbe formed, they successively dis- ern side of Mont Blanc, and 800 ft. solve in the warmer atmosphere; below its summit; they therefore and being hardened again by the deferred ascending until the mornnightly frosts, are perpetually ing. At eight o'clock the therstarting in:o new objects of won- mometer was at 26 deg.; during der."

the night it had fallen to about 18 As they approached the line of deg. They reached the summit the congelation, they passed through next morning at half-past five labyrinths of most irregular mas- o'clock. The thermometer soon

Their path was seldom seen rose again to 70 deg. The summore than a few yards before mit presented a much larger area them, and sometimes appeared to than the principal guide had ever be suddenly lost, leaving them seen, although it was his sixth aslocked up as it were in chambers cent. It is supposed, therefore, of ice and congealed snow. One that a portion of the previous altior two of the guides, mounting tude of the mountain had fallen. the

elevated pinnacles, The plain of the summit was triexplored the direction of their angular, and almost equilateral; road, while the rest of the party declining from its north side, awaited their call.

The most which was nearly horizontal, paperilous office of the guides is to rallel to, and facing the valley of make these surveys.”

Chamouni ; the distance from the “ At seven they reached the middle of this side to the opposite usual resting-place, and at nine angle being not less than 5 or 600 they put on their veils and set out feet. The plain declined from the to enter the regions of eternal horizon about 200 feet, and was

The thermometer in the intersected by a fissure, which ran sun was then 70. As the day ad- parallel and near to the side next vanced they heard many ava- Chamouni, presenting in appearlanches falling from the rocks : ance the form of a crevasse. the heat was oppressive; and they Mr. Clissold observes of the were much harassed with thirst. sublimity of the prospect : The They found great relief from wine air was perfectly still; the sky of or vinegar mixed with the thawed a deep cerulean tint; and the consnow. The thermometer in the trast of this richness and solemnity sun was still at 70; the snow was of shade magnificently increased so hard that steps were cut in it the splendour of the sun. A thin with the axe for many hundred bazy circle skirted the horizon,


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dimming all objects in the extreme 26. Reliquiæ Dilurianæ : or, Obserdistance; or, it was thought, the vations on the Organic Remains Mediterranean might have been contained in Caves, Fissures, and discerned. All distant lowland, Dilurial Gravel, and on other as well as the waters of the Ge- Geological Phenomena, attesting nevan Lake, were slightly ob- the Action of an Universal Descured ; but the extreme range of luge. By the Rev. W. Buckthe Alps rose clearly in view; land, &c. &c. London, 1823. from which Mount Rosa.

upheaved its vastness' preeminent in This important and interesting majesty and splendour. Amid work is destined to take an emithis wildly varied immensity, the nent and lasting station in the distant Shreckhorn dwindled into world of science. a diminutive peak; while, of all the The original paper, giving an magnificence which was stretched account of the remarkable cave at around us, the sublimest spectacle Kirkdale * in Yorkshire, filled with was presented by the monarch up- the bones of many animals, having on whose crown we stood; for over appeared in the Philosophical a tract of seven miles in breadth Transactions, soon found its way, and twenty-five in length, were under various forms, to the periseen crowded together in confused odical press, and has thus become perspective, hundreds of rifted py- so generally known as to require ramids, boldly towering over tre

no detailed description. The Copmendous and most resplendent ley medal awarded to its author, glaciers : but a range of Aiguilles, and other encouraging circumupon the southern side of the stances, have induced him to promountain, rose with a still more secute his researches both in Engsubduing sublimity, some of them land and Germany, and the presoaring 7000 feet almost perpen- sent enlarged inquiry is the result dicularly above the vale, and re- of his observations. To under. fulgent with vast accumulations of stand what we may have to state ice and snow.

of these, it is needful to insert a They remained upon the sum- portion of definition: mit three hours, and commenced As I (says Mr. B.) shall have their descent at half-past eight; frequent occasion to make use of and at half-past five descended the word diluvium, it may be nebeyond the ice : at half-past seven cessary to premise, that I apply it they reached the Priory, after an to those extensive and general deabsence of two nights and two posits of superficial loam and days. The ascent occupied twen- gravel, which appear to have been ty-four hours; the descent eleven. produced by the last great con

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vulsion that has affected our planet; and that with regard to the

* “ Kirkdale is situated about twenty-five miles NNE. of the city of York, between Helmsley and Kirby Moorside, near the point at which the east base of the Ham. bleton hills, looking towards Scarborough, subsides into the vale of Pickering, and on the S. extremity of the mountainous district known by the name of the Eastern and the Cleveland Moorlands."



indications afforded by geology of cave seem referable to a period such a convulsion, I entirely coin- immediately antecedent to the last cide with the views of M. Cuvier, inundation of the earth, and in in considering them as bearing which the world was inhabited by undeniable evidence of a recent land animals, almost all bearing a and transient inundation. On generic, and many a specific rethese grounds I have felt myself semblance to those which now fully justified in applying the epi- exist: but so completely has the thet diluvial, to the results of this violence of that tremendous congreat convulsion; of antediluvial, vulsion destroyed and remodelled to the state of things immediately the form of the antediluvian surpreceding it; and post diluvial, or face, that it is only in caverns ūlluvial, to that which succeeded that have been protected from its it, and has continued to the pre- ravages that we may hope to find sent time."

undisturbed evidence of events As throwing a light upon this in the period immediately preremote question, the cave of Kirk- ceding it. The bones already dale offers some curious data. described, and the stalagmite The remains found imbedded in formed before the introduction of the instance alluded to, were pre- the diluvial mud, are what I conserved from decomposition by sider to be the products of the strata of loam and stalagmite, period in question. It was indeed which effectually protected them probable, before the discovery of from the action of the atmospheric this cave, from the abundance in air ; and their different stages of which the remains of similar decay were obviously owing to species occur in superficial gravel their possessing more or less of beds, which cannot be referred to this protection. Teeth and bones any other than a diluvial origin, of twenty-three species of animals, that such animals were the anteincluding elephant, rhinoceros, hip- diluvian inhabitants not only of popotamus, horse, tiger, bear, ox, this country but generally of all deer, &c. have been ascertained; those northern latitudes in which and the hypothesis respecting them their remains are found, (but the is, that they belonged to various proof was imperfect, as it was creatures devoured by hyænas, of possible they might have been which this cave was the abode for drifted or floated hither by the generations; and it is calculated waters from the warmer regions from their reliquiæ, to the number of the earth ;) but the facts deof at least from 200 to 300 had veloped in this charnel-house of been its inhabitants previous to the antediluvian forests of Yorkthe deluge. Mr. B. demonstrates shire demonstrate that there was that the habits of these hyænas a long succession of years in were similar to those of the hyæna which the elephant, rhinoceros, of the present day, though they and hippopotamus, had been the are supposed to have been one- prey of the hyænas, which, like third larger than the largest spe- themselves, inhabited England in cies which now exists, namely, the the period immediately preceding striped hyæna of Abyssinia. the formation of the diluvial gravel; * Thus the phenomena of this and if they inhabited this country,

it follows as a corollary, that they change of climate has taken place, also inhabited all those other re- it took place suddenly; for how gions of the northern hemisphere, otherwise could the elephant's carin which similar bones have been case, found entire in ice at the found under precisely the same mouth of the Lena, have been circumstances, not mineralized, preserved from putrefaction till it but simply in the state of grave was frozen up with the waters of bones imbedded in loam, or clay, the then existing ocean? Nor is or gravel, over great part of nor- it less probable that this supposed thern Europe, as well as North change was contemporaneous with, America and Siberia. The catas- and produced by, the same cause trophe producing this gravel ap- which brought on the inundation. pears to have been the last event What this cause was, whether a that has operated generally to change in the inclination in the modify the surface of the earth; earth's axis, or the near approach and the few local and partial of a comet, or any other cause or changes that have succeeded it, combination of causes purely assuch as the formation of deltas, tronomical, is a question the disterraces, tufa, torrent-gravel and cussion of which is foreign to the peat-bogs, all conspire to show, object of the present memoir. that the period of their com

“ In a geological point of mencement was subsequent to view, the occurrence of these that at which the diluvium was bones, under the circumstances formed."

above described, is important, as “It is not to my present pur. illustrating the manner in which pose to discuss the difficulties that the bones of antediluvian animals will occur on both sides, till the may have been accumulated by further progress of geological falling into similar fissures, which science shall have afforded us are now filled up with diluvial mud more ample information as to the and pebbles ; for if fissures existed structure of our globe, and have (as they undoubtedly did) on the supplied those data, without which antediluvian face of the earth in all opinions that can be advanced much greater abundance than on the subject must be premature, since that grand aqueous revoluand amount to no more than plau- tion, which has entirely filled up sible conjecture. At present I so many of them with its detritus, am concerned only to establish there is no reason why the then two important facts,-- 1st, That existing animals should not have there has been a recent and gene- fallen into them and perished, as ral inundation of the globe ; and, modern animals do in the com2d, That the animals whose re- paratively few cavities that remain mains are found interred in the still open in our limestone districts: wreck of that inundation were and when we consider that it is natives of high north latitudes, the habit of graminivorous aniand not drifted to their present mals to be constantly traversing place from equatorial regions by the surface of the ground in every the waters that caused their de- direction in pursuit of food, it is struction. One thing, however, is obvious that they are subject in nearly certain, viz. that if any a greater degree than those which


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