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food. Travellers, therefore, who insignia of his rank; and, as they are obliged to depend upon the could not clearly understand his chase for their support, will con- proper name, gave him that of sider the dangers and inconveni- Oud Kraai-kop (Old Crow-head), ence of lions, to be more than as he wore the head of a crow counterbalanced by the advantage fixed upon the top of his hair. of abundance of game. --- As

" It will be immediately persoon as twilight began to advance, ceived that this mode of ornawe heard the lions roaring at a menting the head corresponds distance, and commencing their with the ancient custom of distinnightly prowl. -

guishing men in armour, by some “ In the early part of the night, figure placed as the crest of their the jackals at a little distance helmet. Should therefore the were yelping around us ; and, science of heraldry ever be introalthough they might not have duced among the Bushmen, the filled the office of lion's provider, family of the Kraaikops would vulgarly assigned to them, yet í hereafter be distinguished by the had no doubt of their having at- crow-head as their crest; but tentively performed the duties of what should be emblazoned on clearing their royal master's table. their shield, whether the To prevent him making his sup- field should be gules, or vert, or per-room in the midst of our sable, can only be determined by oxen, we kept several fires burn- the learned men of their own ing all night."

tribe. On the 25th of February, Mr. “ The captain of this kraal, B. remarks:

having heard of our killing the I now looked in vain for that two rhinoceroses for Kaabi, rerosy wild flower-garden which quested me to stop a day longer, decorated these plains on and hunt for him also. But fearformer visit to the Asbestos ing to establish a custom which Mountains. It had totally disap- would hereafter prove extremely peared ; and so astonishingly, and inconvenient to us, as it might almost incredibly rapid, is the pro- lead every kraal to expect that we gress of vegetation in these re. should do the same for them, I gions, with respect to bulbous thought it most prudent at once Howers, that in the short space of to refuse Old Crowhead; though ten days the beautiful lilies, then at the same time I promised him observed just coming into bloom, a share of whatever we might had completed their flowering, chance to kill on the road, if he and ripened their seed; the would allow some of his people flower-stems were dried up, had to accompany us for the purpose parted from the roots, and were of carrying it back. On which nearly all blown away."

he ordered an old man and his At a small kraal of Bushmen, son to attend us. which lay on Mr. B.'s route

“Both these people being ex“ Their chief, or captain, was cessively thin, and apparently redistinguished in a manner so sin- duced to that state by want of gular, that my Hottentots were food, they immediately received highly diverted at the ridiculous from my Hottentots the names of

Oud

our

Oud and Klein, Magerman, (Old At present it appears that the and Young, Lean-man.) It seem- export of sugar has diminished; ed to be an act of charity to take that of 1819-20 being considerably these poor creatures with us, that less than that of 1801-2; while we might feed them plentifully for rum is nearly the same ; and gina few days.

ger, pimento, and coffee, have “The Hottentots, and, perhaps, largely increased.–Of the canes all the tribes of Southern Africa, grown there are several species, have a

custom of thus giving viz. “ the common cane of the names to strangers when they are island, the Bourbon cane, the of a different nation from them- transparent cane, the ribbon cane, selves. This arises chiefly from the Batavian or purple cane, and the difficulty which they find, the green stripe cane. The Boureither in pronouncing or in re- bon and transparent canes are those membering a name to which their chiefly cultivated ; the ribbon cane ear has never been accustomed, is sometimes also planted on acor the meaning of which they count of its hardy nature, being do not understand.”

more capable of enduring dry wea

ther than the other two, though it 23. A View of the past and present most beautiful of all the species,

yields much less juice. It is the State of the Island of Jamgica; being finely variegated with alterwith Remarks on the Moral and Physical Condition of the Slates, yellow, whence it takes its name.

nate stripes of crimson and pale and on the Abolition of Slavery in The Batavian cane is in no estimathe Colonies. By J. Stewart, tion; it is the least productive of late of Jamaica.

all the species, and is therefore The volume sets out with the merely preserved as a variety. early history of the island : its “ The wild hog, the rat, and the discovery by the immortal Colum- mouse, are the only wild quadrubus, its descent in his family, its peds in Jamaica. Formerly, it is devolving to the crown of Spain, said, the woods abounded with a and its conquest by the British in species of the monkey, but none the time of Cromwell (A.D. 1655.)* are now to be found.”

The following particulars will show the progressive improvement of the cultivation, population, and commerce of Jamaica, for the last century and a half :

“In 1673, there were in the island 7768 whites, and 9504 slaves. The chief products were cocoa, indigo, and hides, Sugar had just then been begun to be cultivated.

“ In 1722, the island produced 11,000 hogsheads of sugar.

“ In 1734, there were 7644 whites, 86,546 slaves, and 76,011 head of cattle, in the island.

“In 1744, there were 9640 whites, 112,428 slaves, and 88,036 head of cattle ; and the island produced 35,000 hogsheads of sugar, and 10,000 puncheons of rum.

“ In 1768, there were 17,000 whites, 166,914 slaves, and 135,773 head of cattle; and 55,761 hogsheads of sugar, and 15,551 puncheons of rum were produced.

“ In 1774, the island produced only 654,700lbs. of 'coffee ; in 1790, 1,783,740 lbs.

“ At present there are in Jamaica about 350,000 slaves, 300,000 head of stock ; and the annual average produce may be about 130,000 hogsheads of sugar, 60,000 puncheons of rum, and 18,000,0001bs. of coffee, &c.--

“ In return for its commodities, Jamaica receives from Great Britain an annual supply of almost all her manufactures. The exclusive right which she claims of

supplying

The hog is occasionally hunted driven away. To guard against for his fesh, and is large and their annoyance in the night, the fierce; but the more diminutive beds are hung with what are callanimal next mentioned, occupies a ed musquito-nets, made of thin more important place.

gauze. It is remarkable that the “ In no country is there a crea- negroes, who cannot always afford ture so destructive of property as this nocturnal defence, get into a the rat is in Jamaica; their ravages mechanical habit of driving away are inconceivable. One year with these troublesome visitors, even another, it is supposed that they wbile apparently wrapt in a prodestroy at least about a twentieth found sleep; the quick feeling of part of the sugar-canes through- pain seemingly occasioning this out the island, amounting to little unconscious movement of the short of 200,0001. currency per hands." annum. The sugar-cane is their “ Nearly a hundred different favourite food ; but they also prey species of sea and river fish might upon the Indian corn, on all the be enumerated that are caught and fruits that are accessible to them, used by the inhabitants. There and on many of the roots. Some are times, however, when it is danidea will be formed of the immense gerous to eat of two or three kinds; swarms of those destructive ani- the baracoota and the sprat, in parmals that infest this island, from ticular, are sometimes highly dethe fact, that on a single plantation leterious, owing, it is supposed, to thirty thousand were destroyed in their feeding on some poisonous one year. Traps of various kinds are substance in the ocean, of the naset to catch them, poison is resort- ture of copperas. To guard against ed to, and terriers, and sometimes this danger, a silver spoon is put ferrets are employed to explore into the vessel in which the fish is their haunts and root them out; boiled; if it comes out of a dusky still, however, their numbers re- greenish colour, the fish is unmain undiminished, as far at least sound; if not, it may be safely as can be judged by the ravages ate they commit. They are of a much “ The conger-eel is both voralarger size than the European rat, cious and venomous in its bite; it especially that kind of them called is from five to seven feet in length, by the negroes racoons. On the and of proportionable thickness: experiment being tried of putting it may well be termed a sea-snake; one of these and a cat together, for, in its head, eyes, and teeth, it the latter declined attacking it." much resembles that reptile. It

The musquitos are torments attacks persons in the water, and also in their way.

“ When very though the wound it inflicts is selnumerous, a smoke is made in dom deep, it is exceedingly diffithe houses, by which they are cult of cure.

supplying this and the other islands with her products is one important source of her commercial and manufacturing prosperity. The annual amount of British manufactures imported into this island alone is upwards of two millions. The imports from other parts of lumber, provisions, cattle, &c.) amount to nearly a million currency.-..

“ 'The annual exports to Great Britain and Ireland may amount, one year with another, to about five millions; and those to other parts to about 400,0001."

* There mode refuse

" There are three species irascible; but particularly at the of snake in Jamaica, viz. the latter time, when it is not safe to yellow, the black, and the brown disturb it. The strength of this snake, the last being the smallest animal is incredible; the united of the three. None of these are exertions of four or five able-bovenomous in their bite, at least to died negroes cannot draw one of a serious degree; instances having large size from a place where it happened of negroes having been has got any hold; so that one can. bitten by them without suffering not, from this, altogether discredit any other consequence than a tem- what is told of the monstrous serporary pain, inflammation, and pents of thirty feet long in India swelling of the part, and some- and Africa, which, it is said, have times a slight degree of fever; to been known to strangle the buffalo remove which, all that is necessary and the tiger. There is something is a fomentation of the part with in the very sight of a snake revolt, sweet oil, or warm lime-juice, and ing to all other animals. We are extracting the tooth of the animal startled if one unexpectedly comes if it has been left in the flesh. It in our way, though we may be is alleged by some that the bite of aware there is no danger in his the brown snake is mortal ; but bite: horses and oxen start and no instance ever happened of its snort if they see one near them, bite having produced death. Some and dogs bark at them, but careof the yellow snakes are from ten fully keep aloof while they are in to twelve feet long, but the general an attitude of defence. The black length is from six to eight. The snake, when assailed by a dog, geanimal is at times exceedingly nerally darts at his eyes; by which indolent and inoffensive; when means the terriers, which never gorged with its periodical quan- come in view of them without tum of food, and when coiled up showing their antipathy, very freand reposing itself, it will permit quently become blind." The doa person to come up and touch it, mestic cat is terrified at the sight without making an effort to move. of the smallest-sized snake, and Nay, some of the African negroes will not face it; though the wild have the boldness to stand upon cat, more fierce and daring, will them for a short time while in this probably not shun the encounter. supine state : they have a strange A gentleman, a surveyor by pronotion that this operation is a so- fession, in traversing the woods, vereign remedy for the bone-ache one day found the skeleton of a

a painful disease to which they snake entwined round that of a are subject. The animal, undercat; they had probably been fightthe pain of this extraordinary pres- ing, and perished together in the sure, writhes itself round, and soon conflict.” dislodges the intruder, but without “ The white inhabitants of Jaany active exertion of resentment, maica consist of creoles, or natives and, on the removal of the annoy- of the country, and Europeans. ance, it recomposes itself to rest. There may be about three of the But, when hungry and in search of former to two of the latter. Forprey, and during the season of merly there was a marked diffepairing, it is more active and rence in the habits, manners, and

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mode of life of those two classes, munity, has generally as much but that no longer generally exists. outward respect shown him, and The primitive creolian customs and is as much countenanced, visited, manners are fast disappearing, be- and received into company, espeing superseded by the more po- cially if he be a man of some weight lished manners of European life. and influence in the community, as Even within the last fifteen or if he had been guilty of no breach twenty years a very considerable of decency or dereliction of moral improvement has taken place in duty! This profligacy is, however, the state of society here.

less common than it was formerly; “ There are obstacles, however, for among the old creoles, a brown in this country, which must neces- or sable favourite, and sometimes sarily operate to keep down the even a harem of these ladies, was state of society far below that im- considered as an indispensable approvement of which it would other- pendage to the establishment of a wise be capable. These partly married man. grow out of and are inseparably “ If a gentleman pays his adconnected with a state of slavery, dresses to a lady, it is not thought but more especially arise from the necessary, as a homage to her deligross immorality which too gene- cacy, to get rid, à priori, of his ilrally prevails among all ranks." licit establishment, nor is the lady

"Even if slavery and its attend- so unreasonable as to expect such ant abuses did not exist here, no a sacrifice; the brown lady regreat additional improvement in mains in the house till within a few the state of society could be ex- days of the marriage, and, if she is pected, while the most gross and of an accommodating disposition, open licentiousness continues, as even assists in making preparations at present, to prevail among all for the reception of the bride ; in ranks of the whites. - Every which case there may be a toleunmarried white man, and of every rable good understanding between class, has his black or his brown them, and the wife may even conmistress, with whom he lives open- descend to take in good part the ly; and of so little consequence is occasional calls, inquiries, and this thought, that his white female proffered services of the ex-fafriends and relations think it novourite, and make suitable returns breach of decorum to visit his of kindness to her and her chilhouse, partake of his hospitality, dren. Nothing is more common fondle his children, and converse than for the brown mistress of a with his housekeeper as if that white man to apply to a respectconduct, which they regarded as able married lady to become goddisgraceful in their own class, was mother to her female infant,-a renot so in the female of colour.. quest which is not often refused, But the most striking proof of the though the sponsor must be well low estimate of moral and religious aware that this child is destined, obligation here is the fact, that the from the way in which she is man who lives in open adultery,-- brought up, to follow the footsteps that is, who keeps his brown or of her mother. But it is thought black mistress, in the very face of to be only a form, and the kindhis wife and family and of the com- hearted white lady could hardly

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