of the Dromedary, pointed at it, sel in which she supposed her proand remarked to them in his tector was imprisoned, she rebroken English, “That's my ship;' mained there even in the most

she is very sorry ;' she is cry- desperate weather, and resumed ing;' but in no instance did he her daily lamentation for his antiexpress any compunction for the cipated fate until we finally sailed horrible crime of which he had from New Zealand." been guilty.”

That such savages, from the chiefs to the lowest of the tribe, 20. Account of an Expedition from surrendered their women to the

Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mounsailors indiscriminately, is not

tains, performed in the years 1819, surprising We can only allude

1820. By Order of the Hon. to one rather pathetic instance of

J. C. Calhoun, Secretary of War, the consequences of this practice.

&c. under the Command of Major A soldier, in a drunken quarrel,

S. H. Long. By Edwin James, mortally wounded a seaman nam- Botanist and Geologist to the ed Aldridge. A native girl, the

Party. London, 1823. daughter of a chief, had lived for some months with the former ; The Expedition, consisting of " and it appearing prudent to re- Major Long, of the Engineers ; move her from the ship, she com- Major Biddle, literary Journalist : plied with the order for her de- Dr. Baldwin, Botanist (who died parture with much reluctance. soon after setting out); Mr. Say, From the time the unfortunate Zoologist; Jessup, Geologist; man had been put in confinement Peale, assistant Naturalist; Seytill the present moment, she had mour, Painter; Lieutenant Graham scarcely left his side or ceased to and Cadet Smith, the Author, &c., cry; and having been told that with a boat's crew and military he must inevitably be hanged, she force, on board a steam-boat, sailed purchased some fax from the na- from Pittsburgh on the 5th of tives alongside, and, making a May, 1819. rope of it, declared that if such “In the afternoon (they were should be his fate, she would put between Franklin and Fort Osage, a similar termination to her own the extremity of the settlements) existence; nor is there the slight- they halted to rest at the cabin of est doubt that, in conformity to a hunter on Fire Prairie Creek, the customs of her country, she so called from the circumstance of would have executed her inten- three or four Indians having been tion.

burned to death by the sudden Though turned out of the conflagration of the dry grass in ship, she remained alongside in a the meadows at its source. Here canoe from sunrise to sunset, and Mr. Say had an opportunity to no remonstrances or presents could examine a young black wolf, induce her to go away.

When which was confined by a chain at the Dromedary went to the Bay the door of the hut. These aniof Islands, she followed us over- mals are common in this part of land, and again taking up her the country. This individual was station near that part of the ves- one of five that had been taken



from the same den. It had be- where the hunter lies concealed, come familiar with the hunter and and falls an easy prey." his family, but was shy towards From Fort Osage, August 6, strangers. When fed on meat, a party under Mr. Say was desthe ferocity of his disposition ma- patched to explore the country nifested itself in attempts to bite towards the Konzas river, and the children. It was ordinarily between that river and the Platte, fed on bread and milk.

while the steam-boat soon after “ This man had been settled pursued its upward course in the here two years, but had not' made Mişsouri. A hundred and sixtya crop," having subsisted himself one Indians, including chiefs and and his family by hunting, wherein warriors and thirteen Osages, came he had been very successful. In to hold a council with the Amerithe preceding autumn he had Here they were threatened killed seventy deer and fifty bears. by their encroaching neighbours, He took great pleasure in relating but no immediate consequence his hunting adventures, particu. ensued. On the return of Mr. Jarly his engagements with bears. Say's party, he gave an account of One bear which he had killed, his journey to the Konza village. he said, weighed seven hundred « . The approach to the village pounds; but in this instance he is over a fine level prairie of conwas probably mistaken. He had siderable extent ; passing which, seen in the winter of 1818, a large you ascend an abrupt bank of the herd of bisons near the Grand height of ten feet to a second level, Pass; but they had been driven on which the village is situate in down by the severity of the wea- the distance, within about onether, and were not ordinarily to fourth of a mile of the river. It be found within the limits of his consists of about a hundred and hunting excursions. During the twenty lodges, placed as closely severe wintry weather, he affirmed together as convenient, and destithat bears make for themselves a tute of any regularity of arrangeshelter of brushwood, into which ment. The ground area of each they creep to secure themselves lodge is circular, and is excavated from the cold.

to the depth of from one to three " From May until July the fe- feet, and the general form of the male of the common deer conceals exterior may be denominated he

whilst she goes to feed. mispheric. It is at this time that the hunters mitted to remain in the middle of take advantage of the maternal the roof, to give exit to the smoke. feelings of the animal to secure

Several medicine or mystic their prey. They conceal them- bags are carefully attached to the selves and imitate the cry of the mats of the wall; these are cylinfawn. The solicitude of the pa- drical, and neatly bound up ; serent animal for her young over- veral reeds are usually placed comes her usual care for her own upon them, and a human scalp safety; and believing she hears serves for their fringe and tassels. the cries of her offspring in dis. Of their contents we know notress, she hurries toward the spot thin


her young.

A hole is per

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“Ca-ega-wa-tan-ninga, or the “ The principal chiefs advanced Fool Chief, is the hereditary prin- before their people, and upon invicipal chief; but he possesses no- tation seated themselves. After a : thing like monarchical authority, short interval of silence, Shongamaintaining his distinction only by tonga, the Big Horse, a large his bravery and good conduct. portly Indian of a commanding There are ten or twelve inferior presence, arose and said, “My chieftains, or persons who aspire father, your children have come to such dignity; but these do not to dance before your tent, agreeappear to command any great re- ably to our custom of honouring spect from the people. Civil as brave or distinguished persons.' well as military distinction arises “ After a suitable reply, by from bravery or generosity. Con- Major O'Fallon, the amusement of troversies are decided amongst dancing was commenced by the themselves; they do not appeal striking up of their rude instruto their chief, excepting for coun- mental and vocal music; the sel. They will not marry any of former consisting of a gong made their kindred, however remote. of a large keg, over one of the The females, before marriage, ends of which a skin was stretchlabour in the fields, and serve their ed, which was struck by a small parents, carry wood and water, stick; and another instrument, and attend to the culinary duties; consisting of a stick of firm wood, when the eldest daughter marries, notched like a saw,

over the she commands the lodge, the mo- teeth of which a smaller stick ther, and all the sisters ; the latter rubbed forcibly backward are to be also the wives of the and forward : with these, rude as same individual.

they were, very good time was • After the death of the hus. preserved with the vocal performband the widow sacrifices herself, ers who sat around them, and by rubs her person with clay, and all the natives as they sat, in the becomes negligent of her dress, inflection of their bodies, or the until the expiration of a year, when movements of their limbs. After the eldest brother of the deceased the lapse of a little time, three intakes her to wife without any ce- dividuals leaped up and danced remony, considers her children as around for a few minutes; then, at his own, and takes her and them to a concerted signal from the master his house : if the deceased left no of the ceremonies, the music brother, she marries whom she ceased, and they retired to their pleases. They have, in some in- seats uttering a loud noise, which, stances, four or five wives ; but by patting the mouth rapidly with these are mostly sisters : if they the hand, was broken into a sucmarry into two families, the wives cession of similar sounds, somedo not harmonize well together, what like the hurried barking of and give the husband much in- a dog. Several sets of dancers quietude: there is, however, no succeeded, each terminating as restriction in this respect, except the first. In the intervals of the in the prudence of the husband. dances, a warrior would step for

A Council was held with the ward and strike a flag-staff they Otoes, loways, and other tribes. had erected with a stick, whip, or



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other weapon, and recount his from the Puncas. He had struck martial deeds. This ceremony is the bodies of two Sioux. On a called striking the post, and what- war party, in company with the ever is then said may be relied Pawnees, he had attacked the upon as rigid truth, being deliver- Spaniards and penetrated into ed in the presence of many a jea- one of their camps; the Spalous warrior and witness, who niards, excepting a man and boy, could easily detect and would im- Aed; himself being at a distance mediately disgrace the striker for before his party, he was shot at exaggeration or falsehood. This and missed by the man, whom he is called the beggars' dance, dur- immediately shot down and struck. ing which some presents are al- "This, my father,' said he, 'is the ways expected by the performers, only martial act of my life that I as tobacco, whisky, or trinkets, am ashamed of.' After several But on this occasion, as none of rounds of dancing, and of striking those articles were immediately of- at the post by the warriors, Mi-afered, the amusement was not at ke-ta, or the Little Soldier, a warfirst distinguished by much acti- worn veteran, took his turn to vity. The master of the cere- strike the post. He leaped acmonies continually called aloud to tively about, and strained his voice them to exert themselves ; but to its utmost pitch whilst he pourstill they were somewhat dull and trayed some of the scenes of backward. letan now stepped blood in which he had acted. He forward and lashed a post with had struck dead bodies of indivihis whip, declaring that he would duals of all the red nations around, thus punish those who did not Osages, Konzas, Pawnee Loups, dance : this threat, from one whom Pawnee Republicans, Grand Pawthey had vested with authority for nees, Puncas, Omawhaws, and this occasion, had a manifest effect Sioux, Padoucas, La Plais or Bald upon his auditors, who were pre- Heads, Ietans, Sauks, Foxes, and sently highly wrought up by the loways; he had struck eight of sight of two or three little mounds one nation, seven of another, &c. of tobacco-twist which were now He was proceeding with his aclaid before them, and appeared to count when Ietan ran up to him, infuse new life.

put his hand

upon his mouth, and “ After lashing the post and respectfully led him to his seat. making his threat, Ietan went on This act was no trifling compliment to narrate his martial exploits. paid to the well-known brave. It He had stolen horses seven or indicated that he had still so many eight times from the Konzas; he glorious acts to speak of, that he had first struck the bodies of three would occupy so much time as to of that nation slain in battle. He prevent others from speaking, and had stolen horses from the letan put to shame the other warriors by nation, and had struck one of the contrast of his actions with their dead. He had stolen horses theirs." from the Pawnees, and struck the Their dances, sometimes, are body of one Pawnee Loup. He sorts of pantomimes of their exhad stolen horses several times ploits. Thus, for instance : from the Omawhaws, and once "Wa-sa-ba-jing-ga, or Little



Black Bear, after a variety of ges- more amiable traits of his charactures, threw several arrows in suc- Dorion, a Mestizo, on a cession orer his head, thereby in- trading expedition, had accumudicating his familiarity with the lated a considerable quantity of flight of such missiles : he at the peltry at the Pawnce republican same time covered his eyes with village, when it was situated on his hand, to indicate that he was the Republican fork of the Konza blind to danger. Others repre- river. As he had no horses to sented their manœuvres in battle, transport his merchandize, he reseeking their enemy, discharging quested the chief of that village at him their guns or arrows, &c.” to assist him in conveying it to the

Major Long and others, leaving Grand Pawnees on the Platte, as their friends settled for the winter, he intended to descend that river returned to Philadelphia. The to trade with the Otoes, on his way Pawnee tribes, having been sum- to St. Louis ; the chief directly moned to answer for their offences, ordered horses to be brought, the came to the rendezvous.

furs were packed upon them, and " In the evening (the author they departed on the journey : says), accompanied by several gen- but owing to some alleged mistlemen of the party, we visited conduct on the part of Dorion, the the camp of the Pawnees, whom chief, when half way, ordered the we found sitting round their fires, goods to be taken from the horses smoking their pipes in silence. and to be left on the plain. He Some were employed in making then, with his followers, returned bows, having found plenty of to his village. The trader, after hickory, and hop horn beam wood bewailing his unfortunate condihere, which are not to be procured tion, at length resolved to go to in the vicinity of their villages. the Grand Pawnee village and soTheir mules were tied to trees, licit the aid of Long Hair. Having feeding on the bark of the cotton arrived at the residence of the wood. The three tribes were chief, he related to him in what seated around different fires. We manner he had been used by the sat down in the group of Grand Republican chief, and concluded Pawnees, and smoked with their by requesting assistance to bring chief, Tar-ra-re-ca-wa-o, or Long in his goods. Long Hair, without Hair. This is an hereditary chief, reply, ascended to the top of his of a lofty and rather haughty lodge, and called out to his people mien; his mouth is, perhaps to bring him one hundred horses. through habit, drawn down a little Taking the best of these, and a at the corners. He has the ap- sufficient number of attendants, pearance and character of an in. he accompanied Dorion, and astrepid man, although not distin- sisted him to transport all his guished as a warrior, having, dur- peltries, and did not cease with ing his life, killed but a single lis good offices until he had aided man, who was a Spaniard. He him in building a skin canoe, and is, however, artful and politic, and had packed all the merchandize has performed some laudable ac- aboard, although previously told tions. The following anecdote by Dorion that he had nothing to may serve in part to illustrate the reward him with, having, as he

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