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ment of mistrust or jealousy, can the cause of Spain, by demonstrating inspire in our Cabinet an idea in to her the necessity of pursuing a opposition to the welfare of Spain. different course. It is certain that

The House of Austria has only the grievances which appress her to turn to the annals of its own have lately augmented in fearful history to find the most powerful progression. The most rigorous motives of attachment, regard, measures, the most hazardous exand good-will towards a nation pedients, can no longer give auwhich may with just pride recall thority to her administration. Civil those centuries of glorious memory war rages in several of her proin which her sun of grandeur never vinces ; her relations with the set-towards a nation which, pow. greatest portion of Europe are deerful in respectable institutions, ranged or suspended ; and her rehereditary virtues, religious senti- lations with France have even ments, and in love to her Kings, assumed so problematical a chahas rendered herself illustrious in racter, as to justify serious dis. every age by a patriotism always quietude respecting the loyal, always generous, and very quences which may thence result. often heroic. During a period still Would not such a state of things recent, this nation astonished the justify the most fatal forebodings? world by the courage, devotion, Every Spaniard, who knows and perseverance, which she op- the real state of bis country, ought posed to the ambitious usurper who to feel that, in order to burst tbe endeavoured to deprive her of her fetters wbich now bind the MoMonarch and her laws; and Aus. narch and his subjects, Spain tria will never forget how useful must terminate that state of sepawas the noble resistance of the ration which has been the result of Spanish nation at a time of great late events. The relations of condanger for herself.

fidence and sincerity must be reIt is not to Spain, either as a established between her and the nation or as a power, that can be other governments, relations which, applied the severe language which by guaranteeing on the one band is dictated to bis Imperial Ma her firm intention to associate herjesty by his conscience and his self in the common cause of the love of truth : it applies only to European monarch, may, on the those who have ruined and disfi- other hand, furnish the means of gured, and who persist in prolong- estimating her real will, and of ing her sufferings.

rejecting every thing calculated to On meeting his august Allies pervert and restrain it.

But to at Verona, his Majesty the Em- attain this end, it is especially inperor has had the happiness again dispensable that her King should to find in their counsels the same be free, not only as regards that tutelary and disinterested disposi- personal liberty which every inditions which have constantly guided vidual may claim under the reign his own. The tone of the des- of the laws, but that liberty which patches which will be addressed a sovereign ought to enjoy in order to Madrid will vouch for this fact, to discharge his high vocation. and will leave no doubt of the sin- The King of Spain will be free cere anxiety of the Powers to serve from the moment that he shall

bave the power of putting an end and Cabinets assembled at Verona, to the evils which afflict his sub- the situation of Spain, and its rejects, of restoring order and peace lations with the rest of Europe, in his kingdom, of surrounding have occupied the first place. himself with men equally worthy

You know the interest whicb the of his confidence by their princi- King, our august master,

bas ples and talents; and, finally, of never ceased to take in his Casubstituting for a regime acknow. tholic Majesty, and in the Spanish ledged to be impracticable even nation. by those whose egotism or pride

This nation, so distinguished by still attaches to it, an order of the loyalty and energy of its chathings in which the rights of the racter, illustrious from so many monarch shall be happily blended ages of glory and virtue, and alwith the real interests and legiti- ways so celebrated for the noble mate views of all classes of the devotion and heroic perseverance nation. When this moment shall which made it triumph over the arrive, Spain, wearied by long ambitious and despotic designs of sufferings, may flatter herself with the usurper of the French throne, re-entering into full possession of possesses claims too venerable and the advantages which Heaven has too solid to the interest and regard allotted her, and which the noble of all Europe, to permit that its character of her inhabitants in- Sovereigns can view with indiffersures to her ; then will she be re- ence the miseries that actually opstored o those relations which press it, and those with which it is unite her to all the European Pow- menaced. ers; and his Imperial Majesty will An event the most deplorable congratulate himself upon having has subverted the ancient basis of nothing left to offer her but the the Spanish monarchy, comprowishes wbich he entertains for her mised the character of the nation, prosperity, and all the good ser- and attacked and poisoned public vices which he may have it in his prosperity in its very sources. power to render to an ancient friend A revolution, which sprang from and ally.

military revolt, has suddenly broYou will, M. le Comte, make ken all the bonds of duty, overof this despatch a use the most ap- thrown all legitimate order, and propriate to the circumstances in dissolved the elements of the social which you niay find yourself on edifice, which cannot fall without receiving it.

You are authorized covering the whole country with to read it to the Minister of Fo- its ruins. reign Affairs, as well as to give It was thought possible to rehim a copy should he ask it. place this edifice, by extorting from

a Sovereign already despoiled of all Despatch from the Count de Berns- real authority and of all free will,

toff to the Prussian Chargé the re-establishment of the Conď Affaires at Madrid, dated Ve- stitution of the Cortes of the year rona, November 22, 1822. 1812, which, confounding all ele

Sir,-Among the objects which ments and all power, and assumfix the attention and demand the ing only the single principle of a anxious solicitude of the Sovereigns permanent and legal opposition

against

against the government, necessarily rogatives, and its possessions. It destroyed that central and tutelary may be thought that a despotic authority which constitutes the es- power, exercised by a faction only sence of the monarchical system. to the injury of the country, would

The consequences have fully soon have fallen to pieces, if delumade known to the Spanish nation sive declamations from the tribune, what are the fruits of so fatal an ferocious outcries from the clubs, error.

and the licentiousness of the press, The revolution, that is to say, had not kept down public opinion, the letting loose of every passion and stilled the voice of that sound against the ancient order of things and reasonable part of the Spanish far from being stopped, checked, nation, which Europe was well or modified, has developed itself aware formed an immense majoin a manner at once rapid and terri. rity. But the measure of injustice fying. The govervinent, powerful was filled, and the patience of and paralysed, had no longer the faithful Spaniards appeared at means of either doing good or pre- length to be exhausted. On all veuting evil. All its powers were sides discontent burst forth, and found concentrated, accumulated, whole provinces became the prey and confounded, in one single as- of civil war. sembly ; this assembly presented In the midst of this dreadful agionly a conflict of opinions and views, tation, the sovereign of the counof interests and of passions, in the try was seen reduced to an absomidst of which propositions and lutely powerless state, deprived of resolutions of the most heteroge- all liberty of action and of will, a. neous kind were constantly pro- prisoner in his capital, separated duced, resisted, or neutralized. The from all his faithful servants wbo ascendancy of the fatal doctrines of still remained attached to him, a disorganized philosophy could loaded with insults and contumely, not but augment the general delu- and exposed, from day to day, to sion, until at last, as might natu- attempts wbich, if the faction did not rally be expected, every notion of provoke them, at least they had sound policy was abandoned for retained no means of preventing. vain theories, and every sentinyent You, Sir, who have witnessed of justice and moderation sacrificed the origin, the progress, and the to the dreams of fallacious liberty. consequences of the revolution of From that moment, institutions, the year 1820, can testify that established under the pretence of there is nothing exaggerated in the offering securities against the abuse picture of it which I have thus raof authority, became merely the pidly traced. Things have now instruments of injustice and vio- reached that crisis, that the Sovelence, and the means of covering reigns assembled at Verona at this tyrannical system with an ap- length feel themselves compelled pearance of legality,

to inquire what are now, and what Without the slightest hesitation, will hereafter be, the nature of the most venerable and sacred their relations with Spain. rights were abolished; lawful pro- It might have been hoped, that perty was violated; and the Church the dreadful calamity with which was stripped of its dignity, its pre- Spain was attacked would have ex

perienced

1

perienced crises of a nature caleu- placed it, and from the system
lated to bring back that ancient which it has established?
monarchy to an order of things We conceive that nothing can
conipatible with its own welfare, be nuore contrary to the intentions
and with relations of friendship and of his most Catholic Majesty, than
confidence between itself and the to see himself placed in a situation
other states of Europe. But this 80 extremely painful with respect
hope has been hitherto frustrated. to Foreign Sovereigns ; but it is pre-
The moral state of Spain is at the cisely because this Monarch, who
present moment such, that her re- is the only authentic and legitimate
lations with Foreign Powers must organ of communication between
necessarily be doubtful and uncer- Spain and the other Powers of Eu-
tain. Doctrines subversive of all rope, finds himself deprived of his
social order are openly preached liberty, and restrained in his will,
and protected. Insults, directed that those Powers consider their
against the principal Sovereigns of relations with Spain to be compro-
Europe, fill with impunity the pub- mised and deranged.
lic journals. The revolutionists It is not for Foreign Courts to
of Spain disperse their emissa- judge wbat institutions would bar-
ries, in order to associate with monize best with the character,
themselves, in their pernicious la- the manners, and the real wants
bours, whatever conspirators may of the Spanish nation ; but it does
be found in foreign countries indubitably belong to them to
against public order and legitimate judge of the consequences which
authority

experiments of this kind produce The inevitable effect of so many with regard to themselves, and to disorders has particularly maui. regulate by those consequences fested itself in the change of rela- their future determinations, and tions between Spain and France. their future positions, with regard The irritation which has resulted to Spain. Now, the King, our is of a nature calculated to create master, is of opinion, that in order the most just apprehensions as to to preserve, and re-establish on the maintenance of peace between solid foundation, bis relations with the two countries. This circum- Foreign Powers, the Spanish Gostance alone would be sufficient to vernment cannot do less than give determine the assembled Sovereigns to these last unequivocal proofs to break silence upon a state of of the liberty of his Catholic Ma. things which every day threatens jesty, and an adequate guarantee to compromise the tranquillity of of its disposition, and of its ability Europe.

to remove the causes of our regret Is the Spanish Government will. and of our too just inquietude reing, or is it able, to apply a re- specting it. medy to evils so palpable and so The King orders you, Sir, not notorious ? Will it, and can it, to conceal this opinion from the prevent or repress the hostile con- Spanish Minister, to read to him sequences and the insulting provo- this despatch, to leave a copy of it cations which arise with regard to in his hands, and to request him to foreign governments, from the posi- explain himself frankly and clearly tion in which the revolution has upon the points to which it refers.

Reply

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Reply to the Note of the French monstrance on the part of the Minister.

Powers which had recoguized it. Under this date I communicate But six years' experience, and the the following, by Royal order, to the general wish, induced him to idenMinister Plenipotentiary of his Ma- tify himself, in 1820, with the dejesty in Paris : " The Govern- sires of the Spanish people. ment of bis Catholic Majesty has “ It was not a nilitary insurjust received a note transmitted by rection which gave rise to this new that of his Most Christian Ma- order of things in the commencejesty to its Minister Plenipoten- ment of the year 1820. The brave tiary in this court, au official copy men who declared themselves in the of which document is directed to island of Leon, and successively in your Excellency for your neces- the rest of the provinces, were only sary information.

the organ of the general opinion “The Government of his Cathu. and wish. lic Majesty has few observations to “ It was natural that this order make on the said note. But in or- of things should produce disconder that your Excellency may not tents : that is an inevitable consefeel any embarrassinent with regard quence of every reform wbich aims to the conduct which you ought to at a correction of abuses. Indi. observe under these circumstances, viduals are always to be found in it becomes it to manifest frankly every nation and in every state, its sentiments and resolutions. who can never submit themselves

“ Tbe Government was never to the empire of reason and juswithout the conviction that the in- tice. stitutions adopted freely and spon- “ The Army of Observation taneously by Spain would give rise which the French Government to jealousies in many of the Cabi- maintains in the Pyrenees is not nets of Europe, and would become calculated to quiet the disorders the object of the deliberations of with which Spain is afflicted. Exthe Congress of Verona. But, perience bas proved, on the consecure in its principles, and firm in trary, that this Sanatory Cordon, the resolution to defend at every which afterwards assumed the expense its present political sys- title of Army of Observation, lem, and the national independence, bas only served to nourish the it quietly awaited the result of wild hopes of the deluded fanatics those conferences.

who raised the cry of rebellion in “Spain is governed by a Con- several of the provinces, by giving stitution promulgated, accepted, then a pretext for cherishing the and sworn in the year 1812, and idea of an approaching invasion of acknowledged by the Powers which our territory, were assembled in the Congress of “As the principles, the views Verona. Perfidious counsellors or the fears, which bave influenced would have persuaded his Catholic the conduct of the Cabinets assem-, Majesty D. Fernando VII. not to bled at the Congress of Verona, bave sworn on his return to that cannot serve as a rule for that of fundamental code which the whole Spain, the latter abstains, for the nation desired, and which was de- present, from replying to that part strayed by force, without any re- of the instructions of the Comte

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