dom of Hanover. The Emperor and vapouring and bullying at anAlexander, too, after he had also other, had finished by craving the undergone the previous ceremony honour of giving Bonaparte his of a thorough beating, did not dis- favourite daughter in marriage, dain to lick up the crumbs which might have been told that the term fell from the mouth of his more usurper could not be fairly applied successful rival: he did not disdain even by him to the individual to take, rather than have nothing upon whose beck his own fate and -ratber than forego the Russian fortunes had so repeatedly dependprinciple to get something on every ed. Extraordinary as it was, it occasion, either in Europe, or in was still no less true, that after the Asia, and of late years they had powerful genius of Bonaparte had even laid claim to naval dominion fallen under the still more powerin America -- rather than forego ful restlessness of his disposition, the Calmuck policy of always add- --after his armies had perished ing something to what was already under the severities of a northeru acquired, he condescended to re- winter, and the star of his destiny ceive from the hand of Bonaparte had waned under the superior ina few square miles of territory, Auence of that of the allies,-after with an additional population of they had succeeded in the contest only two or three thousand serfs. by the call they had made upon The tender heart of the father, the energies of their ..people, and overflowing, as his imperial grand- the gallant manner in which their mother bad phrased it, with the people had answered that call,milk of human kindness for all his after they had come completely children, could not be content with- victorious from the struggle, in out receiving a fariber addition to consequence of the aid they had them; and therefore it was not sur- received from the arms, skill, and prising that on the very next occa- gallantry of England, without which sion that presented itself, he was no storm could have overpowered, ready to seize, and actually did no popular enthusiasm could have seize, from the same hands, a slice overwhelmed him it was extraof the booty, large in the same ordinary, he repeated, but still not proportion as his former one had the less true, that these very men been small. The Emperor of Aus- should be the first to imitate that tria, too, who had entered before policy against which they had the others into the race for plun- struggled so violently, and to carry der, and had continued in it till the it even still farther in all its most very conclusion-he who, if not detestable points. He maintained an accomplice with the jacobins of that it was as he had asserted; for France in the spoliation of Venice, not even by his foulest slanderers was at least the receiver of the had Bonaparte been ever accused stolen property ; a case in which it of actions so atrocious as was the had been well stated at the time spoliation of Norway, the partition in that house, that the receiver of Saxony, the transfer of Genva, was quite as bad as the thief-that and the cession of Ragusa. It was magnanimous prince, who, after an too much, after the allied sovealmost endless alternation of sub. reigns had committed deeds su mission and truckling at one time, wicked, and actions so iniquitous


as these-it was too much, after world, that it was from the hands they had submitted to a long course of a tyrant alone that a free people of truckling and submission to Bo- could hold a constitution.

That naparte, accompanied by every accomplished prince—and all Euspecies of personal disgrace and rope acknowledged him to be at degradation on their part—it was once a most finished gentleman too much for them now to come and most able scholar-could not forward and to calumniate his me- but be aware that all the wise and mory for transactions, in the bene- good men of former times differed fit of which they had participated with him in opinion upon this at the time, and the infamy of point; and if he (Mr. Brougham) which they had since surpassed by reminded bim of a sentence wbich their own conduct. He rejoiced he bad recently found in a recoverthat the Spaniards had only suched work, of one whose eloquence men as these to contend with : he was only to be surpassed by his knew that there were fearful odds wisdom, and whose skill as a statesbetween battalions and principles; man was only to be rivalled by his but it was some consolation to re- observation as a philosopher-if he flect, that their battalions were not reminded him of an opinion of Ciaided by the character of their cero, in direct variance with the masters, and that all the weight of doctrines which he had recently character was happily on the con- promulgated, it was in the sincere trary side. It gave him, however, hope that he would consider it with some pain to find that a monarch all the attention that was due to so enlightened as the King of France such high authority. That great had shown himself on various oc- man had said, “Non in ulla civitate, casions to be, should have yielded nisi in qua summa potestus populi obedience, even for a time, to the est, ullum domicilium libertas habet.. arbitrary mandates of this tyrannic He recommended to bis most cajunta. He trusted, however, that tholic majesty to reflect, not only it would only prove a temporary on the wisdom of so great a philoaberration on his part from the sopher, but also on the experience sounder principles on which he of so great a statesman. He rehad hitherto acted: he trusted that commended him to consider, that the men who appeared to have ac- he was one of the greatest statesquired his confidence only to abuse men of the old world—that, like it, would soon be dismissed from bimself, he lived in times of great it; or if not, that the voice of the danger, and of great difficultycountry, whose interests they were that he had to contend with the ready to sacrifice, and whose rising most formidable conspiracy to liberties they seemed anxious to which the life and liberty of social destroy, would compel them to man had ever been exposed—that pursue a more manly and more under such circumstances he had liberal policy. Indeed, the King of recourse only to the Roman conFrance had been persuaded by the stitution--that he threw himself parasites by whom he was at pre- on the good will of his patriotic sent surrounded, to go even beyond countrymen

that he only put the principles of the boly alliance. forth the vigour of his own genius, lle had been persuaded to tell the and the vigour of the law, and that 1823.



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he never thought of calling into his it was against freedom by whatassistance the Allobroges, the Teu- ever men it was possessed—it was tones, or the Scythians of his day; against freedom by whatever " and I now say,” continued Mr. checks it was secured, and by Brougham, " that if the King of whatever safeguards it was guaFrance calls on either the modern ranteed. Freedom was the object Teutones or the modern Scythians of their most inveterate hate, and to assist him in this unholy war, against freedom they were ready judgment will that moment go to employ every species both of forth against him and his family, fraud and force. They dreaded and the dynasty of Gaul will be its instructions—they abhorred its changed at once and for ever.” spirit; all the benefits which it The learned gentleman then asked has conferred upon mankind, all what were the grounds on which the monuments which have been the necessity of this war was de- raised in its honour, all the mifended. It was said to be under- racles which have been effected by taken because an insurrection had its influence, they hated with the bruken out with success at Madrid. malignity of demons, for they were He denied this to be the fact. compelled to fear and tremble at What was called an insurrection the very sound of its name. was an attempt to restore the law- was on this account that, disguise ful constitution of the country-a it as they might, they could feel constitution which had been its no real friendship for the people established constitution till Ferdi. of this country. As long as Engpand overthrew it in consequence

land remained the country that of a mutiny in the army; and she was at present, as long as partherefore, when a similar mutiny liament formed a free and open enabled the friends of liberty to re- tribunal to which the oppressed of cover what they had lost, it was all nations under heaven could an error in language to call such appeal against their oppressors, recovery by the name of insurrec- however mighty and however extion, and an abuse of terms, wbich alted—and with all its abuses (and could only be intended to hoodwink no man could lament them more the reason or conciliate the preju. feelingly than he did, because no dices of the honest part of mankind. man was more sensible of its adLet the pretext, however, for the war vantages), and with all its imperbe what it might, the real cause fections (and no man could be of it was not hard to conjecture. more anxious to remove and amend It was not from hatred to Spain or them, because no

man wished Portugal, considered simply as more heartily to make it worthy Spain and Portugal, that the al- of the love and admiration of the lied sovereigns were for marching country), it was still too free to their hordes into the peninsula please the taste of the continental it was not against freedoin on the despots,—30 long would England Ebro, or freedom on the Mincio, be the object of their hatred and that they were making war: no, machinations, sometimes carried it was against freedom in the abs- on in secret, sometimes carried on tract - it was against freedom openly, but always carried on with wherever it was to be found the same unremitting vigour and


activity. It was idle to suppose tinople, or at Minorca--for he had that these armed critics should be long shown a desire to have some bounded in their views by any western provinces ; and that Auslimits of time or of country. tria and Prussia would be invited Could the house suppose, that, if to look for an indernnity in any there were any portion of territory thing that England, or the King of in the neighbourhood of the Em- England, might have to suit them. peror Alexander which appeared The priociples on which this band peculiarly suited to his views, of congregated despots had shown he would not soon be able to dis- their readiness to act, were dancover some fault or flaw in its gerous in the extreme, not only to political institutions requiring his free states for reasons which he intervention, supposing it even to had before explained, but also to be a part of the Turkish govern- the states over which the very ment? Nay, if his imperial ma- members of this unboly junto prejesty were met, with his consis- sided. Resistance to them was a tory of tyrants and armed critics, matter of duty, and the duty of he believed that it would be in this country was in consequence vain for the Ulemah, with all plain. It behoved us, however, to his tribe of learned Muftis, to take care that we did not rush plead to him that their govern. blindly into a war. An appeal to ment was of the most sacred and arms ought to be the last alternavenerable description, that it had tive we should try, but still it antiquity in its favour,—that it ought never to be so foreign to was in full possession of “ the con- our thoughts as to be conceived servative principle of social order," impossible, or so foreign from our -that it was "replete with grand counsels as to take us unprepared. truths,”-that it was “powerful Already, if there was any force in and paralysed,”--that it had never language, or any validity in public listened to “the fatal doctrines of a engagements, were we committed disorganized philosophy," and that by the defensive treaties into which it had never been visited by any we had entered. We were bound such things as “ dreams of falla- by various engageinents to prevent cious liberty”-he believed that if Portugal from being overrun by a the learned Ulemah were to argue foreign enemy. If Spain were to the point just as if it was the holy be overrun by foreign invaders, Koran, still these “ three gentle what would be the situation of Pormen of Verona" would not turn tugal? Her frontiers on the side away-in disgust, as he (Mr. of Spain could scarcely be said to Brougham) should do, but would exist at present; there was no depry about for an avenue by which fence in them; they were a mere to enter into the territory in ques- imaginary line, and had no existtion, and if they could not find a ence except in the map of the geoway, would not be very scrupulous grapher; her real frontiers were about making oiie; and the result

, in the Pyrenees-her real defence in one point of view, would be, was in their fastnesses; and whenthat in three months from the ever their passes were crossed, the time of deliberation the Emperor same danger which threatened Alexander would be at Constan- Spain would also threaten Portu


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gal. If we were bound by the his acknowledgments to the hou. force of treaties, though we might and learned gent. for a speech as not be bound to send an army of able as ever he had heard deliverobservation to watch the motionised, or as he believed ever had of the French army, we were at been delivered within the walls of least bound to send a naval arma- parliament. He rose for the purment to Portugal, in order that we pose of saying of the hon. and might have the earliest informa- learned gent. that which had been tion of wbat was occurring there, previously said of a great and and might be ready at any mo- worthy man-not however greater ment to give assistance to our or worthier than the hon. and ancient ally. Above all things, learned gentleman on the floor, we ought to repeal without delay Nil non laudandum aut sensit aut the foreign enlistment bill-a mea- dixit.” He had received great sure which, in his opinion, we pleasure from the manly and inought never to have enacted. He genuous speech of the honourable would not, however, look back- gentleman who had that day wards to measures, on the propri- moved the address; and he trusted ety of which all of them might that the house would come to au not agree; but he would look for- unanimous vote upon it. In conward, in order to avoid all subject clusion, he informed ministers, of vituperation, reserving his blame that if they acted upon the prinfor the foreigners whose tyrannic ciples laid down by the hon. and conduct obliged this nation to hate learned gent. that evening, the them, and his co-operation for despnts of the continent would, in whatever faithful servant of the case of things coniing to the worst, crown would, in the performance have to experience what they had of his duty to his country, to free- not experienced for a number of dom, and to the world, speak a years—he meant the opposition of language that was truly British-- an united parliament, and pursue a policy that was truly united people. free--and look to free states as Mr. Peel expressed his satisour best and most natural allies faction, that there was such a deagainst all enemies whatsoever; sire in the house to concur with quarrelling with none, whatsoever the sentiments expressed in the were the form of their govern- speech addressed to it from the ment; keeping peace wherever we throne, and also with the senticould, but not leaving ourselves ments which it was proposed to unprepared for war; not afraid embody in the answer to be preof the issue, but calmly resolved sented in return to the throne. to brave it at all hazards ; deter- After complimenting the mover mined at the same time to support, and seconder of the address for the amid every sacrifice, the honour ability which they had displayed and dignity of the crown, the in- in bringing it forward, he prodependence of the country, and ceeded to state, that as the hon), every principle that is considered and learned gent. opposite, and most valuable and sacred among also the hon. baronet who had civilized nations.

followed bim, had confined their Sir F. Burdett rose, to make observations to one point, he should



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