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PUBLISHED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF

THE PHILOLOGICAL CLUB OF THE UNIVERSITY OF

NORTH CAROLINA

VOLUME X

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN

IN SOPHOCLES-PART I

BY

CHARLES W. BAIN

RECENT CRITICISM OF LATIN

LITERATURE

BY

GEORGE HOWE

BALTIMORE

J. H. FURST COMPANY

1913

MAY -3 1917 •5934 ☆

I77 7641

10-13 10-13 THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN IN

SOPHOCLES

PART I

DISTRIBUTION AND PROPORTION

It has been said that the world needs not so much to be instructed as to be reminded. It is in this spirit that these statistics on the distribution and proportion of the demonstrative pronouns in Sophocles are presented.

This paper on ούτος, όδε and εκείνος (the traditional order in the grammars) grew out of some remarks by Professor Gildersleeve in divers places in The American Journal of Philology, in which he desiderated more definite information about these pronouns. Perhaps, therefore, it will not be amiss to quote the passages in full.

« Outos is the universal demonstrative; the others are all particular; it is the regular antecedent of the relative, and with it the relative is that.' With the others, ode and eneîvos, it is rather 'who' or 'which.' In practical use de sets up an opposition to oŮTOs, gets to itself the connotation of the important first person, but it is only in dramatic style that ode can make head against outos, and it is the large use of ode that gives so much of the conversational tone to Herodotus. To be sure, &Keivos gives bulk, gives weight, but it lacks precision. It is a 'yon, which is as vague as the next world to which it is always assigned, and great hulking demonstrative that it is, it needs the guidance of όδε and ούτος, ούτος εκείνος, όδ' εκείνος εγώ. All these are the commonplaces of grammar. But, of late, scholars have thought it worth while to watch the usage of so familiar a pronoun as oitos in the Attic orators, and have formulated

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