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Such never permits the evils of corrupt legislation, but wisely provides constitutional and organic protection.

Even enlightened public opinion is such, that the working-people of London have rebuked the butcheries of despotic monarchs, and reflected back the rights of mind.

As to this thing of public opinion, does it reach near all the world, part of which as yet defies it, or is below it? There is yet such a morbid state from sophistry in high places, that the world's opinion is not right by a great deal.

No tradition of past ages, nor any authority of any age is needed, after mastering the correct principles of reason, to tell us our duty as to omission or commission. Neither priests, preachers, nor clergy, assisting the autocrats, monarchs, and absolutists, of all governments, who have enslaved mind, can direct or mould public sentiment when enlightened.

The highest authority of all doctrines, a cultivated and virtuous intellect, has ever proclaimed and studiously so, by conscience, all that is necessary to the world in the boldest characteristics. Thanks to the Eternal Supreme, our God-given mind is always with us, or under the mind's guardianship, when mind is rational, and government in abeyance thereto.

We may never know any monitor better, for God enlightens and addresses it with all necessary inspiration of reason, wisdom and knowledge.

We are not only led by the force of all such to estimate such momentous decrees, but we are also incited to regard all the higher attributes of man's nature.

The fear of exposure in reputation and all consequent penalties, restrains much of society otherwise reckless of principles. There are many noxious public evils and injuries that the world or national morals must properly meet, that must be recognised through an enlightened public conservative opinion. There are many dangerous writers, who seek to corrupt and are only to be punished this way. Wise legislation should be invoked, in this whole department of public national morals.

The sights of improper pictures, are highly reprehensible. What shall the conservative part of mankind do, to be best protected from the degraded, worthless, unprincipled components of society? We must institute the whole comprehension of principles to embrace the world.

Those false to society, are to be strictly, firmly and consistently dealt with, else Lynch law, another evil of immense magnitude and demoralization, may arise. There should be a proper surveillance of people's employment, especially in cities.

Hold public officials responsible to the audition of their accounts. There should be no control of prices by cliques, the money market, &c.

Proper competition in principles fix life for the world, and all proper developments. Do not let labor be degraded, but always elevated. Monotheism requires of all appropriate honest labor, for vital maturity with vigor, to do full justice to all the functions

of man.

THE PARAMOUNT RIGHTS OF SOCIETY.

ALL its enlightened and honorable governments essential and necessary to its existence, must rest on constitutional popular basis, and universal fundamental principles to be conservative and permanent.

The paramount obligations of society, demand this inalienable and invaluable position. An enlightened public opinion is its best tribunal, and the very soul of the existence of invaluable society.

All else, sooner or later, will be scattered from its inherent elements of destruction, into fragments.

Past history tells the tale of formidable empires, powerful in the hosts of embattled men by land and ocean, but their unprincipled influence yields to pre-eminence of mind devoted to the world's good, not its destruction and conquest attained at the cost of barbarism.

The vital interest of the world, demands the full satisfaction of these rights, when fully prepared for their enjoyment. It is mind raised to the capacity of mind's soul, that best secures it. All violence in such society is nugatory and hurtful to its good, as the law-abiding, order-loving government supporting virtue, is sufficient to shield the world.

The predominance of vice, prevents the realization of this important constituent of man's happiness.

The very existence of enlightened public virtue, constitutes a guardian that repels a thousand evils, creates a negative and a veto to the worst of crimes.

It is the safest element of nations' greatness and vitality, and gives that durability to

resort.

Too many

their existence, that is self-elevated and most self-sustaining. The protection of man's rights includes the social duties, and embraces the highest evidences of rational duties to the creator. The proper foundations of laws, cause them to be no respecter of persons violating them, who should not escape their penalties, nor corrupt their execution.

The voice of the mere politician, must be sunk in the invaluable one of the statesman and patriot. All else are its substitutes for time, and cannot permanently supersede the world's imperial wants, without subterfuge and bad faith.

Such principles contended for, will promote the union of clashing interests, that should be compromised correctly to be permanently directed to the good of all.

All must seek that, which shows the loftiest legitimate freedom. Society must respect self-preservation.

It has to use penitentiaries, the least evil for the greatest good to the greatest number, which should embrace the rarest and most profitable trades and employments, to least affect the good of the community, and less curtail the vital existence of the institution to be supported from the products of its own industry, independent of state taxes.

This system of labor and punishment protects the people, and supersedes the most of even capital punishment. Discipline has to be preserved even with the best, else a degeneracy. Society may yet be so constituted as to found systems of rewards, to be so graduated, that moral delinquents should receive the least possible, for human existence. The culprit of the penitentiary, for the time of confinement, is degraded from participation in the universal enjoyment of liberty. Whipping and branding kill up

the sensibilities, and crush the spirit, therefore they should never be used but in the very last

As relics of barbarism, let them be superseded by nobler means. efforts are made in this world, to crush the helpless. Most that is done, ought to be done to exalt, and not make people sensible of demerits.

There are thousands of antagonisms in life, that can be illustriously diffused if mind act rightly.

Too often is it the case, that those having power, seek to throw others under obligations, when they are only equals if more than debtors themselves.

When the glorious era of limit to peculiar education and its odious obliquities shall be established, and mind's peculiar perversions directed to their legitimate channel by all the noblest influences of its highest rationality, then the world may expect to see penalties substituted by rewards, and a happier state of human existence shall be announced.

What rational mind is capable of individually, may be anticipated to a great extent in mass, under the most favorable influences invoked.

The world then is bound to elicit all the available means.

To reach the noblest impulses of conscience, mind must be elaborated into its best and most favorable rationality. Are you in want? Work, labor.

Are you in want? Work, labor. But there is the difficulty. Who can always command the appropriate employment? The public, statesmanship, must provide for all this.

The position in the world with plenty of valuable business to do, is indeed great.

Let society have bankrupt laws to defeat the corrupt or weak squandering of the debtor, to do justice to all. Something has to be done, as the very first principles of society are most awfully violated, as by murders now constantly being enacted by the world, individually and nationally.

The whole world has to do something, the best under all its circumstances, commensurately with mind and soul's religion.

HUMANITY.

This noble quality of mortals is the qualified claimant for Deity's mercy and justice, and bespeaks man's highest tribute and his most grateful returns in his circle of civilization.

It is profitable for the soul, as a treasure ever equal to all the drafts, and it is the redeeming quality of its many errors. It surveys the past for wise correction, the present for happy enjoyment and tranquillity, and the future for soundest hopes.

Man or beast is safe under its protection ; the tender infant smiles in its sunshine, and old age is happy in its prospects. The longest practicable life and a pleasant one, is its possessions. The slave becomes cheerful and acquiesces in his lot, and adds proper sources of profit, to those that claim them. Proper treatment of brute beasts and animals tell, that become comely in its sight under its superior superintendence when practicable, and proclaim that cruelty is folly and wasteful false economy.

Excess of labor for ordinary purposes is not in its philosophy, as excess of gains is ruled out of its administration on that ground. Overworking, as overcropping, is unwise, as its results are inhumane, and necessarily injurious. Humanity, the interest of all, is united to practical wisdom.

It is a physiological fact, that excessive labor and exercise will stiffen up animal fibre of all kinds, and induce premature decay and injury.

It is told me by intelligent acquaintances that you may run a fox by hounds, till the animal is stiffened to death by the excess of fatigue.

A morbid excessive secretion from all the joints is poured out, beyond tolerance or healthy action. Hence it is that persons unduly exposed and overworked, are lost irrecoverably before a ripe old age. .

The influence of severe climates and undue exposure, render healthy persons sickly, and prematurely destroy them. Humanity is then the better part of discretion, and saves many per cent. in the main to all concerned.

There should be little or no night labor for day laborers in appropriate latitudes, or not more than ten hours taken in all the twenty-four.

That labor should be temperate, gentle, and such that the party can be well sustained under its performance.

Let no inhuman task-master presume to exceed this, at his peril. If he violate the laws of humanity, it will be avenged on him many fold.

Let those in power observe the proper rules for rest, and let a wise philosophy direct its whole suspension at least one day in seven, for soul of man, and body of laborers and beasts, that all may be well with them and duly prosper under the best security for universal prosperity.

Let wise legislation give due observance to all such essentials, and enforce the best regulations.

If humanity preside with real character over all governments, mankind will take due care and protection of all servants and animals under their charge,

Animals should not be owned, without the capacity of the owner to do justice to them.

They should not be driven unnecessarily on the Sabbath or by night, nor exposed to injury, poverty, chilling falling weather and piercing cold, or suffocating heat. The horse quickly shows his treatment. If bad, it is cruel.

The iron horse of railroads, the work of mind, has well supplanted the hard-used stage horse, that did not live half his days.

As science improves mind, the last must necessarily become more humane. This is well illustrated in regard to the best treatment of all kinds of stock, that become better and more profitable on improved husbandry. Pedigree and good rearing or breeding, are important combinations.

What has not humane science done for this whole department? By recent distinguished discoveries the best result of the labor of the bees is obtained in glass-houses, of the purest honey without the death of a single bee.

When mind thus throws its humane protection over the parts of creation subject to its rule, imparting a reciprocal agency, then the legitimate results are secured for the good of all.

In regard to laborers, whether in servitude or anyways allied to it by hire or wages, the wisest counsel to each, according to his or her mind, will be decidedly the most humane.

Do not in this particular err; you may estimate too often the character of others' minds by your own.

This is not altogether right, as you must not take any such thing for granted at all, since some minds are not enlightened by the proper mental light, yet therein is written a receptacle for light. Do not disregard the elements that merely require the proper evolution,

Yes, counsel all those that work for you when expedient, as it will be better than corporeal chastisement if available, that too often is equivocal in its pretensions.

If you can treat all as rational beings, how much better will it redound to your good, and reflect the noble capacity of your intellect, the refined action of your benignant mind.

Recollect you the old arbitrary mode of government, that applied to nations and individuals ? Was that wise or profitable in the end ?

Punishment and penalty can be superseded, by reward and reasonable treatment. Public enlightened opinion has now obtained that the sailors of the United Sates navy shall be treated more like rational beings.

The world should seek the abolition of flogging and spirit rations, in the navy, army and all departments. Flogging in our navy has been abolished by act of Congress, except as to any decision of a court-martial. The brutality in the naval and military service has been deplored, as one of the evils of social organization.

Humanity calls for the counteraction of the tyrannies of pedagogues and overseers, superintendents, dynasties of foolish, cruel and corrupt people of either sex assuming dictation.

How repose humanity and moderation, with the corruptions of monarchy and despotism of church and state ? Freedom elevates and devotes the human character. Humanity must be protected in all her empire over the world; while no subject is too humble, none are too high to be exempt from her benefit. The most humane are the wisest on earth.

He who acts by another's severity or inhumanity, does the act himself. This principle holds good, as all principles, universally.

Where can mankind go amiss in this world for the objects of humanity, the true test and standard of enlarged humanity? We should not only use no wanton cruelty or destruction in life, but omit no rational opportunity of affording relief to prevent it, in the best sense of the word. This shows refinement, courtesy, humanity, and civilization. Under the auspices of humanity, the gentleman has all that religion can do for him.

A true gentleman respects all others: the rights of the absent stranger, as of the present citizen.

Among its greatest blessings, are her wisest tuitions of duty and justice to the living, and due respect to the burial of the dead.

It has devolved upon mind's reaction to cause the beauty and strength of mind to be seen and felt by the world, the beneficiary, in every department of life.

The true act of government will advance mind to the capacity of happiness, not leave it in the degradation of punishment-never! But will the facts of the case, after all, justify any sentimentality that is not strictly utilitarian? It might seem very questionable, whether duty of sailors can be adequately secured without corporeal compulsion, but the main question of rational mind has not been touched yet.

The highest order of humanity is that of right action of mind, to give the proper employment of time, and not devoting working people in useless, profitless, and injurious employments, that not only keep persons on the stretch all the time, but expose them thereby, killing them up finally.

Humanity and courtesy are dictated as one of the best policies of the whole world, in all climates,

Animals have not the same chance as people. If their mute signs were attended to days before the last stages, generally the first recognised, the cases would not be so fatal from this and other deep-seated congestions and inflammations.

Where is it that humanity and mind do not apply in this wide-world theatre ?

A man should seek no more in his household than he can provide for with proper humanity.

The wretch, clothed in little brief authority, absurdly expects immunity in all his unjust and reproachful deeds. But he miscalculates, without rationality. If he permit his ungovernable passions to play the fiend, he is their victim. Short-sighted revenge recoils most powerfully. Barbarous treatment may excite the deepest infliction of injuries of the injured, who may invoke all the deadly potency of the elements on the injurer, who too often finds in a few moments the work of a year destroyed by the fire of the incendiaries. What peaceful emotions are excited by a just and enlightened humanity, that comprehends all the world-relations in its religious benevolence, and that long before the death-bed scene. Does your mind seek to tempt? Avoid all that as the worst taste, the violation of the first principles of humanity. What a sacred thing is feeling : the avenger has an avenging. Do not be inhumane ; it is not good for all reasons. Do not presume on impunity, when you have principle that avenges God, as by especial providence; God himself has universal, almighty providence. Do not push inhumanity to that tension, to test the full strength of the camel's back, by breaking it. As to brief authority, be as brief as possible in any abuse. Inhumanity will not do, it ruins the world.

Let the mind, most rational, rejoice that it knows and appreciates humanity and its principles.

Does the world recognise the worth of amiable mind, gentle sensibility, the loveliness of humanity most rational ?

SCIENCE.

The world is assumed, by superficial minds, to be not only no better, but worse than that of the ancients.

Then there is less science and more ignorance in general, that produce greater errors, the very reverse of fixed facts. What assurance and impudence, nonsense and ignorance, are expressed in the assertion of the world's present stage being worse than the former.

Mind is so constituted, that its dignity and character rise proportionately to its intelligence diffusion.

The constitution of the world's relations is predicated by the Almighty, to the exaltation of the world's benefit, when mind, rightly directed, rules.

See in past ages what advantages were taken of mind, ignorant, or knowing but little.

Those ages did not prosper, and were amenable to grave and serious charges, of mind's perversions and consequent tyranny.

Then flourished most all the juggleries of hand and mind, through necromancy, divination, oracles-all the psychology that imposition could effect for its sinister purposes.

Then were the days of contingency; but now mind, as in everything, must be man's protection, and necessarily produces more uniform results, the more science directs it. This is conspicuously so in the ennobling qualities of mind, through all the departments of philosophy, and all the permanent mementos of wisdom, up to its highest and most refined rationality,

The world to-day is incomprehensibly advanced in the blessings of civilization, relatively to the predominance of mind's freedom and light, as mind's best developments

are now.

Mind is now towering in the science of agriculture, manufactures, navigation, mining, fishing, and commerce, and causes the world to delight in its existence.

Now famine is rarely general in the staple productions of grain and rice, that are adequately supplied for the world's demands, and wisely diffused by a world-wide

commerce.

The one article of cotton clothing furnishes the most triumphant pleasures of a civilizing process to the world, while other staples, as sugars, enrich life's choicest viands.

The ignorant state of mind, that was necessarily perverted, made commerce at one time piratical.

The migration of people was on the very basis of piracy. But now science and philosophy interpose their benignant aid, and proclaim that the world is one mighty universal brotherhood, not to be hostilely alienated by race, national interests or bigotry, but united by all the conservation of rational religion.

Science will establish the most enlarged and liberal policy of principles, that rears and rewards men of genius, mind and worth, to their greatest expansion.

Give them only truthful principles, the free play of genius; exercise to invent, but counteract counterfeits.

AN ALMIGHTY.

PROVIDENCE has amply met all the demands of the mighty increase of the human race as none other could meet it, that has to institute all the agency of science taught to mind by improved means of securing food, &c.

The continents and oceans are yielding their mighty treasures, and acknowledging the triumphant power of enlightened mind!

Now steamers regularly ply over the mightiest Pacific and Atlantic Oceans with expeditious regularity and exact precision, triumphing over the most appalling difficulties, where naught but dangers and impossibilities to all other powers but mind prevailed.

Yet much of the world is in dark ignorance, never to be recovered from but by the genius of mind that speaks, and the power of reason that acts.

The world must be redeemed and disenthralled by the inspirations of genius, the revelations of mind, and the prophecies of time.

Science has to conduct mind to principles, the universe problem solution.

The sacred temple of science is best protected by constitutional rights ; its progress best advanced by customs accredited by philosophy, its scope must be free as the air we breathe, and its benefits must be held as sacred as the mind freemen exercise. Time and mind are to reveal, through science, the solution of the balance.

Proper committees might be formed by the people to adequately aid genius and promote its rightful advancement.

The difficulty is often not in the incipient discovery, but in the felon opposition of unprincipled monopolies.

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