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you are, and capable of being, not of falling from your purest state. The rational promptings of nature bespeak the noblest obligations of bosom friends, to inculcate all that will amply protect us from this whole circle of enormous demoralization.

BETTING ON ELECTIONS.

This is most deeply immoral, as it may create improper exertions and unfair proceedings, respecting voting, a freeman's privilege, and is wisely prohibited by legislation; as all other vicious gambling, lotteries, general piracies, &c.

There will ensue undue excitements, feuds, and animosities, from betting on elections, unquestionably. Betting on elections is a curse to any country. The culprits ought to be disfranchised, and fined the amount bet.

Betting on elections will cause the old gamblers to take all false positions and pretences, and sneak out of any right obligation that they had incurred. They are unworthy of trust and confidence, by good citizens.

FINANCIERING-THE GREAT PRINCIPLES OF FINANCE.

WHEN part of the world gets below the right use of money, it gets below principles. The only real value of money is to secure independence, that secures respect and propriety of the world's department. He is really an independent man who does not give notes or obligations to pay, except under proper circumstances. All indebtedness must be put on a proper sure basis.

The payment of the right interest and value of money, would expedite the payment of debts at the right time, and by the right mode. Money is property, and is worth its current cash value. There can be no wise laws to abrogate nature's laws on this subject.

Fixing interest, except for protection to minors, idiots, &c., is arbitrary and extortion. The legislators might as well fix for other property. There should be no oppression about it either way, but everything should be put on its right basis, amenable to the great law of supply and demand. The rise of property is on price and value. All industrial rewards are predicated rightly on their proper appreciation.

Is it possible that money should be limited in interest by legislators, except in matters that require direct specification? The enlightened must see that money is property, and its market worth must be governed by the universal law of supply and demand, price and value.

Legal rates per cent. should be fixed for all matters that require law, and no further. Legislation never can define the correct position of the world. Commerce defines that. Stocks of all kinds are only worth their intrinsic value, and no legislation can alter that.

What justice is there in unconstitutional acts ?
If the government license and charter banks, she yields distinct privileges and facili-

then she has the right to fix the limits and rates of interest. Banks have caused the people to pay more than all usurious loans besides; have produced much imposition on the world, and made it pay very dearly.

Why violate constitutional right therefor ?
Good faith must be fully carried out always in all such.
Put all capital on a par on constitutional rights.

The world must negotiate on mercantile commercial principles, and pay always, not have it less than the commercial or fair value. This is a fixed principle in all money matters, to respect the supreme laws of commerce.

Those who borrow must respect the title of property, their own conscience, and constitutional principles.

But not so with individuals who are of sound mind and lawful age, having all the constitutional rights of citizens. The prices of merchandise fluctuate necessarily, according to the supreme law of supply and demand, price and value. All the principle involved is for the capitalist to avoid oppression of the debtor, and especially to secure himself from the loss of his money. Competition saves from oppression.

Some States collect taxes on usury, that they themselves proclaim by unconstitutional laws, and thereby prove the invalidity of such position.

Wise laws should make money property, whether loaned or otherwise used, else where is the consistency of taxing by such laws ? Laws should make all honest, not give any an opportunity to escape from good faith transactions.

ties;

States that participate in the profits of what they condemn, are culpable indeed.

As mind is capital in tastes, habits, and customs, legislation must be unconstitutional to trammel by law the value of money, more than that of other kinds of property.

The use is worth what is current value at the time, and no more nor less. It cannot be restricted in this sense to the word usury. Legislators are culpable to license such pretence for obsolete bibles.

It becomes rational man to place all business on the only rational basis of principle most equitable and promotive of justice. No legislation can raise interest above the current value, if below that established by law. Legislation is behind commercial justice. Rescind the obsolete legislation that promotes repudiation of principles.

The rates of interest ought to be a commercial, not legislative matter, as far as the sound minds of adults are concerned. When corporations, minors, and rates not to be fixed by contract, are concerned, then the best protection by wise legislation should be afforded,

Swearing off interest is a premium on dishonesty.

Persons raised in peculiar schools have peculiar notions, destitute of principles. As to keeping their word, some hardly know what that is.

Suppose all were to take advantage of interest contracts by their oaths, for the benefit of their own profits, by means of some absurd law? What a faithless world would we have.

Have proper laws to promote the legitimate claims of nature, on the highest order of taste and justice to all.

The real well disposed cannot in self-defence do half the good practicable, on account of mind's miserable perverseness.

There must be no repudiation, no cause for it in this world. If minors get what is absolutely necessary, they should not be allowed the shadow of repudiation.

Let all make principles general, that the benefit may be properly extended to the world.

All the legislative powers in creation, cannot raise per cents any higher, therefore it has no more power to create than lower. Commerce, and the worth of property do that by immutable natural laws.

If petty kings that desired to borrow, would let wise commercial laws of trade be secured the world, then it would be aided in the wisest deeds of existence of enterprise.

Promise nothing without compliance, never violate that promise, hence promise not absolutely or by impulse, but by principle for mutual protection.

The promise to pay money thus obtained is too sacred to be violated by any subsequent act, and legislatures desecrate justice to cause the judicial violations.

He who knowingly violates contracts because not profitable for performance, only needs an opportunity to do worse if possible.

Finance, put on its legitimate natural basis, saves property and feelings, from sacrifices otherwise unavoidable.

It is important that the world attend to best position of money transactions, and secure all that is legitimate.

The forms of notes are important, as if written under hand and seal, they are valid for sixteen years, otherwise they run out of date by ten years sooner. When the debts are due, and the party will not give a bill of exchange or pay, then there is no excuse

Can any wise men ever have made such a law, as that on usury? It does no good to the community, but much harm-it does not prevent honest men from paying their contracts, but helps the unprincipled to repudiate legally all he can contract for. Is there any justice in any such demoralizing laws? Throw open the whole market to honorable and just competition, and let usury and the Jews, their peculiar faith and all, go to kingdom come. What business had borrowers with such property? All is legal repudiation.

In taking hold of what they get under false pretences, they prevent the holders from realizing what is their due the proper means of realizing the price and value. Now do weak legislators oppose the supreme laws of commerce, to sustain the absurd positions of a Jew peculiar faith bible? Is the enlightened modern world to be tied up, by the vagaries of benighted priestocracies ? Are the last to legislate for freemen, when they ruined their own vassals, made them subjects of the world.

When a man agrees to a thing, and then swears against it as a sacred promise, does he not perjure himself to all intents and purposes?

The world should stand up to itself, its principles of conservation, that is the only way to rescue mind from its injuries. Let the pure and rational minded think of all this. As to usury laws they are absurd.

The world does not want legislation, to make repudiators. When any such contract

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is made in good faith, and for a consideration of current value, on proper competition, nothing better can be done.

Surely property in the form of money, should not be legislated out of possession. Indebtedness should be only yearly, no longer. Have no purchase of notes. Stop such means of law-suit.

But states have to borrow. Let them raise by taxes of the generation that binds itself, not the future—which last is unjust. How came national debts? Do not saddle posterity with impracticable debts. That is the worst despotism.

As to usury laws, the principles of commerce legislate better, than all borrowing legislators of the world. For what benefit is such absurd law, that of usury? The honest man will not begin to avail himself of it: he would scorn such an atrocious bribe, and as to the repudiator, is it proper policy in legislators who affect to be wise ones, cloak him? If any affect that the ancient law had any virtue, the world should know that ancient laws of the Romans, as well as others, the Jews had the debtors sold for debt, or the debtors became slaves. This was custom, most barbarous. But there is no such thing in civilization. Of course there is no necessity or apology for usury laws. Is there any plea for pleading the just debts of minority or gambling. Honest men will not plead such. Why the benefits to repudiators ? To corrupt society that should be entirely renovated on the most honorable basis of rational mind? The party seeks to get the money for years, and then swear all off, deliberately seek this mode of paying debts. Legislation tells him go in court and prove himself a repudiator, to get money under false pretences, the very thing it punishes for. O consistency. When, then, is this perjured man to be believed? What sort of a citizen is he? Will he do to trust, after violating his word, and testifying to his own utter disgrace?

What is to supply the vantage ground lost, by misplaced confidence ? Can the injured party be reinstated? There is no need to protect repudiators, who will protect themselves at the expense of honesty and property. Protect honest men against them. The world needs permanently, wise and honest legislation. Carry out principles forever.

Bribery and corruptions can exist in all communities, under their present regime. Can we know how far it goes, to what unlimited extent?

Financiering most elevated, prevents ruinous sacrifices of property, as for instance, cotton or produce falls, by contingent causes in the market, then an honorable loan assists out of all the incidental difficulties, and enables the owner to realize the best market value for his property.

As to the worth of a thing, time proves that what we can fairly get for it.

The value of a thing is what it realizes on fair competition in market. How then should the holders of this kind of property be outlawed in their rights ?

But a friend insists on the use of your money ; let him have it on proper bills of exchange.

Is he a friend? Then he is entitled to the position of what the money is worth, by what its value commands, otherwise your friendship requires gift to the proper extent. You must decide to give if you lend to doubtful borrowers, without proper bills and nothing else, all fixed up before you act.

The prudent man, whose funds consist alone in money, had best keep them at home, rather than not command them when stipulated, or be compensated for damages.

We must understand always the right position, else we may have to be schooled by loss, that will be no contingency, but a uniform certainty.

The best system is to deal with the whole world at once, rightly and independently,

When a knowledge of human nature declares that much of mankind is made or schooled worthless, however much the world is made to appear proportionately unworthy, we are on the progressive order of improvement, if we rightly appreciate principles.

We can find the world better when mind corrects the positions of the perversion, and that it will best do by science. The greatest study of mankind carries with it in this enlightened age the best amendments by science. Whilst the highest social relations require that all good minds should help protect the world from injury, they require that we should prevent the world from taking advantage of us.

We admit the difficulty of knowing the nature of man or woman who studies art, cunning, and duplicity.

As great variety of character is presented, to guard best against all whom it would be best to avoid if we knew them accurately beforehand, but from whom we cannot absolve by promise, test all by firm and adequate obligations, of a bill of exchange, order or draft, duly accepted.

The loan of money is to be predicated on the great law of supply and demand, price and value, that governs the world, and is the only fair principle that is honorable.

A proper use of finance is a legitimate use of moneyed capital, that embraces legitimate improvements in all proper respects.

Personal responsibility is too often advanced, in appearances, of pecuniary responsibility.

That on personal property may be transient, the titles thereunto may be defective, and after years of possession, the full value at the time of purchase must be paid by decree of court, besides for the use of it all the time; then the purchase money and interest may be all gone, as there may be no responsibility of the party, living or dead.

The only guarantee for titles can be honestly offered. Sometimes liens are offered for security, and at the same time there is superior claim, by virtue of previous judgments, on the property offered.

As to loans of money, some ask, by genteel robbery, to get possession of property to the last cent, and would see the former owners beg and die for want, ere help from them can be realized. Minors should be classed in the same category as friends. They may offer their individual notes for money, having no capital nor reputation fixed for steady habits, but had better wait, work, and advance their own credit.

In bills of exchange, always have the drawer good for the amount, if practicable, as if by accident the bill be not paid by the fourth day, the last that it is due, and the protest not made through a notary public, then the loss of the protest throws off the responsibility of accepter and endorser, and you may lose all, as you have no claims on these parties in that case. If you do not protest bills on the fourth day of indebtedness, you lose all claim to endorsers and accepters, who must be addressed at the right postoffice.

Bills of exchange afford the greatest counteraction to the abuse of the credit system, and give to citizens generally the best grounds for punctuality, and keep everything straight in money matters, being a gentlemanly and satisfactory management of universal indebtedness.

Many are afraid of bills, not understanding them, thinking that if they are not promptly met that the damages ensue ; but a treaty can be made with regular financiers to renew the bill on proper names, and thus obviate by such indulgence the difficulty or sacrifice of property by regular finance and competition.

Thus financiering may help the whole community. Bills for twelve months may produce a beneficial alteration in one's affairs, and by that time the commercial value of money may be changed for the better to the borrower.

Money borrowers must find out what money is worth before they borrow, and do it with regular business financiers.

If you give, do so rightly and deservedly. If you loan, secure your property from loss. Duly appreciate the character of your duty, and execute it accordingly.

You can aid the world best by loans, especially the meritorious, as the proper elevation of character is through one's own exertions.

THE SUBJECT CONTINUED.

What are not the hazards and corruption of credit? It is not safe to risk it without proper and adequate security, proper acceptances. Too many go from bad to worse, such is the character of the human mind, liable to myriads of perversions.

The world is liable to be imposed upon, by parting with its money and buying property with no valid title ; and the worst is, the seller dies insolvent, leaving the purchaser no redress. All this must be wisely anticipated.

Litigation makes it worse, with a lawyer who works for dimes, who tells the purchaser to work it in his court, the innocent sufferer may be kept for years in a false position, pay the lawyer the worth of the property, meet costs from time to time, eventually as much more, and be ruined.

Now the prudent man will see what is practicable; the other party are willing to compromise, the more honest the more willingly.

They have to pay hundreds of dollars to lawyers, of course they will forego that sum, and something for prompt payment, equity will be better satisfied, the litigants will not be soured with each other, the world lessened in their pleasures, comforts and enjoyments, and justice will be more promptly and adequately administered.

What more important question can be asked about the valid titles of property, than Is there a will ? What is the title? As certain as there is a will for the benefit of minors, so certainly must that property, however conveyed by the worthless claimants, be let alone. All this should be known or inquired into beforehand.

The world cannot be hurt by fair analysis.

The world is interested in the welfare not only of an honest, but a generous-minded person. Is it so with the prosperity of the mere miser ?

If you do not have proper stocks for investment of capital, the first thing you know, bankruptcy will be staring you in the face. Now you should do yourself justice as well as the world, and if you have any surplus capital to spare, you can well bestow it on the poor, your own relations and friends, not those who seek to rid you of your own property.

Capitalists must anticipate, ere the explosion point of bankruptcy cuts with impunity. It vexes one too much to pay most of his property, as too many have done, for securityship.

Many in the second circle cannot, after leaving the first, maintain the raising they first had, as public opinion is not chaste enough to sustain them.

In money and security transactions, one should not act till all the documents are fixed right.

There are two things, money loans and securityship, that may derange the world. How many unprincipled people make over their property, and get all they can. All this should be made known, or the fraud should be published. This making over property, having preferred creditors, is fraud, and ought to be treated as such, of the worst kind of felony.

No one ought to do business lightly, loosely. He will be apt if he do to pay for the schooling of the world. What with judgments, executions, making over and away with property, some debtors will be found destitute.

The world can be ruined by following out unprincipled partisans in securityship. No one can be lower than the unprincipled man.

CONSERVATIVE PROTECTION IN TRANSACTIONS.

The majority of men do not avail themselves of their own great resources and capital. They look to others, when they idly neglect to husband their own mighty, nay, superior resources, of mind and principles, that could elevate them to their loftiest aspirations.

They can justly point to fundamental principles, that reflect conservative benefit universally.

What are those fundamendal errors that the world should avoid, as ruinous transactions, but wild speculations, excessive securities, expensive lawsuits, that are little less than the sleeping lion, if aroused?

Without financiering or commercial transactions, you will not know mankind, through the best medium knowledge of human nature; therefore, you cannot have an experienced mentor too quick, to guide you at first over difficulties.

When a man's ruin stares him in the face, then his eyes are opened, but he should have wisely used all precautions, to avoid all such forever.

Yet, to whom can he look?

Upon parents, to counsel and advise him, alas! in matters totally beyond their ability or circle?

It is well if the world do not pay too dearly for its experience. Some people work for others, with little or no emolument. They had better consider all that beforehand, and take nothing for granted, at all, in money matters, without specific arrangements.

Every man should define his. position, and understand that of others, all the right time, and that always at the start, if the party wish to be right.

No false modesty should prevent justice.
Both parties, if honest, owe it to themselves to settle all preliminaries.

The best position for those holding property or wealth, is, never retain that which is due to others, if practicable to pay them, as the best consolation to the mind of an honest man, who does not wish to lose that part in any general wreck. In all business transactions, define the position, if important, in written contracts.

Specify all particulars in business transactions and contracts, securing always, as far as practicable, the most trustworthy, and of principles.

Innocent and pure-minded people, who do not know the world, vainly imagine the world as themselves, whose word is trustworthy; but they find that others are of different schools of honor from themselves. The world, then, must be uniformly protected, on fixed principles.

No credited accounts of individuals, much less nations, should stand longer than a year, before being audited.

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