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The following assertion of sound posters was the foundation of the holy pro

Orthodoxy of Irish Quakers. at the right hand of God. This Jesus, NHE ness of faith on the part of cer- and we believe there is no other founda

phets and apostles, is ; tain Quakers is from the Waterford tion to be laid but that which is already Chronicle, of Nov. 6, for which we laid, even Christ Jesus; who tasted death are indebted to some unknown friend for every man, shed his blood for all men, in Ireland. We presume the subscri. is the propitiation for our sins, and not bers are Plain Friends, and mean to for ours only, but also for the sins of the inform and not deceive their country- whole world.” men, but we must tell them, if we can reach them, that there is not a syllable Original Letters from the Baxter of their creed which many Unitarians could not repeat with perfect good

MSS. in Dr. Williams's Library. faith.

" of Orignal Sinne.To the Editor of the Waterford Chronicle.

(Concluded from p. 580.) In consequence of certain allusions to the Society of Friends, called wmakers, P., 13., " And if his natural

justice give no security from that appeared in two of the Waterford damnation to y* innocent,” I answer, Newspapers of the 30th of last month, y' ye punishment is no other than calling in question the faith and belief of what God might have inflicted nattthat Society in the Divinity and Manhood of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, we

rally, virtute domini. request the insertion of the following doe as to imputed

guilt, and doe lesse

2. I give y' same security as you declaration, as given forth in the year 1671, and which continues to be the expose them as to y corruption of faith and belief of the Society to the pre- nature, by makeing it lesse nocent, sent time,

& sure it is but cold comfort ye yon Waterford, 4th of the Eleventh Month, by a ffetch can make them deserve 1824.

their punishement more by makeing THOMAS WHITE,

them more nocent.
Joseph STRANGMAN, 3. While we plead for the justice
JAMES GATCHELL, of God, we should accord our dis-
RICHARD ALLEN, course with his goodnesse. How can

GEORGE P. RIDGWAY. infinite goodnesse expose so many " We own and believe in the only creatures to y hazard of eternal damwise, omnipotent and everlasting God, nation in ye sense in weh ye word is the creator of all things in heaven and commonly taken, by one act of one earth, and the preserver of all that he man, before they were borne? I thinke hath made ; who is God over ail, blessed my way is ye best to free ye Christian for ever; to whom be all honour, glory, religion from unnecessary difficulty, dominion, praise and thanksgiving, both & that we ascribe not to God y web now and for evermore ! And we own becometh him not, as Placæus is and believe in Jesus Christ, his beloved and only begotten Son, in whom he is quoted to say, p. 223, l. 2, wch I wish well

, pleased, who was conceived by the he had been as carefull to doe in ye Holy Ghost, and born of the Virgin Mary; great article, & not give so much in whom we have redemption through scandal to Jews & Turks as we doe. his blood, even the forgiveness of sins; I doubt also we use it as a salvo to who is the express image of the invisible turne off ye desert from ourselves. I God, the first-born of every creature, by "have knowne some who were very free whom were all things created that are in in confessing of original sinne, but heaven and in earth, visible and invisible, cruell hard to acknowledge a fault of whether they be thrones, dominions, their owne, of wch. they were actually principalities or powers ; all things were guilty, created by him. And we own and believe

5. Infants are capeable of moral that he was made a sacrifice for sin, who knew no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth; that he was crucified for us

I take nothing for morally good in in the flesh, without the gates of Jerusa- a proper sense but doeing good, or an lem; and that he was buried, and rose acquired habit of virtue, but there may again the third day by the power of his be a great inchineablenessé to virtue Father, for our justification, and that he wch is none of these, but a very good ascended up into heaven, and now sitteth thing, & consequently ye privation no

good, &c.

moral evil in proprietie of speech, hut are lost. Quid festinat innocens ean evill thing; for as much as w" the tas ad remissionem peccatorum? tempter comes he hath great mate- Tertull. I thinke it was better if they rials to worke upon, & had some in were brought to X' for his blessing, Adam before ye Fall

. Neverthelesse i. e. to ye church, for ye churches I will not denie but y' there inay be prayers: such an evill, though involuntary dis- 8. If infants have no sinne, they position, whether negative or priva must eyther never come to judgment tive, as may render a man wholly I answer, they shall be judged as unfitte for ye societie of God & his they are, but how they are sinners, boly angels, as a man throwne into I have showed. Some thinke ye Joha filthe and mire by a bull is unfitte to y, 28 is allegoricall of ye calling ye come in y' pickle into ye presence of Jews & Gentiles. a prince: ye very corruptibilitie of The context in Rom. xiv. 12, is of our bodies as flesh and blood must be ye adult, but compare y place with cleansed, or we cannot be fitte for 2 Cor. v. 10, according to ye he hath ye kingdome of heaven, I Cor. xv. 50. done; what have infants done? So In opposition to this, X is said to be vll,"Every tongue shall confesse;" made holy, Heb. vii. 26. Some legal what can infants confesse? As to uncleanesses might be types of mere Rom. iii. 20, adde" By .ye law is ye huinane infirmities.

knowledge of sinne," i. e. we know y* 6. Ye Scripture saying little of in- we are sinners, but what doe infants fauts, quâ infants as to their salvation, know? Are they justified by fayth? I leave y" to God, but I know.y' by What doe they believe? Name one ye sentence upon Adam they are all thing. reputative sinners, and obnoxious to 9. Rom. iii. 23, &c. “All have sineternal death, wch, with ye reputative ned,” &c. How I may graunt ye all staine wich I have graunted, may be have sinned without limitation, hath sufficient to satisfie the texts alledged been said; but surely there is great by you p. 94; but I doubt y by reason to limit ye universal, v. 9. ye like texts it may be proved' y they, Wee have before proved (Rom. i. & ii. believe : to omit.ye fayth cometh by of adult Pagans & Jews) y Jews & heareing, I say, y neither act nor Gentiles, he sayth not men & infants, habit of fayth can be without some are all under sinne ; but methinkes knowledge of the object to wch it is ye guilt of Adam's sinne imputed berelative; but infants apprehend not ing alike in all infants, all infants one simple terme, much lesse do they should be saved. I should like yt judge or syllogyze.

best ; & ye punishment from immeObiter, p. 94, lin. penult. If one: diate parents, sinners, may be temdied for all, then were all dead, i.e. poral ; ye law superadded only a more were by, profession & engagement valid obligation to them who trans. dead to sinne, or all must die to sinne, gressed it, & were under it; i. e. ye as v. 15; so Dr. Lush: & I think Jews, to whom also as perfect worktruly infants are relatively holy candi- ers it promised eternal life by rigorousdates & in ye way, & so far to be sure exposition in a secret sense, (yet inX died for yn y their reputative sinne tended & graunted by ye Jews,) & was shall be no hindrance to ym in ye way ye only ratified covenant in force beto salvation, if for ye present there fore Xt, grace being, in Old Testament be no incapacity in ye subject. times, extraordinary; yet might yt law

7, Christ was baptized, yet no sin be expositorie of what was, ex naturâ ner: there is no, absolute necessitie rei, due to ye whole world as under y all ye ends of baptism should be ye law of nature, & merely by virtue preserved; their relative holynesse, of their works, done also by ye power their dedication as honourable to ye of nature. infants, & an engagement upon their 10. How infants may be reputed parents to bring thein up in ye nur- sinners, I have said already, & conture & admonition of ye Lord, may, cerning their salvation. with other circumstances, excuse ye I derive ye immortality of ye soule doeing of it, but their owne solemne (wcle you thinke may be ex traduce, engagement, & ye grand uses of bap- p. 104, as well as I) from ye resurrectism, both to themselves. & others, tion of ye dead, & not from philoso-, phie, from Xt, not from Aquinas & be such an incapacity in them not as Plato.

bruits, but by reason of their age there And I understand death properly may be a seminal or radical indisposias afore-dust thou art; unto wch tion, wbich is more than malum phy. such sense of losse as you speake of is sicum, and less than malum morale, not competible; and as to ye adult, and only dispositive to it, wch, if ir I doe not absolutely determine, but í be in any intense degree, and with am apt to thinke ye ye multitude of tempters and circumstances, may justy" wch are not very bad will goe ye ly be thought a cursed thing. same way: in extreme punishments, 12. Ergo, they (infants) cannot be wch admitt not of degrees: if subjects incorrupt and innocent. I graunt this soinewhat different fare alike, it can- in ye sense before declared, bnt y not be helped, but I believe yê ye fla- axiom, viz. a cause can produce no gitious wicked adult will be punished effect yts better than itselfe, may need in ye next life with paine of sense much 'limitation; it holds here in es. according to their demerits. Although sence and essential qualities, not in 1 Cor. xv. speakes only of ye resúr. habits of virtue or vice, or acquired rection of believers ; to save being ye and accidental things: that wch I say natural, primary and proper intent of is judicially inflicted as a punishment ye gospell, and Matth. xxv. seems to from ye decree, and a relative foundaspeake only of you wch shall be found tion. alive at ye last day; if so great evill 13. I graunt such a corrupt inelias ye word hell useth to signifie with nation in the sense declared, and expeus, was to come upon all men univer- rience proveth it to be a cursed thing, sally, it is, much there was no more wch is much advanced by ye wickedexpresse warning, especially under yeness of intermediate parents, who Old Test., in wch temporal punish- begett still progeniem vitiosiorem, as ments, as we call y, are expressed Horaće sayth; especially amongst the by eternal fire and wrath unquench- Pagans, and barbarous people more able, and that which we translate hell than in others, are found chips of the is ye grave: Thou wilt not leave my old blocks, inost cursed, kourly knots ; soule in hell ; i.e. my life in ye grave; but I doe not think yt ye indisposition but to dispute of this through all texts of these does absolutely necessitate and reasons, is a large matter ; only them to commit any one sinne, if they upon ye whole I say yć there are some would make use of such helps as God texts ich satisfie me ye there will be giveth them, else it would not be a resurrection of such as are properly sinne, but of some in ye Indies. I called ye wicked, and so reason also have read ye quite contrary of them,, doth require, viz. unto paine of sense; viz. as ye sweetest natured people in but as for ye iinputed sinne of Adam, ye world. They who say yt such disand such as faile of legal justification, positions are but splendida peccuta, ye wages of such sinne will be only speake but rhetorically; I should death eternal, in a proper sense. think such, with good teacheing, likeRom. vi.

ly to be splendidly virtuous; though 11. P. 102, l. 15: Only moral evil to overcome strong indispositions as can deprive them of his favour. abounding in choller & inelancholy,

I have said enough to shew how &c., be more rewardable. and why infants are deprived of his 14. Before actual volition, Adam favour ; but as to ye torments ich had moral good, but only dispositively, some infants suffer in this life, I am & not in such degree as to preserve not bound to thinke ye they proceed him from sinneing against expresse from any especial disfavour to those law; such habits as are properly virlittle ones, but come to passe ex do- tuous are acquired by repeated acts, minio-God is ye potter, and we are & if they be strong habits, they are ye clay—or for punishment of their not consistent with some sinne till parents, or according to ye course of weakened. So Joseph, “How can I do providence wch God is not bound to this great wickednesse?" &c.' John jä. alter, as soine beasts suffer torments 9, & he cannot sinne, because he is more than others. As to other things, borne of God: Xt could not sinne at nothing can be said properly to be de. ah. prived of what it is incapeble; if there 15. I. number not infants with

bruits, for they are relatively, radi- 10, is commonly inisunderstood, it is cally & dispositively cleane or un- spoken in ye person of great sinners cleane; & though they be no other. who walked in darknesse, v. 6, yet wise loyall or disloyall, yet are they boasted. See Dr. Hammond's Annot. ye king's subjects, & justly punished in loc. or rewarded for their parents' faults, James iii. 2, speakes but of as sensu predicto; no wise king yet ever many things wherein all men offend, thought all treytours' posteritie inhe- & the context supposeth men might rently disloyall; & therefore if the be better. If ye unfalen angels, as princes be of good nature, they mode- Calvin sayth upon those words—He rate ye punishments, as ye common chardged his angels, &c., might have good will perinit: here summum jus their infirunities, what wonder yt mansumma injuria. But I had better make kind, justly under a curse, should y® bruits than devils.

generally be so bad! I am well as16. ! graunt a relative holinesse in sured ye ye apostle, Rom. i., speaketh ye children of believers ; & if you will but of ye generalitie of men, who call it so, a remote federal holinesse. were yet worse than by necessitie of I can prove some sort of federal holi- nature they needed to be : men may nesse in ye unbelieveing Jews still; what be ill inclined, & yet not Sodomites, then, must they needs therefore be without much actual evil inclination ; baptized & receive ye Lord's Supper, will men throw such things upon inas was long used in ye church? for ye nocent nature? That word innocent, in one, they cannot examine y selves, our use, often implies as much as a & for ye other, they cannot make pro- very sweet & huge good disposition : fession of their faith; therefore, per fic- but in this question it is to be taken tionem juris, they are faine to supply for indifferent, or rather inclineing to ye defect in an artificial way by ye evill. Consider whether an honest & use of godfathers & of godmothers; good master may not take (I will not I suppose a relique of adult baptism. say of an indifferent, but of a very Pagans' children may be sayd by na- good nature) an apprentice or scholar, ture, i. e. by birth, ye children of & yet, lay so many commands on him wrath, both in respect of Adam, as in so many kinds, as ye there may be before, & in respect of their next pa- a moral iinpossibilitie, or a thousand rents as idolatours, & likely to bringe to one but yt at ye long rụn he will them up such ; wch children, notwith break one or other of them. I constanding any inherent sinne, Inight fesse you dispute with great force & have been educated by Xus, & been judgement, but let me entreat you to goode Xns.

consider what I have said, especially Ye Socinians answer, púoei, i.e. real- under my 4th argument, & in answer ly, not much amiss, but I see no need to your_sOih. they were children of wrath by birth, 19. By ye carnal mind, Rom. viii., breeding & practice. How man that I understand yt wch is in actual, & is borne of a woman is uncleane, I from thence habitual sinners; but have saide; yet sometimes hyperboli- some from their childehood are inore call expressions must be allowed, & towardly & better, as Josiah & Tiare elegant, especially in poeticall mothy. bookes. David sayth, Ye wicked 20. Humane authorities are as ye speake lies from ye womb. So Ps. li., reasons wch they produce; ye most In sinne did my mother conceive me. ancient ffathers were so much for free See what Dr. Hammond, in loc. sayth will, yt they must needs rather swim from Chrysostoin, p. 269, l. 27. above my opinion, than sinke under

17. From ye necessitie of regenera- yours. As for ye Pelagians, if they tion. - Regeneration is an advance be not misrepresented, wch is a thing above eyther uncorrupt nature or mere cominonly enough done, as wee nowmoralitie.

a-days find by experience, I am not 18. Wch doctrine makes God ye concerned in ym. After all this, conauthor of sinne, yrs or mine, where- sider what you say yt Xt was punishby no man is necessitated to sinne, ed for our sinnes, p. 195; yet he was properly so called, but as he freely not ye commiter of ym. No, indeed! willeth it his owne selfe: hath been How could a man commit ye sinnes said already yt text in 1 John i. 8, of a womàn, quâ such, & I say yt

VOL. XIX,

5 A

I

Xt was punished sacrificially, although booke deserved to be burnt. Better he had no inherent sinne, nor imputed burn ye bookes of heretics than their in a proper sense: therefore also may persons. I fear some otherwise good Adam's children be punish'd tho' they men have a little too much of the fuhave no inherent sinne properly so rious spirit of antichrist in y. For called, but reputative only from a re- my part, I thinke to holde yt men lative foundation & dangerous inclina- ought to be punished for yr conscitions. Consider yt when you say, p. ences in things merely spirituall, 175, yt God judgetli of things as they where is no civil injury, is a worse are, & doth not punish men without heresy than ye worst opinion y ever any desert in yo, yt God's decree did I saw yet concerning originall sinne. necessarily require some relative foun- Sepi. 19, 1681. dation, but yi foundation did not necessitate yt decree; wch yet being SIR, supposed there is not ye same reason REJOICE that the attention of of other sinnes, whether Adam's or your readers has been directed to our next parents, as of yt one, as Sunday-Schools. Their importance also appears, Rom. v. 16, as before. well deserves the consideration of every Yet I do thinke yt God would not one who wishes to diminish ignorance have hazarded so many for yt one and prejudice, and to promote knowsinne, if he had not intended to have ledge and universal good-will. Myexsent a Redeemer to make expiation: perience of their general adoption widequære, whether yt sinne might not be ly differs from what Verus mentions in part a kind of sacramental (if I may (p. 549); but Yorkshire has in that reso call it) instruction to ye world of spect furnished an example deserving what they might justly expect, from of imitation by every other part of following actually their own inordinate the kingdom. As inquiries have been & wilful" appetites, wch God foresaw made as to the cheapest method of they would doe ffreely of themselves ? conducting Sunday-schools, the fol. as I have said before of ye law of lowing hints are suggested. The two Moses as expositorie of ye law of na- first classes are taught by lessons fixed ture.

on boards, and suspended so that one I receive ye principall thing in- board serves for a whole class, which tended in your second part, viz. yt should not exceed six children : the immediate parents' sinnes may be teacher using a pointer to the letter punished in their children, & I thinke or word to be learned. The two next though they were begotten before yę classes should be taught in easy les fault was committed, for relations sons from scripture. The meaning sake, without any respect to any pro- should be explained by the teacher; pagation of a physical or morall qua- and before a new lesson is learned, an fitie, in semine. "May not Eve's sinne examination should take place of what be said to be imputed to all ye women was before learned. The oldest classes by relation of ye sex? See I Tim. ii. might write, as a reward for diligence 14; & we see it ordinary for parents and improvement; this assists spellto blush at ye hearing of their children's ing; and the copies should contain a faults, & others nearly related, even moral or religious truth, which shonld when nothing can be thought to re- always be committed to memoryfect upon ym but from relation. I Those children that have behaved prohinted ye much of our depraved na- perly, might be permitted to carry ture is from imm xljate parents, (in home a tract to read in their family, my paper,) in these worls,“ & ye and to return it the next Sunday. wickednesse of ye world.” I have heard When old enough, they should give many wish that parents could see their an account of it to their teacher. It own pride & passions, &c., in their chil is pleasing to see the list of small dren, though much of this is often by tracts increase, that can be distributed ill teaching & example. You chardged at a small expense. Among others Dr. Taylour too bluntly with denieing may be mentioned, Why do I go to originall sinne; he sayth it is a sinne an 'Unitarian Chapel ? An Appeal to metonymically, i. e. ye effect of sinne the Scriptures in Vindication of Unita& ye cause of many. I was told by a rianism; An Abridgment of the same, ffriend yt Bp. Brownrigg said his by Alexander, of Yarmouth; Dr. S.

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