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occasion.* For the purpose of obvi- did he prefer to preach Christ, and ating suspicion, he associated with him crucified? himaself other individuals in the trust: His epistles, and the history of his he provided for “ things honest," for public life, will endare the scrutiny what was becoming and honourable, of rigorous criticism. So examined, not only in the sight of the Lord, but they prove that he evinced uncommon in the sight of men; nor could the moderation in employing the miracubreath of calumny taint his reputation. lous powers with which he was supThis apostle even waived the exercise plied. Was this the disposition, this of his right to a maintenance on the the course, of a crafty and ainbitious part of those whose spiritual interests man? Or rather, was not the fact a he superintended. It is therefore im- demonstration of still more than hopossible that the love of money could nest intentions of pure and delicate Înave been his motive for entering into feelings, and of a sober judgment ? the Christian church.

And is this the man on whom the Was faine the end of his pursuit ? charge can be fixed of either imposDid his soul burn with the fever of ture or enthusiasın? If in simplicity ambition? Were power and dominion and godly sincerity, and not with the acquisitions for which he panted ? feshly wisdom, he had his conversa

Let his writings and his history give tion in the world, who can resist the the answer : let these declare, whe- inference, that he was an apostle not ther it was practicable for him to of men, neither by men, but by Jesus gratify such passions, when he enlisted Christ? under the banner of Jesus Christ. Paul's writings, too, authenticate What human reputation could he ex- themselves, and the history of his lapect to obtain by joining, or even by bours : they do so pre-eminently-in leading, a poor, despised, persecuted a degree beyond those of any indivisect, by exchanging the vanity and dual with whose existence we are acpride of the school of Gamaliel for the quainted. That such writings should humble lessons of the prophet of Na- have been constructed on the basis of zareth, of the sufferer on Calvary: deceit, is morally impossible. We do not ask our readers to receive At the same time, the letters of Paul's own assertions, unless they are Paul, though full of argument, and substantiated by evidence. But we containing a number of precepts and call on ingenuous men to weigh deli- prohibitions, abound in allusions and berately every part of the narrative of references to facts : they every where the apostle's ministry, and to say, present an animated, living scene ; whether he did not with truth repre- and, happily, we have it in our power sent himself as being made “the off. to compare them with memoirs of a scouring of all things." Let us judge large portion of his ministry. The of him, as the oppugners of Christi- result of this comparison (for it has anity would have us to judge : for a

been made) is, in our own judgment, moment, let us imagine that he was inferior only to the report of the not really converted, but was an inte- senses, and to the force of absolute rested deceiver. Then, how shall we

demonstration. Indolence and prejuexplain bis conduct, on the laws of dice may shrink from instituting or the mind and the principles of our reviewing it : however, it is not to nature ? If we coinpare, or rather indolence and prejudice that our apcontrast, what, in a teinporal point of peal is urged. view, he relinquished with what he When we consider the style, obgained, we shall discover, that he sur- serve the topics, and weigh the rearendered more than even an Indian soning of Paul's Epistles, we cannot Bramin would lose in being deprived but assign the date of them to an of his caste; and that, in return, no

interval of time between the ascension wordly equivalent was secured.' In of Christ and the destruction of Jeruthe circles of learning and philosophy salem-to vearly, or precisely, what at least, the fine parts of Paul, and external testimony declares to have his high attainments, would have open- been their real date. ed his way to great distinction. Why It is assumed, but has not been

shewn, or even attempted to be shein, # 2 Cor, viii. is.

that the doctrine of this apostle con

tradicts his Master's. Such a discor- denoting sometimes Jews, and somedancy would be “passing strange;" times Christians.* inasinuch as he professes to have re- We read in page xiii. this sentence : ceived his knowledge of the gospel of the notes to Scholey's [Bible), immediately by revelation from Jesus the author or compiler was, as every Christ. In truth, the allegation has page testifies, a Church of Englandist : been hazarded by men, who, we ven- Blair, it is presumed, a Church of ture to assert, have either not read Scotlandist." Why is this presumed? Paul's Epistles or not studied thein A little inquiry would have enabled on any just principles of interpreta- the writer to ascertain, that Dr. John tion. Those letters, when attentively Blair, the author of the Chronological examined, will be found to contain Tables, was indeed a native of North nothing which opposes what our Sa- Britain, yet, in respect of religious viour and the coinpanions of his mi- profession and ecclesiastical station, nistry delivered.

a member and a dignitary of the The issue of the whole inquiry may Church of England. The mistake is fairly be put on many parts of the of no moment in itself, and in any apostle's writings, and especially on ordinary case would be so trifling and the following chapters: Rom. xiv., venial as not to require animadversion. xv.; 1 Cor. xiii., xv. : he who dili. We notice it, because, together with gently peruses them, in the silence of numerous other passages, it illustrates his closet, will, it is probable, . rise an extreme want of care in Gamaliel from the employment with an enlight. Smith, even with regard to circumened, a strong and delightful convic- stances that come under the immedition of the authenticity of the works ate observation of almost every man in which they appear. Surely, no of literature and reading ; and because impostor, no enthusiast, could be so it shews his incompetency, so far, to ingenuous, so wise and sober, or che- discuss with correctness the question rish such views of men and things, of of Paul's apostleship. mortality and immortality, of human In p. xv. he says of Paul's Epistles, duty and human expectations. What that their genuineness, “ unless in one remains, therefore, except to not very material instance, seems to knowledge that Paul has made good stand hitherto clear of dispute.” A his clairns to be an apostle not of most remarkable admission by such a men, neither by men, but by Jesus writer! How he can reconcile it, Christ?

and a similar concession, in p. 4, in These are the observations which favour of Luke, with the strain and presented themselves to us, on read- purpose of his own work, we are unaing the volume, the title of which we able to imagine. have transcribed. We deem it unne- He observes, in p. 33, that “ For ceszary to follow the author through administering the ceremony of baphis several chapters and sections. All tism, a single apostle, Philip, was sufthat we shall further do, is to bring ficient.” Now the Philip of whom he forward a few passages illustrative of is speaking was a deacon and evangehis qualifications for his undertaking. list, and not the apostle of that

In the Table, marked No. I., which name. The nature of the case makes faces the title-page, he contrasts with the distinction clear and essential; each other the following clauses, Acts Philip, who preached to the Samariix. 149, xxii. 3-11, and prints in tans, not having the power of conitalic characters the words synagogues ferring the gifts of the Holy Spirit. and brethren; as though they were in But Mr. Gamaliel Smith, who classes mutual contradiction. The expres. Luke among the eleven, $ might with sion is indeed varied, yet the meaning ease commit the more pardonable eris the same; the synagogues, or rulers ror of confounding Philip the evangeand members of the synagogues, and list with Philip the apostle. the brethren being equally descriptive A capital mistake, which pervades of Saul's countrymen, the Jews-and the lerın brethren throughout this his

Acts xxviii. 14, 15, 21, are examples tory being restricted or extended in fully to the purpose. its signification by the context, and f Acts vi. 5. Matt. 2. 3. P. 342.

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VOL. XIX.

a large portion of this author's vo- a period, and in an instance, of which lume, is ihe assumption, (p. 59,) that we have no precise knowledge, he had Saul incurred the guilt of treason, brought himself under the obligation when, converted, as he was, to the of a vow: and being with injustice gospel, he refrained from persecuting suspected and accused, by soine of his the Christians at Damascus. The countrymen, of hostility to the law of Roman government was, at that time, Moses, he refutes the accusation, by the only earthly power against whom performing those legal ceremonies Saul, or any other Jew, could commit which, in his own case, he had never treason : and the Roman government renounced, and by assisting others to had not authorized the persecution. perform them. An author, nevertheWere the Jews, at the æra before us, less, who can affirm that exo signifies a sovereign people? Could Mr. Ga- an oath, may well refrain froin dismaliel Smith be unacquainted with criminating between vows and oaths : their political subjection and depen- he who sees no difference between the dence? Is it only by these inaccura- names will, of course, see no difference ries of conception and of language in the things. that he can plead his cause? What What can fair and candid readers would he say to the believer, who think of the following paragraph ?-shwuld permit himself to fall into Pp. 361, &c. these mistakes :-Probably, what we

“ Now then comes the trial. (Acts will say to him, Tantamne rem tam xxvi. 1.) Scene, at Cæsarea, the Empenegligenter agere!

ror's bench. Lord Chief Justice, Roman But a little grosser error must be Governor Festus ; Puisne judge, Jew exposed. He continues to maintain Sub-king Agrippa. Present · Bernice.. that Paul was guilty of an act of per, ,,chief captains and principal men of the jury. In other words, Mr. Gamaliel city.' Special accusers, none. Sole speakSmith does not distinguish an excul. er, whose speech is reported, the de. patory oath from a Nazaritic or some

fendant, Points in defendant's speech, other vow. We entreat those of his these :" &c. readers into whose hands our pages Obviously, there was no trial at all. come, to consult Açts xxi. 18, &c., The Jewish prince, Agrippa, wished and then to ask themselves, whether to hear the prisoner;

and Agrippa's any, and what, perjury was committed wish was gratified. For the rest, so by the individual whom this author burlesque a method of treating the styles “the self-constituted apostle.” subject, as this paragraph discloses, is Perjury is the wilful violation of the alike revolting to correct taste and to truth which has been declared, or of manly feeling, the assurance which has been given, Against credulity Mr. Gamaliel under the solemnity of an oath. "That Smith perpetually levels his reproachman is perjured who forswears him- és; sometimes in direct terms-someself. Paul, nevertheless, on the occa- times by inuendo. Yet he endeavours sion to which reference has been made, to persuade us that Paul is the Antiviolated nothing. He had contracted, christ whom Paul denounced and stigno doubt, a certain obligation, from matized !t which he gained his discharge, exaetly Of the synopsis of this work we in the way prescribed by the legal in- took such notice as we deemed it to stitutions of his country. A vow is require. I Internal evidence led us to not an oath : a vow is then violated ascribe it, in our own ininds, to a when it is not fulfilled. Yet Paul ful- writer of no ordinary merit, yet of filled his (we do not now inquire what considerable singularity in method and it was) with the utmost punctuality, in style. To that distinguished indiOn his becoming a Christian, it was vidual it is now unhesitatingly attriperfectly oplional with him to observe buted: and the public seems to unor not the Levitical injunctions. At derstand that Gamaliel Smith is the . Mon. Repos. XVI. 234.

nom de guerre of Jeremy Bentkam. + Dr. George Benson has some valu. It is, we confess, a mortifying discoable observations on this case in bis His. tory of the First Planting of Christianity. • P. 261.

+ Pp. 371, &c. (2d ed.) II, 227, &c.

Mop. Repos. XVI. 231, &c.

N.

very. We have no pleasure in com- “ If we would judge fairly of the proteinplating the decay of high talent bability or improbability of the converand extensive intelligence, of mental sion of Paul, we must not consider it as vigour and moral sensibility. How a baked or isolated event, but in concan we account for the melancholy nexion with the events which preceded it, change? The circumstances whatever and the end which providence intended they are, which have impaired

so gifted tion was made to Jesus of Nazareth,

to answer by it. If a divine communica. a mind, and occasioned such a perver. designed and calculated to reform the sion of spirit, taste and thought, must world, the choice of a person, like Paul, be seriously deplored. Yet we ques- qualified to fulfil that design, the account tion not the sincerity of the writer. of his conversion, though supernatural, We recollect with gratitude his nu- cannot be deemed improbable. The merous and valuable services to his other apostles, though not illiterate, fellow-men; and we are desirous of were not men of learning. Still less, it forgetting that the author of the “Let- is probable, were they acquainted with ters on Usury, "* is also the author the state of the heathen world, and of “ Not Paul, but Jesus ;"

therefore little qualified as far as they

could be by human means, to convert quantum mutatas ab illo the nations. On the other hand, Paul Hectore, qui redit exuvias indutus possessed superior talents, which he had Achilli,

cultivated and improved by all the advanVel Danaum Phrygios jaculatus pappi- tages of a refined education, having made bus ignis !

himself acquainted not only with the language, but with the literature of Greece.

Nor was he fitted for his high destinaArt. II.-A Reply to Two Deistical tion, less by temper and character, than

by talents and cultivation : for he was Works, ģc. &c. By Ben David.

open, sincere and ardent in his attach(Contiuued from p. 558.) ments, yet steady and circuinspect in EN DAVID justly complains of his pursuits--patient of injuries, fatigue Gamaliel Sınith's disingenuous the face of danger, and capable of sacri.

and hunger-resolute and collected in ness in pretending to have in view ficing every personal consideration, every merely the purification and establish- selfish interest, for the attainment of his ment of Christianity, and to be fol- glorious eod. Now whatever evidence lowing in the steps of Lardner and renders the gospel or the history of Farmer:

Christ credible, disposes us to look upon “ The author of this work is not a the miraculous story of the Apostle Paul believer in Revelation : and his pretence

as not incredible : whatever evidence to imitate the example of the above supports the one, lends its full weighi in venerable names, in removing the cor. support of the other; so that he who on fruptions which, in the eye of reason, rational ground believes the miracles and weigh down Christianity, is a mere snare

resurrection of Jesus, cannot hesitate to to entrap bis readers ; and if this publi- believe his supernatural appearance to cation succeeded, it might soon be fola Paul.”—P. 177. lowed by another from the same pen,

The moral reason of the time and entitled, Neither Paul nor Jesus.'”. P. 172.

place of Paul's conversion is thus hap

pily stated : Resenting this insidious mode of pro

“ If Paul was an apostle according to ceeding, Ben David rebukes sharply the will of God, if he had been separated the Deistical author; and if we grieve from the begiuning a chosen vessel to that hard epithets should be affixed carry the gospel before the Gentiles, how to a name on many accounts so re- was he not chosen also to be a disciple spectable, we grieve more that we of Christ during his ministry? At least, cannot eensure them as undeserved. why not appointed to succeed Judas, or

There is weight in the following why not converted by the apostles, or remarks on the antecedent probability converted and furnished with his comof Paul's conversion, the history of divine Master had yet ascended to hea. which Gamaliel Smith represents as

ven? Then a writer like Gamaliel would a fable :

have nothing to say agaiust Paul, but

what he would have said against the * See Mr. Wyun's opinion of this work, apostles or against Jesus himself. No in Mon, Repos. XIX. 188.

circumstance connected with Christianity

BE

places the wisdom of heaven in so con- and the Epistles. These Ben David spicuous a light as the manner in which attempts to explain, sometimes suc. Paul was called to his high ofice as cessfully, but at other times rather apostle of the Gentiles. The Anti-chris- ingeniously than satisfactorily: e.g. tian teachers endeavoured to undermine the gospel by maintaining, that the

the historian asserts that, while Christ who appeared after death was not

the companions of Saul, though they saw the same with him who had been put to

no one, did hear, the voice, Acts ix. 7; death. If this position were well-found. while Paul in his apology, xxii. 9, repre. cd, the return of Jesus to raise the sents them as having seen the light, withdead and judge the world, would fall to out having heard the voice. Here it the ground. The divine power promised must be remembered that the mode in to the disciples was deferred till Jesus which the apostle had stated the event, had ascended to heaven, in order that

was afterwards penned by Luke, as well its communication from thence night be

as his own : and it is utterly incredible considered as a conclusive proof of his that he should have recorded two stateactual ascension, and pledge of his ments apparently so inconsistent, and so return at some future period to confer a likely to furnish objections against him. new life on mankind. The conversion of selt, unless he was perfectly satisfied of Paul in the manner it was effected, had the correctness of both. And the case in view the more complete establishment stood thus : The commission in which of the same great object. If Jesus some Saul engaged, must have been occasioned years after he had left the earth appeared by an information brought to the chief to one that was an enemy-if, appearing priests and authorities in Jerusalemn, from amidst his celestial glory, hé convinced the enemies of the gospel in Damascus. that enemy that he was the very Jesus of The delegates who had brought the inNazareth whom he was persecuting-if formation, of course returned with Saul : he next enlisted him within the same and as they were Greeks or Hellenistic service with those whoin he had already Jews, they might not understand the chosen, imparting to him precisely the Hebrew language. It is further reasonsame doctrine, inspiring him with the able to suppose, that persons, concur. same spirit of meekness, patience and ring with the object of his commission, devotion in the cause of his divine Master attended Saul in his journey: who as -finally, if he endowed him with the Jews, educated in the seat of Hebrew same power of working miracles, and learning, must have understood the Hethat without any communication with brew tongue. When, therefore, Jesus the rest of the apostles, and even with appeared unto Saul, they heard, or, more out their knowledge:-if Jesus did all conformably to the original, understood these things, he gave to Paul, to all his or obeyed the voice, that is, they became followers, and to the whole world, an

converts and joined with their principal, everlasting proof that the Saviour was

the persecuted party. But there was still alive, dwelling in inaccessibie light this difference in the vision : these arwith his heavenly Father, and that one

tendants saw no man, that is, though day, however distant, he would in the they heard the voice of Jesus, they did power of his father descend to consum

not see his form, as Saul had done. The mate the grand erents promised in the pre-eminent end to be answered by Saul's gospel. This scheme of Divine Provis conversiou, Jesus thus distinctly inarked dence required that Paul should hold no by shewing himself exclusively to him, as intercourse with the other apostles until designed to hear his name before the he was converted, until his credentials Gentiles. Divine Wisdom, in order to were fully ratified from above, inde.

meet the exigencies of the case, appointed pendently of them. In pursuance of this that the rest of the party should remain purpose, Divine Wisdom made use of among the enemies of the gospel. Ac. his misguided zeal to remove him from cordingly Jesus declined to appear to Jerusalem: and Jesus deferred appearing them also. They saw the light indeed, to him, till he was too far on the road to

and though they must have heard the return. Being near Damascus, he was

sound of his voice, they did not compreled to that city, where he was to receive hend it, nor of course did they, like the his commission, and to commence his rest, become oledieut iv it. Now Luke, arduous undertaking as an apostle of writing for the use of the believers, and Christ."-Pp. 183-185.

having in his mind that party only who Gamaliel Smith has seized with who journeyed with bim, stood speechi

had joined them, writes, ' And the men great acuteness some of the discre- less, hearing the voice, but seeing no pancies between the several relations man. On the other hand, common of the same circumstances in Paul's sepse required that Paul, when defeud. history in various parts of the Actsing himself before his accusers, should

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