may be endless discussions, are of no read the Scriptures with the eyes of avail in the question. They are only the British Critic; but to reject any tests of the opinion of fallible nien in thing which appeared to me to be different ages; and as well might the revealed in them is most abhorrent to writings of eminent philosophers who my feelings and my principles. adopted the Ptolemaick system, be So far from rejecting any revealed brought forward to establish it in the truth, I shall be found to lay much preseut days, as this argument ad greater stress on revealed truths proverecundiam from the very general bably than the British Critic does, or belief of past and present ages in the any member of his sect. Your pages doctrine of three persons in the God will bear testimony to my zeal for head. Churches have erred, accord- them, when a celebrated divine among ing to the thirty-nine articles, and on the Unitarians promulgated what ap. this ground the revolt from the Church peared to me to be a very unfounded of Rome is vindicated, and they who notion - that Moses, though a good are called schismatics by that Church divine, was a bad philosopher, and his make their appeal to the Scriptures. opinion received the sanction of an From these schismatics I also make Unitarian congregation. This divine my appeal to the same anthority, and will be supported by no small part by that and that alone do I consent of the Newtonians ; but to me the to be tried. Shew me a single pre. first chapter of Genesis conveys the cept for worshiping the Trinity, or strongest proofs of its divine original. God the Son, or God the Holy Ghost, Witb the first sentence my faith beand I have done.

gins, nor is it shaken by the taunts I offer up my prayers to one Being of philosophers in the whole of the only, the God and Father of our Lord history from the formation of the Jesus Christ, and why do I so ? Be- first man to the final triumph over cause I have the precept of my Sa- the serpent delineated in the Revelaviour to do it—" When ye pray, say, tion. I firmly believe in the temptaOur Father who art in heaven.” tion of our first mother, and moreUnder this appellation he prayed to over, that every one of her children his God and our God, and neither he has been or will be subject to similar nor his apostles gave any command trials till the head of the serpent is to authorize us to worship any other completely crushed, as foretold in person. If I am supposed to be the earliest prophecy upon record. wrong in this important transaction But my faith does not presume to of human life, what have I to say in parcel out the Godhead, being conmy

defence? I follow the commande tent with the command, “ There is ment and example of my Saviour. only one God," of whose attributes I If others are wrong in their worship, can have but a very imperfect knowwe followed, they may say, our inter- ledge, being contented with the conpretation of scripture, or it may be viction that he is my Father, and is ihe mere traditions of men. But do more willing to attend to my petinot let them inveigh against me, who tions than any earthly father is to follow a plain and positive precept those of his children. Far from inaccompanied by the uniform example dulging in vain speculations respecting of my Saviour.

him who is unsearchable and past The British Critic insinuates in the finding out, my faith is like that of latter clause of the extract at the Abraham, founded on the conviction beginning of this letter that I reject that what he has promised he is able revealed truth. If he had said I reject to perform; and having seen the comwhat he believes to be revealed truth, pletion of much that he has promised, he would have spoken correctly. But I have not the least doubt that what whatever has been revealed to us in remains will in the same manner be the Holy Scriptures is my delight, fulfilled, and in spite of all the contramy daily meditation. Nothing in this dictions of the world and of the opp04 world would be a compensation to sition to divine truth, more by prome for the loss of that which is iny fessing Christians than professed Intionly support in this life, and the dels, his kingdom will be finally esground of my hope and confidence in tablished. I shall have quitted this a future state of existence. I do not scene of existence, but the glorious day will come when all enemies shall me to so great a length; and as other be put under foof, truth shall be points in the charge of the British established in the earth, and love, Critic remain to be answered, you universal love, will be the glorious will perhaps indulge me with a place theme of all nations.

in a future Repository, when I shall The belief in only one God, as dis- endeavour to shew, that what the tinguished from that of three persons Critic has advanced against me and in the Godhead, is acknowledged by Unitarianism, it is not in his power persons who are not Christians; and to substantiate. notwithstanding what I have said

W. FREND. above, my right even to the title of Christian may be called in question, Sir,


pressed person of our Saviour, but also to the hypothesis that Josephus was a connature of his mission. Great have cealed Christian. But there is nobeen the discussions lately on what thing new under the sun. Let your is called the Atonement, and this readers look into Whiston's Collecword as rendered by different writers tion of Authentic Records, Part II. in reference to the death of Christ, p. 960, and they will see that this sets them in hostility to each other, learned man confidently affirms that and they combat their opponents' opi- Josephus was no other than a Nanions with all the arms that ridicule, zarene or Ebionite Christian, and with sarcasm, and levity can bring to their them (the Ebionites) esteemned our aid. The word itself occurs, I be- Saviour to be a mere man, the son of lieve, only once in the New Testa- Joseph and Mary.” Honest Whiston ment, and in the margin it is rendere laments over both “ the Nazarenes or ed by the translators reconciliation, Ebionites, whom we now call Sociniwhich, in fact, is the true rendering ans” and the Athanasians, and says of the Greek word. I am a firin they are all convicted of their errors believer in the reconciliation by the by the “ denial of supernatural gifts.” death of Christ, whom I look up to

CANTABRIGIENSIS. as my Saviour who was sent to make us sons of God, through whom alone is eternal life, not as some Unitarians

Sir, say as a mere teacher, but as Paul

HAVE been much surprised at expresses it, Eternal life is the gift some recent compilers of Hymnof God, through Jesus Christ our books ascribing to Andrew Marvell Lord. As through Adam we all die, the beautiful devotional poems, beso in Christ shall all be made alive. ginning “The spacious firmament on Adam's sin produced death, Christ's high,” and “When all thy mercies, 0 obedience produced life. I acknow my God,” which have been for a cedledge my obligations to Christ as my tury regarded as Mr. Addison's. The teacher, but these are slight com- ouly authority that I am aware of for pared to the debt of gratitude I owe this substitution of Marvell’s pame is to him in that comprehensive word so Çaptain Thompson's statement, in his often used by his faithful missionaries, Preface to the 4to edition of Marvell's our Saviour. But all this is consist- Works, in 3 volumes, published in ent with the distinction pointed out 1776, that these with other poems so accurately by Paul, between the were found in a manuscript of the Supreme and his beloved Son. To us Hull patriot's. On so slender a founthere is only one God even the Fa- dation, who would place so serious a ther, and one Lord even Jesus Christ. charge against the pious Addison as I bow the knee therefore as the apos- every one knows is implied in the altle did to the God and Father of our teration ? Nothing is extant of MarLord Jesus Christ, and to him alone, yell's undoubted writing which shews without any impeachment of the re

him to have been capable of writing verence due to our Saviour in his verses of so much polish and sweel. character of Lord.

ness as the hymns in question. I was not aware when I begun,

A PSALMODIST. that this subject would have carried

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REVIEW. " Still pleased to praise, yet not afraid to blame."-Pore. Art. I.-Not Paul, but Jesus. By their own is requisite, before we can

Gamaliel Sınith, Esq. London, be satisfied of the miraculousness of 1823. Printed for John Hunt. 8vo. the appearance. Does the account, Pp. 403.

however, of Paul's conversion depend WHERE are four propositions con- nerely on the evidence of the indiviwhich we shall apply ourselves :

authority of his historian ? Our reply That his conversion was miraculous must be in the negative. Mog, were and real-that his divine commission not wanting who, on their personal was recognized by the rest of the apos- knowledge, could attest the reality of tles—that his vieirs and conduct were

the transaction: it took place on a perfectly disinterested—and that his public road, and in open day; and writings authenticate themselves and the attendants of the future apostle the history of his labours.

would not have failed to contradict The conversion of Paul was the him, had contradiction been practieffect not of a mere impulse upon his

cable. inind — an impulse which ordinary

If we compare Luke's narrative with circumstances might have occasioned Paul's stateinents of the facts, we -but of a miracle properly so styled : shall perceive the sure mark of truth and it was a genuine or inward con- substantial agreement in the relation, version, as distinguished from only an accompanied by some variety in the outward change of manners and de- language. The candid and attentive portment.

reader will discern, that the immediate There was, we repeat, an actual effect of the miracle was the utter miracle in the case. The cvent did astonishment of Saul and his companot occur in a secret chamber," nions ; that the articulate sounds of and, therefore, did not resemble the the voice were distinctly heard by alleged instances of Lord Herbert, of himself alone, while his associates, Cherbury,* and of Colonel Gardiner ;+ nevertheless, both saw the light, and from both of which it differed as in were, in some measure, sensible of a other circumstances so in the fact of noise ; and that these men were so its having witnesses and spectators. overpowered by the effulgence, as to We must carefully discriminate be- remain silent, even after they had tween the sincerity of a man's im- risen froin the ground. The supposed pression and its correctness. In the contradiction of Acts ix, 7, to Acts two examples that we have adduced, xxii. 9, is well explained by Mr. and in some resembling them, we

Biscoe,+ who pertinently cites John cannot justly doubt of the parties xii. 28, 29, where it is said, “ Then having been ingenuous : they felt what came there a voice from heaven, saythey reported, they believed that they ing, I have both glorified it, and will declared ; yet testimony additional to glorify it again : the people therefore

that stood by and heard it, said that

it thundered, others said that an angel Leland's View of the Deistical Wri- spake unto him.” Many of the byters, &c., (4th ed.,) Vol. I. pp. 24, &c. standers beard only a noise like thunLord Orford's Catalogue of Royal and der, but heard not the particular words Noble Authors, &c. A. D. 1648.

spoken. So it was with St. Paul's + Doddridge's “Remarkable Passages companions. They heard a sound, in the Life of the Honourable Colonel probably like that of thunder, but James Gardiner.”—“ That the impres, heard not the particular words spoken, siou made upon his” [Col. G.'s] was in a dream, is sufficiently intimated It must also be observed, that the to be the opinion of Dr. Doddridge.


word akhely signifies to understand as As a dream it may very rationally be accounted for from the predisposing cir- * Acts is., xxii., xxvi. cumstances.” Kippis's Life of Doddridge, † Sermons at Boyle's Lecture, &c. 665, cii., and Biog. Brit., 2d ed., V. 289.


well as to hear, and that almost as After Paul, as was natural, proper frequently St. Paul's companions and useful, had resided, for some heard a voice, but did not hear it so time, * in Syria and Arabia, he went perfectly as to understand what was up to Jerusalem, where he continued said. Thus, too, “ when Daniel saw during fifteen days, and saw James + a vision,” (Dan. x. 7,)“the men that and Peter. On a very solemn and were with him saw nothing.”+. urgent occasion, he again visited this

Should it be asked, Was Paul's city, after a considerable lapse of conversion thorough? Did it extend time, and, together with Barnabas, reto his understanding, his feelings and ceived from Peter, James and John his character? Or was it simply ap- the right hand of fellowship; “ that parent and external ? We ask, in we,” says he, "should go unto the reply, What better proof of its being Heathen, and they to the circumcisincere and inward than the course in sion.” This is his own language, in which he afterwards persevered ? If we the beginning of his Epistle to the are desirous of bringing the honesty Galatians; and with this fully agrees of a man's change of opinion to the that of the historian. In the circular test, we shall mark whether his be- letter of the Council at Jerusalem, haviour be uniform and consistent which Luke has preserved, the aposwith itself: we shall observe what he tles and elders thus address the Gendoes, what he foregoes, what he ha- tile Christians residing in different zards, what he suffers ; and this not parts of Asia : “ It seemed good unto for an inconsiderable time, but through us, being assembled with one accord, his whole life, not on one spot, but in to send chosen men unto you with our every place which he visits or where beloved Barnabas and Paul, men that he dwells. Tried by this standard, the have hazarded their lives for the name conversion of Saul the persecutor into of our Lord Jesus Christ.” Paul the servant of Jesus Christ, is Can there now be a clearer, stronger complete and real. Imposture could recognition of Paul, in what we may not have worn a mask so long : the style his official capacity, than these enthusiasm of a heated fancy would passages afford? Do such passages much sooner have subsided.

furnish even the shadow of a pretence Let us attend next to the nature of for denying that his doctrine was the his claims. He styles himself I “an doctrine of our Lord and of the apostle, not of men,” i. e. not em- eleven apostles ? ployed on a human errand,“ neither Let us look at another part of the by inen," i. e. not receiving his com- letter to the Galatians : " I certify mission and embassy from any unin- you, brethren, that the gospel which spired human being,“ but by Jesus was preached by me is not after man ; Christ.” Words less ambiguous than for I neither received it from man, nor these we cannot discover or imagine. was I taught it otherwise than by the They import thus much, and no more, revelation of Jesus Christ.” I Is not that Paul was authorized immediately this declaration altogether consistent by our Saviour to teach his doctrine. with what he says before and subseThe question to be considered then is, quently, and with what Luke says reDid the other apostles receive him as specting him? Paul tells us, what being so authorized? We affirm that the narrative likewise tells us, and they did ; and we make our appeal to what facts indisputably prove, that the vouchers of the following state. Jesus Christ was his sole instructor ment:

in the Christian religion. This pas

sage, we might well suppose, is the . Of these, the number, in the apos- duced as testifying that the apostle

last, which, by possibility, can be adtle's case, it is probable, was much smaller than has generally been supposed. We taught a religion of his own : if usage can with difficulty believe that auy Roman has established any alliance between guards accompanied Paul. Painters and ideas and words, this passage bears engravers, almost without exception, give quite the opposite meaning, and alleges very incorrect representations of the

* Horæ Paulina, Galat. Ch. v. No, xi. + Kenrick's Expos. in loc.

+ Acts xv., and xii. 17. 1 Gal. i. 1.

Gal. i. 11, &c.


that Paul's instructions accorded en- tion, that avarice might prompt him tirely with his great Master's, and, by to assume the profession of a Chrisconsequence, with the preaching of tian. Saul was evidently a person of the body of the apostles.

no mean rank and consideration among True; Paul was specially appointed his countrymen. Hence we may with to be the Apostle of the Gentiles ; reason judge it probable that he bcwhile the services of his fellow-labour. longed to a family in easy circumers were directed to the Jews. The stances, and surrendered all hope of distinction is precisely what the infant sharing in its temporal advantages, state of the church required : they when he embraced the religion, and wrought in different fields, yet under entered into the specific service, of one Lord, and for one and the same Jesus Christ. What, though he had purpose ; nor were their objects in learned a trade, by the exercise of any degree mutually opposed. Must which he afterwards gained a liveliwe not regard this condition of things hood? Every Jew, even the most as being strictly agreeable to nature intelligent and accomplished, passed and to truth? Is it not presumptive through the same discipline, and was of the genuineness of the history, and taught to labour with his hands. * of the divine origin of the Gospel ? The education that Saul of Tarsus

Upon one occasion, a dispute arose received, was not of an ordinary kind : between Paul and Peter : and hence and can a person of sound understandsome persons heve inferred the ab- ing fancy that such a man, by the act sence of a recognition of the claims of joining the first Christians, would of the apostle to the Heathens, on the not forego and lose far more property part of the apostle to the circumci- than he could thence acquire ? sion. The inference is perfectly un- Of what funds was the infant church justifiable. * Their dispute was of possessed ? To read and hear the short duration : it grew out of Peter's language of certain individuals, on this temporizing spirit, and placed the en- subject, we might suppose that not a lightened zeal and inflexible honesty few of the apostle's followers were of Paul in the fairest point of view; men of affluence. The contrary was it proves, moreover, that these illus- the truth. Not many rich were called. trious men did not combine with each Barnabas and some others, undoubt. other to impose a fraud upon the edly, sold estates, and threw the proworld--and thus it becomes a separate duce into a common stock, for the and resistless argument in behalf of supply of common wants. But this Christianity.

was a spontaneous and a temporary The apostles then co-operated with measure the whole amount of the Paul. Would they have done so, had sums so contributed, would be inconthey discredited his conversion and his siderable ; nor do we find that Paul mission ? Let the case be examined bad any controul over it, or any share on the principles of human nature, on in distributing it. That the hope of the laws of historical testimony : let it partaking in the management of such be decided by means of a rigorous ap- a fund might govern him, is one of plication of those principles and laws the wildest of imaginations: and he to Luke's narrative and Paul's Epis- who can form this opinion, shews how tles ; and we cannot doubt as to what nearly allied to each other are sceptimust be the answer.

cism and credulity. Whether the We further maintain that the views common property of which we are and the conduct of Paul were entirely speaking existed after Saul's converdisinterested ; that he was free from sion, is far from being evident. Of the influence of covetousness, of am- the collections subsequentiy made, bition, and of every sinister and merely among a different class of believers, selfish motive; and that he had a mind for the distressed Christians at Jerusupremely intent on advancing the salem, he, beyond question, was a glory of God, the interests of his Sa- bearer. Yet we cannot have forgotten viour, and the highest welfare of man- his wise, disinterested conduct, on the kind. It is a strange and a novel intima- * See Michaelis' admirable chapter on

the Character, &c. of St. Paul, Introd., * Mon. Repos. VII. 699, &c. &c., (Marsh,) IV. Ch. xxiii.

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