ment, all meetings for religious wor. or the consistory nominate; but the ship or instruction other than those of confirınation of the appointment lies the Established Church. On the fol- with the king. lowing day, a circular letter was is. M. M. spent half a year at Geneva, sued to the officers of government in 1817 and 1818, discharging the throughout the Canton, enjoining a public and private duties of a Chrisrigorous enforcement of the cruel and tian minister, in connexion with the detestable decree. This document, in Dissenting congregation to be menthe true style of Jesuitical hypocrisy, tioned in the next article. In January declares, that the Council does not at 1818, he was verbally directed by the all pretend to enter into theological Lieutenant of Police to quit the Candiscussions, or to disturb men's con- ton, after a few days which would be sciences, or to meddle with the reli- granted him for his personal convegious opinions of individuals, or “ to niency. He requested to know the restrain the liberty of THINKING” (ni reasons of this mandate, and the law de gêner la liberté de la pensée). upon which it was founded. This was This has been followed by another de- refused him, and the same evening he cree, in May, which denounces fines, received a written and formal order to imprisonment, or banishment, upon quit the territory of the Republic. in the most private kind of religious as- twenty-four hours. Imprudently, as sembly, or even the admission of a I humbly think, he wrote a letter of single visitor to fainily worship. Dean remonstrance to the Lieutenant of PoCurtat is known to be a primary mover lice, and declaring that he would yield in these almost incredible measures. only to a forcible expulsion. Yet I I feel no disinclination to cominend cannot but admire the simplicity and him to the tender mercies of Professor integrity of his mind, in this proceedChenevière.

ing. He said, in his letter," “ Ever VIII. M. Pierre Méjanel. I esteemit since I came to Geneva, my occupation an honour to call this Christian minis. has been to preach the word of God; ter my friend. He is a native of the to exhort children to obedience, grown South of France, where his father is the men to temperance, righteousness and pastor of a Protestant church. He was piety, the aged to patience, the dying educated in the Colleges of Montauban to the hope of heaven, and all to faith and Lausanne, and was, in due time, in Christ." Notwithstanding this raappointed either assistant minister or ther. irritating conduct, the Governcopastor in the church at the former ment shewed more forbearance than place. Upon the second restoration could have been reasonably expected, of Louis XVIII. he was ejected (des. They suffered three or four days to titué) from his station. I never elapse, and then sent M, M. to the thought it advisable to inquire into frontier, under an escort of gensd'. the reason of this act of the royal and armes. paternal government, not doubting M. C. makes no allusion to these but that both the act and the motive facts : a pretty strong proof that M. were worthy of a son of St. Louis. M.'s conduct, during the few months Some other Protestant ministers in of his residence at Geneva, was both France, at the same time, received inorally and legally irreproachable. similar kind messages. It was suffi- The general opinion was that the clercient for my satisfaction, that I could sy were besieging the government with not perceive that this circumstance, complaints and solicitations; and that though it deprived my friend of his it was judged advisable to gratify them ineans of temporal subsistence, at all by expelling an alien, while it was diminished the apparent esteem and determined, but not yet clearly avowcordiality of the most respectable Pro- ed, to protect their own citizens in the testants, in Paris and other places. measures of peaceable dissent. M. Neither, I am still more happy to say, C.'s charges against M. M. are three. has this part of his history prevented (Mon. Repos. p. 8.) his officiating very frequently, as an ). That “ in 1818 he wrote against occasional ininister, in many parts of the Pastors.”—M. M., with his chaFrance. But he has been appointed racteristic openness, very soon after to no other pastoral charge. In the his arrival at Geneva, printed and sent Protestant churches, the people elect, round to the Pastors a letter of five


3 x

quarto pages, dated August 18, 1817. but that M. M. will meet him in a It is elegantly drawn up, and devoted manly and candid manner. almost solely to the inculcating of 3. That "he was condemned, some tolerance, charity and good temper months ago, to fine and imprisonment towards persons who differ in religious by a French tribunal, for having in opinions. It is an absolute misrepre- various places set parishioners against sentation to say that it is “ against their pastors, and turned them to the pastors.” It is against no one: Methodism.” Any of your readers, it is merely a pleading against the Sir, from Cornwall to Caithness, will principle of persecution, and in de- in a moment see how to translate this fence of universal religious freedom: into plain English. But it might ap. and it is throughout in the most re- pear a disregard to impartiality, if I spectful style of address. I venture were to withhold the facts alluded to. to say that, were the whole of it to be Few need to be informed that the eninserted, it would give universal plea- joyment of religious freedom by Prosure to your readers, and would do testants in France is, in practice, far honour to the pages of the Monthly inferior to the toleration of our counRepository: but I will request admit- try. My esteemed friend Méjanel is tance for only a few paragraphs. pious, amiable, upright, well-inform

To write or speak against ed, and an engaging preacher, and he differing opinions is not hostility. is not habitually imprudent: but I do Such contests, when conducted with not believe that he regards extreme honour and integrity, are innocent: caution, which, perhaps, some of the yea, more, they are noble and highly best of men would call worldly wisto be commended ; and their issue, dom, as a cardinal virtue. In the sooner or later, must be the triumph spring of 1923, at a village in the deof truth.-I would expose myself to partment of the Aisne, he conducted be smitten by both parties,-[in pro- some religious services without obtesting against]-encroachments of serving the restrictions of the law as any kind committed against liberty of to place and the number of hearers. conscience, the right of judging for In so doing he gave offence to a neighone's self of the truths contained in bouring Protestant pastor. For this the word of God, the right of express- he was prosecuted, and condemned by ing to others the sincere opinions the first tribunal to three months' imwhich we form.--The oppression prisonment and a fine of 200 francs. which aims to shut the mouth of an He appealed to the next higher court, adversary, in order to get a cheap and which was held at Laon; and this reworthless victory, is nothing else than pealed the sentence of imprisonment, tyranny; it is a criminal war against but confirmed the fine. The barristers, both God and man; it is the very alınost if not quite unanimously, mainravaging of the church of Christ; it tained that the lower court was in is the greatest obstacle that can pos. error, and that the law bad not been sibly be opposed to the progress of violated: and the Judges and the Christians towards those days of know- King's Attorney treated M. M. with ledge, peace and prosperity, which marked respect. The whole proceedshall certainly be at last enjoyed. — ings made a remarkably favourable Each party ought to say to its oppo. impression, through a very extensive site, We want not to be your judges, and populous district; and the Proany more than we admit you to be testant minister who had taken a part ours : preach your doctrine; we will in the prosecution, very shortly after preach that which is agreeable to our manifested a friendly disposition. judgment and conscience ; and God Now, I request the reader to judge will prosper what he approves.—You of the integrity and candour of M. are divided in opinion, but be united Chenevière's insinuations. in charity. This harmony of hearts- IX. The New Church, as it is will bring on happy times.”

called; or the Society formed in 1817, 2. That M. M.'“ has gone from upon the simple principle of the New place to place doing mischief.” Such Testament, a voluntary and congregageneral charges certainly are out of tional union for celebrating the ordithe reach of reply. Let M. C. say nances of Christian worship and inwhat he means, and I have no doubt struction. M. C. admits that these Dissenters have “ given an example M. Bost may be one of their number; of integrity" by their open secession: of his pamphlet I have given some but he also affirms that their “ heads information before. (P. 473.) No. -have put out several pieces with the thing could be more cruelly unjust same intention,” of depreciating the than to represent, as in any way disEstablished Church, and that their respectful, the Address of this church, conduct has been “indecorous and cited in p. 406. That would be, inblameable."

deed, to realize the fable of the wolf To the account already given of and the lamb. Neither can I say any this Congregational Church, (pp. 405 thing about the charge of “indecorous -407,) I need not add much. It has and blameable conduct,” except, that two pastors, M. Æmilius Guers and it is contrary to all my conceptions of M. Empaytaz. M. Gonthier, one of probability, and that, in the absence its first pastors, finislied a short, but of all evidence, I cannot believe it. holy and useful, course in January X. M. Cæsar Malan. I must con1823. From personal knowledge of tent myself with a most imperfect him and M. Guers, I feel myself notice of this excellent màn; or I greatly honoured in having an oppor- should transgress all reasonable limits. tunity' of bearing testimony to their M. Chenevière bas occupied twentyintellectual and moral characters, their two colamps in aspersing him ; but, acquirements in literature and theo- to any serious person who will imparlogy, their scriptural piety and zeal, tially reflect, I think that the tenor of their noble disinterestedness, and the those pages will furnish its own antihard and painful sacrifices which they dote. I must also reqnest the candid made to their honest convictions. The reader to turn to pp. 323, 324, 405members of this church are partly 409, of this volume. Pædobaptist and partly of the oppo- In the Established Church of Gesite persuasion; but they can main. neva there are about 25 pastors, who tain purity and harmony, without rigid serve the five churches of the city, acuniformity. They make no terms of cording to a system of rotation. These, communion but the evidence of sincere with the country pastors of the Canreligion, and acknowledge no ecclesi- ton, constitute the Venerable Comastical regulations but those of the pany; and, with the addition of some New Testament. Their place of wor- Lay-Elders and Government Officers, ship is a part of a private building, they form the Consistory. (I request fitted up as they bave been able, and the reader thus to make correct a much too small for their congregation. clause in page 324.) There is also a I have been assured by persons worthy class, whether limited in number or of credit, that, had they a sufficient not I do not know, called Ministers. place of meeting, they would probably These are young men who have gone have a thousand attendants. "But, in through the eight or nine years of a walled and densely built city it is study in the Academy, have received scarcely possible to obtain building- the honourable testiinonials of the ground, and only at a tremendous Professors, and have been approved and price. It would be worthy of the li- ORDAINED by the Company. These berality and munificence of the Coun- are called upon to preach as circumcil of State to grant them the use of stances require; and are promoted to one of the churches, at hours when it vacancies in the pastorship, as they is not used by the old congregation. occur. Of this class was M. Malan. Such a boon would injure no one ; it He was also one of the Regents, or would be only similar to the joint use Tutors, of the College. Till 1816 or of the same church which, in some 1816 his religious views resembled parts of Switzerland, (as I have read,) those of the majority of his clerical is enjoyed by Protestants and Catho- brethren; his eloquence procured him lics ; and it is well merited by a moral admiration in the pulpit; and bis high and exemplary body of Christians order of accomplishments made him a whom a wise and generous govern- favourite in the literary and polished ment will soon learn to appreciate. circles. Serious reflection, the con

I know of no publications from the versation of Dr. Mason of New York, members of this church which can and of Mr. Haldane, and the devout fall under M. C.'s censure. Perhaps study of the New Testament, were the

means which operated a gradual, but preposterous requirement. At last, at length very decided, change in his by importunities and softening explireligious sentiments and affections, cations, he was prevailed upon to sign and in his entire character. This it; for which he afterwards severely change, of necessity, was indicated by blarned himself. M. C. charges him his preaching; and the impression, with insincerity in this action. (P.66.) favourable and unfavourable, which it The facts of the case, even according made upon the public inind was very to M. C.'s own representation, do not great. Other events coincided to in- appear to me to sustain this accusacrease that impression. The declining tion. Had M. Malan acted from such of MM. Gonthier and Guers to con- a motive, the probability is, that he tinue in the Establishment, when they would have quietly sat down and enhad finished most honourably their joyed the fruits of duplicity. Abunacademical course; the formation of dant examples and venerable sanction the Dissenting Church; the various for such conduct were not far for other circumstances detailed in these him to seek. But I believe, upon sapapers ; and the rekindled vigour of tisfactory grounds, that, unnerved in å respectable minority in the pasto- the first place by parental and by still rate, in preaching the doctrines of the more tender pleadings, he was induced New Testament; all concurred to sti- by persons who, perhaps, felt more mulate the feelings of all classes. The for his temporal interests than be citizens of Geneva may be called one himself did, to confide in the Comfamily. They almost universally know, pany's admitting such an explication and take a lively interest in, the af- of the Règlement as would only profairs of each other. Neutrality is dif- hibit discussions on abstruse points, ficult and hardly possible. It scarcely which he had never any inclination to needs to be said that opponents were bring into the pulpit; and that his far more numerous than favourites characteristic style of awakening adand friends. The lowest vulgar shew, dresses, on the necessity of faith, reed their propensities by assaults and pentance and holiness, would not be horrid outeries. The paragraph-wric construed into a violation of the enters for the Paris newspapers sent gagement. I think this the more flippant statements, full of that mis. probable, as the copy of the Règlerepresentation which is produced by ment which I received about that time ignorance when coupled with malevo- differs from that given by M. C. prelence. The majority of the clergy cisely in this very way. I could preach, acted as Lord Clarendon says that de- fully and freely, my Calvinistic sentiscription of persons usually do act, ments, without intrenching upon what when thrown into critical and delicate might seem to be the sense of the first conjunctures of affairs ; with great and third restrictions, as first pubbustle, but with very little moderation lished. M. C. tells us how this difor wisdom. The Supreme Authorities ference happened (Mon. Repos. pp. of the Republic, during this difficult 5 and 6 of this vol.): and also says and anxious period, appear to have that the Regulation “ did not oppose conducted themselves in a manner the publication of theological docwhich entitles them to much praise. trines, either in writing, without reIf, in two or three instances, they serve ; or in the pulpit, if there exyielded too much to the importunities plained briefly and mildly, and when of the powerful and vindictive party, ibe subject led to them.” It does not great consideration is due to the per- appear, however, that the Venerable plexing and untried circumstances in Company gave to those for whom they which they were placed. But, all legislated, any instrument for meathings considered, they acted with suring the quantity and quality of the prudence and some liberality. said explications. M. Malan soon

The Company then published their found, to his cost, that the allowance Regulation of May 3, 1817, (see p.5, was subject to no definite rule, and of this vol,) in one point of view an that the whole was a trap which arbiartful spare; in another, a flagrant trary power could use at its pleasure. invasion of natural right, of common In consequence of his subscription, he sense, of justice, and of religion, M. was allowed to preach. He delivered, Malan long declined to submit to this I think, two sermons : and then the


Company issued their order to forbid submitted the manuscript to the Prinhin the use of any pulpit. It is in- cipal, who kept it three weeks, and possible for me to give any informa- then gave express permission that it tion upon the character of these ser- might be printed.

If I might judge of them by 2. That he had introduced the Bithe analogy of those discourses of M. ELE into the religious instruction of Malan which I have read, I should his class. He replied that he had not say that they were luminous, tender, done this without what he believed to awakening, discriminating, evangelical be sufficient permission from a supeand practical, in a high degree: but rior in the College; that he adapted to say that his serinons (so far as I the use of the Scriptures to the standhave read or heard any of them) con- ing and capacity of his pupils; and tain arrogant denunciations, discus. that he had received various testimosions on the subject of Predestination, nies of satisfaction with his plan. or assertions of“ the inutility of good 3. That he made changes in the works," would be grossly untrue. But Catechism. He answered that the this is not the ground which I take. allegation was untrue, that he taught I must repeat the position laid down the Catechism wholly and without alin my first letter, that M. Malan had teration, but that he felt it an indisthe same right to preach his religious pensable duty to supply its defects sentiments that his opponents had to and fill up its generalities, in his lecpreach theirs. I may even go farther, tures, by more ample developements and assert that, upon their principles of religious truths and duties from the as a Church-Establishment, he bad a Scriptures ; and that, in all this, he much greater right; for his doctrines acted according to the rules of the are no other than those of their own College, and the practice of the other original Confessions, which, if the re- Regents. gulation of J. A. Turrettin, of 1706, 4. That he introduced into his lecbe still in force, (see p. 469 of this tures the most abstruse, difficult and vol.,) they have engaged not to oppose. controvertible points in theology, alBut, even if that regulation has been together above the capacities of his abolished, surely M. Malan might, pupils

. This he positively denied. with good reason, have pleaded, that He affirmed that he never endeavoured the doctrines of all the Reformers, the to make his scholars disputants, to doctrines on which the Church of Ge- load their minds with scholastic subtilneva was founded, and which were its ties, or to harass their consciences solemn profession till a comparatively with superstitious scruples and vain recent period, should not be the only terrors; but, in the midst of their ones proscribed; while, in all other intellectual labours, never to neglect respects, the most free-thinking ex- the one thing needful, the education cursions are encouraged.

of their souls, their elernal salvation. The next step of these indefatigable He said that he had taught his pupils, persecutors was to eject M. Malan to the best of his judgment, nothing from his situation as one of the Tutors unsuitable to their capacities and atin the College, which was effected in tainments ; that he had laid before November 1818. M. C. passes this them, in scriptural simplicity, the over in a few lines, full of inequitable ruin of man by sin, salvation by the representation. (P. 65 of this vol.) grace of God through Jesus Christ, He makes two accusations.

and the indispensable necessity of 1. That M. M. " had given distur- gratitude and universal obedience ; bance to the Inspectors of the College, and that, with respect to the partiby the nature of his religious instruc- cular accusation of introducing the tions, and on that account they had doctrine of Predestination, he had withdrawn from him the confidence carefully avoided it, conceiving it to he no longer merited.”—The com- be a doctrine proper to be delivered plaints against M. M. were the fol- only to persons who had made conlowing:

siderable progress in the knowledge 1. That he bad published a small of Christianity, and in a devout subvolume of Latin Poetry, for the use mission to the authority and grace of of his pupils, without Academical au- God. thority. M. M. replied that he had This is a bare outline of M. Malan's

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