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need of nothing.' (Rev. iii. 17. Fr. vigorous operation ;-what might we trans.)
not hope for !- that the Spirit were “ Geneva stands in need of a refor. poured from on high!—Then would mation and a reformer scarcely less the wilderness becoine a fruitful field.” than she did in the sixteenth century. That I may not withhold any thing Were it to please the Lord, to whoin which might seem to give a foundation nothing is impossible, to raise up one of truth to M. C.s assertion, I add or more of the Genevese pastors them that there is in London an association selves, who should unite the excellen- called the Continental Society, estacies of Romaine and Toplady, of New- blished in 1819; of which I have the ton and the two Venns, in the Church honour to be a member, and whose of England,-how rich, how unspeak- means of usefuluess I wish were in. able would be the mercy! No terms creased a thousand fold, for its re. can express the blessings which we sources are very sınall. The object of might hope to behold.-But such an this institution is to encourage and event is peculiarly within the domain assist ministers of any communion, but of Divine Sovereignty. There seems of well-attested piety and good characto be scarcely any opportunity for the ter, in their own respective countries operation of human means in order to as much as possible, to diffuse what promote it. The introduction of a the Society considers to be Scriptural suitable minister, if such could be Christianity, by preaching, circulating found, who would act on an indepen- the Scriptures, and any other suitable dent plan, appears the more practica- means. I believe that the efforts of ble measure. But he must be a inan this Society have been extended to of rare qualities. He should unite the some parts of Switzerland, and pertheological accuracy, the sagacity and haps to Geneva. But in no fair sense the firmness of Calvin, with the sweet- of the word could this be called a ness of Flavel, and the fervour of Methodist Society. Whitfield. He should be a Swiss or Of the circumstances, which M. C. a Frenchman, a scholar and an orator. says occurred in 1810, I know nothing. He should be prepared to meet and His own account, however, sufficiently to suffer every kind of opposition; charges the Consistory with great and he should have all the meekness weakness and a foolish disposition to of wisdom not to arouse unnecessary intolerant meduling. The same reopposition. He should be a man who mark appears to me to be just, with has the command of a ready and pow- respect to the regulation of 1813, for erful pen, as well as of an eloquent preventing sectarianism among the tongue. He should be a man indefa. Theological students. A surer way tigable in labour, humble in spirit, could scarcely be devised for awakenmighty in the Scriptures, and emi- ing and stimulating inquiry, than to nently' a man of prayer. O that such coinnand men to travel with their a servant of Christ were raised up! eyes shut.- I shall now follow M, C.'s O that the Christians of Great Britain statements, with regard to particular may be honoured as the instruinents persons. of obtaining and encouraging such a 1. M. Empaytaz. This gentleman man!
I have not the pleasure of personally “The importance of Geneva is be knowing ; but he is known and reyond expression great. Its geogra- spected by friends of mine, who would phical position, the active spirit of its not, I am persuaded, give their esteem people, and its commercial relations, to a questionable character. On the fit it to be the centre and metropolis charge of his violating the injunctions of the Protestant world. In a sense, of the Consistory, after he had proit holds the keys of France, Switzer- mised to observe thein, it would be land and Italy. These countries lie unfair to judge without hearing his at its gates, and their inhabitants are side of the question. M. C. introduces continually resorting to it. Were the newspaper statements, representing gospel preached in this city, with M. Empaytaz as a fanatic and preclearness, life and energy ;- were there tended prophet. I have not the least Bible Societies, Tract Societies, and doubt of these allegations being perMissionary Societies, in constant and fect falsehoods. The only anthority named is the Journal des Débats; a devoted bimself, with a generosity paper to which no man who under- rarely equalled, to the most benevostands such matters would attach the lent purposes that can be entertained smallest credit, in any case where by a human mind. There are few Protestantism and liberty could be persons who are more addicted to cool aspersed, or bigotry and intolerance reasoning ; or who have more correct aided : and the prejudices and slavery views or inore consistent practice on of the continental newspapers gene. the subject, I will not say of tolerarally are too well known to allow of tion, but of the entire rights of reliour relying upon them. I have good gious liberty. Abundant proof that reason for believing that the statements he does not contemn reason, but em. which they gave, and which were re- ploys the processes of induction and published in our London papers, of argument, in a manner highly judithe fanaticism and pretension to su- cious, scrupulous and logical, will appernatural gifts of Madaine Krudener pear to any one who will read his (to whom M. E. was for a time in the work on the Evidence and Authority capacity of chaplain) were grossly un- of Divine Revelation, 2 vols. 8vo. true. A friend of mine, who was in 1816. On the first opening of this Switzerland at or near the same time work, my eye has been caught by a with that lady, and who is far from passage which I transcribe, because it being an enthusiast, assured me that furnishes a fair indication of the authe current stories were fabrications, thor's mental habits. He has been and that their sole occasion was a speaking of the unhappy prevalence warm-hearted, zealous, active piety of unexamined assumptions and conand benevolence, which was occasion. clusions drawn without sufficient evi. ally manifested in extraordinary and, dence, in the matters of religion. perhaps, indiscreet methods. Å very “ In every other concern of human small measure of the most rational life, the folly and danger of such a zeal in the infinite concerns of reli- plan would be at once manifest. Ea. gion, is sufficient to stamp a person ger inquiry, in proportion to the im. an enthusiast, in the opinion of many portance of the object, would be made who would admire a far more impas- without delay, to know whether any sioned enthusiast for music, the dra- thing like certainty could be obtained; ma, or the dance.-M. C. further or at least to ascertain the best procharges this Genevese student with babilities. And it is not to be supinserting, without acknowledgment, a posed that such a body of evidence as passage from Massillon, in the pam- Christianity presents, would be lightly phlet which he published on the Dic set aside, or overlooked. But the man vinity of Jesus Christ. I saw that who makes up his mind, in regard to pamphlet in 1817 or 1818, but have his future condition, on the above not now access to it. If the author principles, stakes his all against that was guilty of the plagiarism, he de evidence. For if the Bible be not a serves all the rebuke which M. C. has fiction, although lie may gain the given him : and, in such a case as this, whole world, he will lose his own soul. it is hardly supposable that the charge Nor are there many such, who can could be made without foundation. plead that they have paid any adequate
II. Robert Haldane, Esq., of Edin- attention to this evidence. Some difburgh. M. C. charges this gentleman ficulty in the system of Christianity with “
inviting some students and strikes their minds, which, without a ininisters to his house, -occupying thorough examination, appears of suftheir minds with the mysterious points ficient weight to excuse them from furof the Christian religion,-inoculating ther inquiry on a suliject to which they them with lis own exclusive and in- find themselves very much disinclined. tolerant spirit,-insisting strongly on Or they have rashly concluded that, the contempt with which reason ought if the Christian religion had in reality to be regarded, -waging war indis- come from God, its truth must have creetly against good works,”- --so that been supported by' evidence so clear they were spoken of with disdain— as to require no trouble in its examiand treated in a licentious manner.” nation. Yet this would be contrary
* Mr. H. is a man of family, fortune to almost every thing with which we and talents, who has, for many years, are acquainted. Knowledge of those
things that are most necessary for us, illustrated his doctrine of Justification must be acquired by diligence and al- by Faith, the apostle proceeds to retention.” (Vol. I. p. 2.)
fute the most reproachful accusation This passage affords a fair insight by which it was assailed, as if it fainto Mr. H.'s intellectual character. I voured sin, and were unfriendly to had never the happiness of knowing a practical holiness. For, as that docmore dispassionate or careful reasoner, trine proclaimed a declaration of grace or one whose habit of mind was more or the forgiveness of sins, and this distinguished by the demand and the without the works of the law; its scrutiny of sufficient evidence, upon adversaries hence took the opportuevery subject. A grosser error could nity of casting reproach upon it, as not be comınitted, than to impute to giving licence to sin and encouragesuch a man the sentiment that, “ in ment to sinners." (Prælect. in Ep. the affairs of religion, reason ought to ad Rom. p. 214.) be trampled under foot.”
M. C. is pleased further to support As to Mr. Haldane's “ waging war his representations by referring to against good works,” I have no hesi- an English book, The Refuge, which, tation in saying, that the assertion is he says, a
ecclesiastic did not another instance of unprincipled ca- blush to translate into French and to lumny. It is undeserving of being publish." I am at a loss for language refuted by the induction of particulars. to express my sense of the baseness Mr. H.'s character, conversation and of any one who could read The Rewritings, are a complete exposure of fuge, and then represent it as this the pusillanimous wickedness of this gentleman has done! His heart must charge. It is but too probable that be hardened beyond even a very high Professor C.'s theological studies have degree of moral callousness. To such never carried him so far, as to have a heart, falsehood must be food, and informed him that this identical accu- the most outrageous calumnies a consation was the endless outcry of the genial delight. It is probably twentyPapists, in the sixteenth century, five years since I read this little work, against the Reformers, and particu- till just now that I have been excited larly Luther. It has always been the by M. C.'s reference to take it up. I. vulgar, ignorant and malevolent ob- rejoice and bless God that it has been jection against the great Protestant translated into French. Its usefulness doctrine, the articulus stantis vel ca- , is calculated to be very great. I prodentis ecclesiæ, of Justification freely fess that I can scarcely conceive of by Grace through Faith in the Divine any human writing that breathes a Redeemer. Against this rock, M. C. more pure and holy spirit, that conmay exhaust his strength : it feels no tains a more luminous display of the impression. If he would bring a seri. gospel, or that has a more effectual ous mind to the consideration of the tendency to promote solid and active infinitely momentous subject, he would virtue. This tendency is justly exfind his objection completely antici- pressed in one of its own pages. pated and removed in the ivth and * Though every moment cannot be vith chapters of the Epistle to the laid out on the formal and regular Romans. It would also well become improvement of our knowledge, or in him to read the earlier luminaries of the stated practice of a moral or relihis own church, particularly the trea- gious duty, yet none should be so tise De Concordiâ Pauli et Jacobi of spent as to exclude wisdom or virtue, Francis Turrettin. Even Alphonsus or pass without possibility of qualifyTurrettin, who employed his fine ta- ing us, more or less, for the better lents with such unhappy success to employment of those which are to lower the standard of Christian doc- come.” (Refuge: by the Author of trine at Geneva, and whom surely M. the Guide to Domestic Happiness. C. has been taught to revere, suffi- Lond. 1798, p. 11.) In this work the ciently acknowledges that the genuine great Christian doctrine of forgiveness doctrine of the gospel has the semn- and acceptance with God is largely blance of being liable to this imputa- and, as am thoroughly convinced, tion, when exposed to the animad- most justly and scripturally treated : version of superficial and prejudiced and I “ blush not to aver iny perpersons. Having established and suasion that M, C.'s representation, can apply to it with precisely the same I take my stand upon the insulated truth and fairness as to the position passage itself, and affirm that M. C. of the apostle, “We conclude that could not have written what he has man is justified by faith, without works done without deliberate fraud! He of law. To him that worketh not, must have read the book at least parbut believeth in Him who justifieth tially, to find out the passage. He the ungodly, his faith is counted for must have been aware of the true sense righteousness: as David also describ- of the passage, (as referring solely and eth the happiness of the man to whom most definitely to the ground of justi. God counteth righteousness without fication for a sinner before God,) beworks." (Rom. iii. 28, iv. 5, 6.) M. cause he has so carefully garbled his C. gives a sentiment which, he says, pretended allegation of it, as to exin The Refuge we read in so many clude the broad declarations of that words, that the man most deeply sense. He must have known that, stained with crimes, and the man who while he was writing that so and so, has performed the greatest number of we read in so many words,” he was good works, are perfectly equal in the adducing what was 'not found there sight of God!" (P. 4.) A more flaw in clauses, or words, or sentiments. grant instance of dishonest quotation What homage has he not paid to the could hardly exist. The only passage book which he reviles; when he shews in the book to which I can, by any that he could not reach his purpose reasonable conjecture, suppose that without committing a literary forM. C. alludes, is this :
gery! What honour has he not con" In the cross of Christ, the loving- ferred upon the persons whom he kindness of God to man appears with pursues with such enmity, in that, meridian lustre. By this despised while he is affecting a zeal for the inmean of human happiness, and this terests of morality and an aların lest only, the divine perfections are glori- they should suffer from the promulgafied and the chief of sinners saved. tion of the primary doctrine of the Not, be it remembered, by works of Reformation, he is himself trampling righteousness which we have done: upon the first law of social morals, for there is nothing we ever have done the obligation of TRUTH in giving tesor ever shall do, that can procure an timony ! interest in the Divine favour. Sup-, It is painful to me to use these pose a character, among the apostate strong expressions : but the regard sons of Adam, in whom resides all the due to violated truth makes them nemoral excellency that ever dignified cessary. Most sincerely do I pray human nature since the fall ; and, on that the glorious grace which M1. C. the other hand, one in whom concen- thus awfully insults, may forgive the tres all the moral evil committed since enormous wickedness of the attempt, that fatal period; and it will be found and reclaim him who has nade it." I on examination that, in point of justi- subjoin the words of the inmortal fication before God, they stand on a Luther, which, though far more perfect level. The accumulated vir. open to plausible objection, than any tue of the former, if pleaded as that that are to be found in The Refuge, which might render him acceptable to are, to my conviction, most fully his Judge, would avail nothing : nor warranted by the Holy Scriptures : would the enormous guilt of the latter, “ Christ condemns not only men's simply considered, be an obstacle to self-confidence, but all their rightethe bestowment of grace and of glory." ousness and inerit of works. For, (P. 75.)
since we are bound to declare that I wave the adduction of passages works are useless,” (i. e. to justificaalmost without end from The Refuge, tion,] “it of necessity follows that which insist upon the ABSOLUTE NE. they are not a righteousness, that they CESSITY of personal holiness; I wave are of no avail for the procuring of appealing to the words immediately eternal life, that they are worthless, following the preceding citation, which and absolutely things of nothing. contain the strongest assertion to that Therefore, all self-confidence, rightceffect; I wave any reference to the ousness, wisdom, and every kind of tenor and genius of the work, every works, is rejected.” (Non enim fiduwhere bright with moral purity; and ciam tantum, sed et justitiam omnem
et merita operum, damnat Christus. study of the Bible, as the only source Si enim dicendum est opera esse inu- of religions truth. His circle of actilia, sequitur necessario quod non sint quaintance became so enlarged, that justitia nec valeant ad vitam æternam, lie was obliged to appropriate certain sed sint vilia et nibili prorsus. Igitur days and hours, at which he welcomed omnis fiducia, justitia, sapientia, ct all who chose to come to his house, quicquid est operum, rejicitur.) Mart. for the purpose of reading the ScripLutheri Comm. in Genesim, Tom. II. tures and religious conversation. Whefol. 209; ed. Norimb. 1550. Littlether in any of these meetings acts of must M. C. be acquainted with the worship were introduced, I do not faculty in which he is Professor, if he know. I have been informed that Mr. does not krow that this was the doc. H.'s characteristic method was to be trine upon which not only Luther, reserved in giving his own interprebut all the chiefs of the Reformation tations and arguments ; but earnestly most cordially united, and inade it the to urge a continued and patient searchtheme of their warmest glorying. In- ing of the divire oracles, disregarding deed M. C. himself, with strange in- all the authorities and theories of men, consistency, has admitted the very as the legitimate way of answering doctrine, it his words are to be under the queries and resolving the difficulstood in their proper sense ; for he tics of his visitors. The effect of this
“the insufliciency of good course was very important., A con, works for procuring salvation, is a siderable number, both students and doctrine professed by all Christian others, became convinced of the scripministers." He cannot but know that tural evidence and the holy tendency this is, in fact, the sentiment of those of the doctrines called Calvinistic. whom he would cover with reproach; Of these some continued in the Church and that to accuse them of icaching of Geneva; others became ministers of “the absolute inutility of good works," French churches in remoter parts of is pure defamation. O that he would Europe ; two at least (Messrs. Guers seriously consider that he has aimed and Gonthier) declared themselves his poisoned arrows, not against The Dissenters, and joined with other perRefuge or Mr. Haldane or M. Malan sons in forming a church upon the alone, not against the Puritans or congregational principle, but upon the Methodists or Mômiers merely; but most liberal terms of Christian comagainst Luther and Melancthon, Cal- inunion; and one, of whom we must vin, Zuinglius and Cranmer ; yea, say more liereafter, being in circumagainst the high and holy dictates of stances which put him more comINSPIRATION itsel!!
pletely under the absolute and arbiTo return to Mr. Haldane. He irary power of the clergy, was selected came to Geneva about the autumn, I to be the victim of what I cannot but believe, of 1816 ; on a continental call an inhuman, relentless, and most tour, and without any intention of iniquitous persecution. staying more than a few days. But Á serious and diligent attention to circumstances brought him into some religious truth, extraneously to offiintercourse with the clergy and the cial routine, was a novel and surpristhcological students in the College. ing thing at Geneva. It excited great Ways of attempted usefulness opened attention : and, as it is so much the hefore him, and he availed himself of deplorable custom of the continental them in a manner which entitles him governments to pry into and meddle to the lasting gratitude of the people with all the exercises of religion, priof Geneva. He soon discovered that vate and public, the notice of the su. irreligion in practice, and schemes of preme authorities of the Republic was doctrine widely alien from the gospel directed to Mr. H. and his proceedings. of Christ, had a dominion almost uni. In my former letter I said that he was versal and unrestrained; and that this summarily expelled the Canton; but Jamentable prostration of all sound a friend has since told me that he bepiety and Christian obedience was, in lieves I was mistaken, and that Mr. a very great measure, supported by H. pursued his journey into the South an extreme neglect and ignorance of of France, either upon receiving a the Scriptures. His first aim was to private intimation from the Governrecommend the impartial and serious ment, or because he understood that