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“If we do not shoot him to-day, he will have us shot to-morrow. He was pushed against the wall. A sergeant of the line alı!ost immediately advanced towards him. “General,” said he, if you will promise- Suddenly changing his mind, lie stepped two paces back and discharged his Chassepôt full in the General's chest. The others had only to finish the deed. Clément Thomas never showed a moment's weakness. His back against the same wall as Lecomte, but two paces from his corpse, he made head against death to the end, and spoke very harshly. When the guns were lowered, he by an instinctive gesture placed his left arm before his face; and this old Re. publican died in the attitude of Cæsar. Later in the day the insurgents took possession of the Ilôtel de Ville, the Ministère de Justice, and the military head-quarters in the Place Vendôme. Barricades also began to appear in all directions. A proclamation signed by Central Committee of the National Guards”. was posted up in the afternoon :--“ Citizens, The French people, until the attempt was made to impose upon it by force an impossible calm, has awaited without fear and without provocation the shameful fools who desired to touch the Republic. This time our brothers of the army would not raise their hands against the arch of our liberties. Thanks to all, and that you and France have proclaimed the Republic, with all its consequences, the only Government which can close for ever the era of invasions and civil wars. The state of siege is raised. The people of Paris are convoked in their comitia for the communal elections. The security of all citizens is assured by the co-operation of the National Guard.”
At ten o'clock at night an eye-witness writes :-“The rebels are gaining upon the town point by point. They have come down from Montmartre and taken possession of the Prince Eugène barracks; they have planted the red flag on the column of the Bastille ; we are expecting them on the boulevards every hour; half Paris is in their hands; and when we wake in the morning we expect that the town will be under the Government of the Red Republic. Private persons are in consternation, and ihe Government offices are in the greatest anxiety. On the exterior boulevards hardly any civilians are 6 be seen-none but armed men; and those few civilians who venture out in this quarter are immediately followed and suspected of being police spies. With the help of lanterns, the insurgents (it is now ten o'clock at night) are busily engaged in erec: ing barricades. The barricade at the top of the Rue Rochechouart is becoming quite formidable. The makers of the barricades encourage themselves with solemn oaths that they will die rather than surrender.”
18.-Dr. Payne Smith installed as Dean of Canterbury, in succession to Dr. Alford.
The Paris elections were to have taken place to-day, but the Mayors put aside the
action of the Committee till the consent of the National Assembly could be obtained. The Paris press also published a joint declaration counselling the electors not to vote. The Conimittee thereupon deferred their election scheme till the 22nd, seizing in the interim such of the mairies as were not already in their power.
18.-Died, aged 64, Professor Augustus De Morgan, an eminent authority in mathematical science.
The Queen of the Thames steamer lost near Cape Agulhas, on her homeward voyage, after making a trip of only 58 days to Sydney, the shortest known.
20.-The “Central Committee” issue an official organ, with a manifesto declaring that it is the offspring of the free expression of the suffrage on the part of 215 battalions of the National Guard. It repels the accusation brought against the Committee of being the promoter of disorder, for it says the National Guard which directs it has shown itself imposing and strong hy the wisdom and moderation of its conduct. The manisesto further accuses the Government of having calumniated Paris, and of having incited the provinces against the capital. It adds :-“ The Government has endeavoured to impose a commander. in-chief upon you, it has sought by nocturnal attempts to deprive us of our cannon, and has finally intended to take from Paris her crown of capital of France.”
A second proclamation fixed the election to “The Communal Council of Paris” for the 22nd (afterwards de. ferred to the 26th), and a third intimated that the Committee would, after the elections, lay down its provisional power in the hands of the people.
- The Emperor Napoleon arrives at Dover from Ostend, and receives a hearty reception as he passed up the quay with
vie Empress to the Lord Warden Hotel. They proceeded to Chislehurst in the afternoon.
- The French Assembly meets at Versailles for the first time.
M. Rouher, ex-Minister of the Empire, mobbed at Boulogne, and afterwards placed in arrest at the Hôtel de Ville.
Died, at Heidelberg, aged 66, Professor George Gottfried Gervinus, historian, and Liberal politician.
81.—The German Reichstag opened by the Emperor in person. He described its first duty to be the healing as much as possible of the wounds inflicted by war, and the commencement of those works by which the representatives of the German people sought to fulfil the mission entrusted to them by the Constitution.
Marriage of the Marquis of Lorne and the Princess Louise in St. George's Chapel, Windsor.
Sir Henry Bulwer gazetted Baron Dalling, and Sir William Mansfield, Baron Sandhurst.
21.--The Government of Versailles issue a circular to prefects declaring the news from all parts of France to be entirely reassuring. * Disorder is nowhere triumphant. In Paris the citizens are organising the suppression of the insurrection. At Versailles the National Assembly and the Government have collected an army of 45,000 trustworthy troops around them, and are masters of the situation to-day. The National Assembly yesterday held its first sitting, showing itself calm, united, and resolute. Jointly with the Executive power, it formed a committee upon the measures demanded by the circumstances. A proclamation will be shortly published to the people. Lille, Lyons, Marseilles, and Bordeaux are tranquil. You may publish this news to the people. It is strictly true, for the Government which communicates it is a truthful Government. Let it be well understood that every Government agent who tries to make terms with disorder will be prosecuted, and will forfeit his position.—Thiers.”
- The insurgent Journal Officiel demands that Paris shall not be separated from the provinces, nor the provinces from her. has been, is still, and must definitely remain the capital of Frarice, the head and heart of the Democratic Republic one and indivisible. Paris has, therefore, an unquestionable right to proceed with the elections of the Communal Council, to govern herself as becomes every democratic city, and to protect herself, supported by the National Guards, composed of all citizens electing their own chiefs by universal suffrage. The Central Committee of the National Guard, in taking the necessary measures for the establishment of a Paris Communal Council and the elections of all the chiefs of the National Guards, has, therefore, taken very wise and most indispensable measures. It is now the duty of the electors and of the National Guard to support the decisions of the Government to assure the safety of Frence and the future of the Republic, in returning by their votes proved and devoted Republicans. To-morrow they will hold their fate in their own hands, and we are already convinced they will make a proper use of their rights. Let Paris deliver France and save the Republic. (Signed) THE DELEGATES OF THE OFFICIAL JOURNAL.'
22.—The Party of Order in Paris muster in large numbers and march to the Place Vendôme, where an interview is held with insurgent leaders, ending in the latter causing the National Guards to fire on the defenceless people. Ten were said to be killed. The Central Committee” officially explained this outrage as having its origin in an attack made upon the Guards after the Party of Order had been asked to retire.
- The Emperor William's 75th birthday celebrated at Berlin with unusual splendour, Count Bismarck, on the occasion, being created a Prince, and Count Moltke presented with the Order of the Iron Cross.
22.- M. Jules Favre reads in the Assembly a letter from Count Bismarck, complaining that the telegraph which the Germans want to use has been cut at Pantin, and requiring its restoration in twenty-four hours. Count Bismarck stated, moreover, that the condition of things in Paris offers scarcely any chance of the engagements entered into with Germany being kept, and that if the émeute be not put down forthwith Paris will be bombarded. M. Jules Favre said he had begged for time, in order that innocent people might not suffer, and had told General Fabrice that the émeute was a surprise, and that all France was faithful, but he gave it to be understood that if Paris did not submit he would concert with the Prussians in subduing it. The reading of the letter gave rise to great excitement.
23.- Found dead in his bed, Dr. Karl Schultzensteim, aged 73, German botanist and physiologist.
Garibaldi elected General-in-Chief of France by the 6. Central Committee." At Versailles the Mayors of Paris appear in the Assembly, wearing their scarfs of office, to demand that permanent communication be opened up with the capital, but the tumult was so great that nothing could be settled. Two days later a communication to the same effect was laid on the table of the Assembly.
24.—Commenting, in the Lords, on the Tien-tsin Massacre, Lord Carnarvon attributed the outbreak to ill-feeling against foreigners generally, countenanced and encouraged by the local authorities. Earl Granville admitted that the massacre was wholly unjustifiable, but pointed out that the conduct of the Catholic missionaries was apt to excite misapprehensions among a jealous and irritable people like the Chinese. There could be no doubt about the prejudice of the people against foreigners, but the moral he drew from that was the necessity of avoiding hostile language as far as possible, and of showing toleration for habits and customs handed down from generation to generation, which must necessarily take much time and patience to eradicate.
25.-Vice-Chancellor Stuart retires from the Court of Chancery. He was succeeded by Mr. Wickens.
26.–Fire in a house in Pavilion Road, Chelsea, causing the death of Mrs. Winsor and four of her children.–At Blackburn, a few hours earlier, Mrs. Kilner and two assistant female confectioners were burnt to death.
Paris elections take place, about 140,000 voting for the men on the lists of the Central Committee, and 60,000 for their opponents. Flourens, Blanqui, Félix Pyat, and Gambon, were among the elected. In abdicating its functions, to-day, the Committee advised the people to avoid those whom fortune has too greatly favoured, for it but seldom happens that he who possesses fortune is willing to look upon the working-man as a brother. * Seek men with
sincere convictions; men of the people, resolute and active, who are well known for their sense of justice and honesty. Give your preference to those who do not canvass for your suffrages; the only true merit is modesty; it is for the electors to know their men, not for the candidates themselves to come forward. We are convinced that you will take note of these observations, and you will at last have inaugurated a truly popular representation ; you will thus have found representatives who will never consider themselves your masters.
A few of the more active members of the “ Central Committee now formed themselves into a
“ SubCommittee,” ultimately the real body in which the power of the Communal Assembly centred.
27.- The House of Lords reject the Marriage with a Deceased Wife's Sister Bill by 97 to 71 votes.
– Mr. Goschen introduces the Navy Esti. mates; the sum required for the year being 9,756,356l., an increase, as compared with last year, of 385,000l.
The Emperor Napoleon visits the Queen at Windsor Castle. Her Majesty returned the visit by proceeding to Chislehurst on the 3rd April.
At a meeting in the Mansion House the Lord Mayor announces that the Captain Relief Fund now amounted to 54,000l.
28.–The Commune proclaimed in Paris in front of the Hôtel de Ville. The members of the Communal Council assembled on a platform fronting the great entrance of Henry IV., over which was placed a bust representing the Republic, wearing a Cap of Liberty, ornamented with red ribbons and flags. Numerous speeches were delivered, but amidst the hum of the crowd of National Guards who filled the square they were not much heard. Salvoes of artillery were also fired from a battery on the quay. The Journal Officiel had previously announced that Paris, “ federated with the Communes of France already enfranchised, ought in her own name and in the names of Lyons and Marseilles, and soon, perhaps, of the other large towns, to study the clauses of the contract which ought to bind them to the nation, and to lay down an ultimatum to the treaty which they intend to sign. The ultimatum ought to contain a guarantee for their autonomy and reconquered municipal sovereignty, should secure free play for the connection existing between the Commune ; and the representatives of the national unity should impose upon the Assembly, if it accepts the treaty, the promulgation of an Electoral law by which the representatives of the town shall not for the future be absorbed, and, as it were, drowned by the representatives of the country districts.” Direct incitement was at the same time given to assassinate the Duke d'Aumale.
Society (writes Citizen Vaillant) has but one duty towards these Princes_Death! But one formality is required-the proof of identity.
The D'Orleans are in France ; the Bonapartes desire to return. Let good citizens think of it.” The red flag was now hoisted on all public buildings.
28.-Declining the offer made to command the National Guard of the Commune, Garibaldi writes from Caprera :--“ Choose a single trustworthy citizen-and you are not without them - Victor Hugo, Louis Blanc, Félix Pyat, as well as Edgar Quinet and the other veterans of radical democracy can serve you. Generals Cremer and Billot, who, I perceive, have your confidence, may count among the number. Remember well, however, that one single trustworthy man ought to be entrusted with the supreme position with full powers. This man will choose other honourable men to aid in the rough task of saving the country. And, if you have the good fortune to find a Washington, France will rise from her shipwreck in a little time greater than ever.”
29.—Died, aged 52, Louise, Queen of Sweden.
The London School Board discuss a motion submitted by Professor Huxley for restricting Bible-reading in elementary schools to selections submitted to and approved by the Board. An amendment was proposed by the Rev. Prebendary Thorold directing the Committee on the Scheme of Education to select for approval a course of Bible readings, and giving instructions to the teachers to choose special passages as occasion might arise. The motion and also the amendment were rejected.
– Died, aged 74, Imam Schamyl, the active opponent of Russia in the Caucasus.
The Royal Albert Hall of Arts and Sciences opened by the Queen, who was received, on entering, by the Prince of Wales as President of the Provisional Committee. A Biblical Cantata, composed for the occasion by Sir M. Costa, was afterwards given with great effect. Eight thousand people were said to be within the building on this occasion.
30,--Mr. Dilke's motion expressing regret that Government assented to a conference on the Black Sea question under the circumstances disclosed in Prince Gortschakoff's note, negatived, after debate, without a division.
The official organ of the Conmune publishes a decree abolishing the conscription, and declaring that no central force, with the excep. tion of the National Guard, can be created or introduced into Paris. All able-bodied citizens to form part of the National Guard. Another decree grants a general remission of rent to lodgers from October 1870 until April 1871. The amounts paid during those seven months will be reckoned on for the months to come. The sale of all articles deposited at the Mont de Piété is suspended. Another decree directs all officials in the public offices to regard from henceforth as null and void all orders or communications emanating from the Government
at Versailles. Every official not conforming to this decree will be immediately dismissed. Another of the many decrees now being issued almost hourly prohibited chaplains from celebrating mass in the prisons to which they were attached. The Gaulois afterwards mentioned that the Governor of one of the prisons, yielding to the importunities of a dying prisoner, made an exception, and gave a priest a pass thus worded :-“ These presents are to authorise the Governor to allow the visit to prisoner A of the Citizen B, who says he is the servant of somebody called God [le nommé Dieu].”
30.—Tried at Kingston Assizes, before the Lord Chief Justice, the case of Goldschmidtv.the printer of Public Opinion, in which journal had been inserted a libellous paragraph from a New York paper, imputing wasteful extravagance and domestic infelicity to the plaintiff, the husband of Jenny Lind. Verdict for the plaintiff, damages 7501., the foreman of the jury adding that they felt that no amount of damages could compensate for so iniquitous a libel.
31.–The gates on the western side of Paris closed, in consequence, it was said, of the Assembly's troops mustering in great force at Neuilly and St. Cloud.
- M. Félix Pyat, in the Vengeur, to-day, rejoices that Paris has not returned a single moderate, temperate, or conciliatory man to the Commune, and no old men, with the exception of himself and two others. He then banters the National Assembly in language unfit for translation, adding they dare not attack Paris, but they isolate it, starve it, and cut off its work and provisions; they annul the elections and empty the Bank and the Treasury; they arm the peasants, and call to their aid the Bretons of Trochu, the Vendeans of Charette, and the Chouans of Cathelineau to aid the Prussians. Citizen Pyat recommended a visit to Versailles.
certain that they will not be left ignorant of passing events, and that when the Government is silent, it is only because it has nothing grave or interesting to communicate.
3.—Noisy meeting in St. James's Hall, presided over by Mr. Chambers, M.P., to protest against the unconstitutional policy of the House of Lords in rejecting bills repeatedly passed by the Commons, and to demand the removal of the Bishops from Parliament.
More fighting before Paris, again to the advantage of the Versailles troops. They were observed to treat the captured Communists with marked severity. Gustave Flourens was among the killed, and Duval taken prisoner and shot. Wild with rage at the defeat and slaughter of their leaders, the Communist party now set about schemes for making reprisals, and placed many in prison to await their pleasure in this respect.
· Died, at Postford House, Surrey, aged 74, Sir William Magnay, Bart., who filled the office of Lord Mayor in 1844, when the Queen opened the Royal Exchange.
Mr. Secretary Bruce introduces a Licens. ing Bill, carrying out, as he described, two broad principles:-1. That the public have a right to a sufficient number of respectably conducted houses; and 2. That all vested interests should be fairly considered.
- Mr. Goschen introduces two bills on the subject of local taxation, designed to provide a uniform system of local government throughout England and Wales (the metropolis excepted), and to secure uniformity of rating. The three main features of his scheme were to popularise the character and increase the efficiency of rural institutions by the establishment of parochial boards, presided over by an elective chairman, and furnishing representative members, to be associated with the magistrates in the administration of county affairs; to give a measure of relief to tenants by a division of rates between owners and occupiers; to give a boon, especially to urban ratepayers, by the surrender of the house-tax to local authorities in aid of local taxation. There were also provisions for subjecting to rates certain kinds of local property, such as mines, woods, and game; for the assessment on a higher scale of country gentlemen's residences ; for the collection of all rates as one consolidated rate ; and for the simplification of the areas of local taxation. Local expenditure was said to amount to 36,000,000l. per annum.
In opening the Spinish Cortes, King Amadeo said :-“ We shall afford an opportunity for your patriotism to remove the difficulties which are surrounding the management of our finances, and to dissipate the apprehensions of the future. In coming to Spain, I intended to identify on the same soil the interests of the realm which has been entrusted to me with that which is dearest to me in the
April 1.-University Boat-race won by Cambridge by a length.
Engagement between the troops of Versailles and the Commune at Courbevoie, from which place the latter were ultimately shelled out by field pieces on Mont Valérien. In the evening M. Thiers issued a manifesto declaring that France-Paris excepted-was entirely pacified. In Paris the Commune, already divided, endeavours to spread everywhere false news, and pillages the public purse. It is in a doubtful position and a horror to the Parisians, who wait with impatience the moment of their deliverance. The National Assembly, rallying round the Government, is sitting peaceably at Versailles, where it is organising one of the finest armies which France has ever possessed. Good citizens, then, may reassure themselves, and hope for the approaching end of a crisis which has been sad, but short. They may be
world-my wife and son. The mission en strength will exceed 100,000 men. I cannot trusted to me is difficult, but glorious; perhaps too strongly recommend the Guards to give the beyond my strength, but not above my will : utmost attention to the question of the choice and with the help of God I hope to succeed. of officers. At present the respective positions God knows my intention, and with the co of the two armies may be summed up thus : operation of the Cortes and all good men,
The Prussians of Versailles occupy the posi. which will not fail me, I hope that my efforts tions which were held by their allies from will be crowned with the reward of achieving beyond the kl.ine. We occupy the trenches the happiness of the Spanish people.”
of Les Moul..caux and the station of Clamart.
In fine, our position is that of men who, strong 3.-Eighth decennial census of the people taken throughout the kingdom.
in their good right, await with firmness the
attack of the enemy, being satisfied with acting 4.—The Economic Museum, Penryn House, on the defensive In conclusion, if our troops Twickenham, destroyed by fire.
retain their sangfroid, and do not waste their 5.-The Commune issue a proclamation to
ammunition, the enemy will be tired out bethe Parisians regarding the recent engagements :-“Every day the banditti of Versailles 7.-Good Friday news from Paris describe slaughter or shoot our prisoners, and every the fighting continued between Neuilly and hour we learn that another murder has been Courbevoie. At 6.30, P.M., the advantage is committed. Those who are guilty of such reported as slightly resting with the Versailles crimes-you know them; those are the Gen troops, “who have carried the barricade on darmes of the Empire, the Royalists of Charette the Paris side of Neuilly Bridge, and are also and Cathelineau, who are marching on Paris, masters of the upper part of the Avenue, but in shouting. Vive le Roi !' and with a white the Communists are still fighting with remarkflag at their head. The Government of Ver able courage and tenacity, and have just been sailles is acting against the laws of warfare and sending down the Porte Maillot reinforcements humanity, and we shall be compelled to make of men and artillery strong enough possibly to 'reprisals should they continue to disregard the turn the fortunes of the day. The excitement usual conditions of warfare between civilised in Paris near the quarter in which the fighting peoples. If our enemies murder a single one is going on is intense. Crowds are assembled of our soldiers we shall reply by ordering the round the Arc de Triomphe, and especially at execution of an equal number or double the the head of the Avenue de la Grande Armée, number of prisoners. The people, even in its from which much of the fighting can be disanger, detests bloodshed as it detests civil tinctly seen, and which has itself received war, but it is its duty to protect itself against numerous shells to-day, chiefly from Mont the savage attempts of its enemies, and what Valérien. A few have fallen in the Avenue ever it may cost, it shall be an eye for an eye, a Uhrich, and as no house in the neighbourhood tooth for a tooth."
is considered safe, the consternation of the in6.–The Princess of Wales gives birth to a
habitants is very great.
On the other hand, son (Alexander John Charles Albert), who died
in those parts of Paris which are not exposed the following day.
to the bombardment the prevailing tranquillity Decree issued by the Commune setting People are lounging and promenading in the
is, under the circumstances, extraordinary. forth that, as the Government of Versailles had
Champs Elysées, and, but for the incessant trampled all the laws of humanity under foot,
marching backwards and forwards of battalions, anyone convicted of complicity with it would
the boulevards and principal streets would have be imprisoned as hostages of the people of
much the same aspect that they had before the Paris; and, upon the execution of any prisoner
attack on Neuilly began; yet it is believed of war or any partisan of the Commune of Paris
generally that the Versailles corps are bent oL by the Versailles Government, three of the
taking Paris by storm, and not a few expect hostages retained by the people of Paris would
the assault to be made to-night, possibly with be shot. On the day the decree appeared the
success." Archbishop of Paris, the Cure of the Madeleine, and a crowd of other ecclesiastics, were lodged
Died, Vice-Admiral Tegethoff, the Ausin the Conciergerie. The plate and other
trian officer who defeated the Italian navy off valuables found in the churches to which the
Lissa. Commune had been were also seized.
8.-Monument to Ernest Jones, democrat, 7.-General Cluseret, who had now come
unveiled in Ardwick cemetery, Manchester. to the front as directing the military move · The Republican League declare that Paris ments of the Commune, reports :-“ With has no wish to destroy the work of the great regard to the conduct of our troops, the soldiers French Revolution. She wishes, it was said, are excellent, the officers of a mixed character to continue it. “But Paris, during the last --some good, some bad. There is much dash, twenty years, has been more oppressed than but rather a want of firmness. When the war the rest of the country. She wishes now to companies shall have been formed and sepa reconquer her privileges and to affirm her rated from the sedentary element, we shall rights. The recent movement is not an insurhave an arıny corps d'élite, whose effective rection, but a revolution. It is necessary that