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her son Sir Roger ; but her death deprived the defendants of any opportunity for cross-examination. She had, however, arranged to allow him 1,000l. per annum till his claim could be established. In an interview with Gosford, the Claimant made no allusion to the sealed-packet, though they conversed about the will previously seen at Doctors' Commons. During a residence of some months at Croydon the Dowager was again with him, and also many old servants and friends of the family, as well as troopers in the Carbineers,—the latter now the first witnesses produced to establish the identity of the claimant.
11.-Final Treaty of Peace signed between France and Germany.
Died at Collingwood, near Hawkhurst, aged 79 years, Sir John F. W. Herschel, the most distinguished of modern astronomers. The funeral took place on the 18th in Westminster Abbey, in presence of a great company of mourners. The place selected for the interment was near the grave of Sir Isaac Newton.
The property of M. Thiers seized by the Commune. A decree issued this morning set forth that “The Committee of Public Safety, considering that the proclamation of M. Thiers declares that the army will not bombard Paris, while every day women and children fall victims to the fratricidal projectiles of Versailles, and that it makes an appeal to treason in order to enter Paris, feeling it to be impossible to vanquish its heroic population by force of arms, orders that the goods and property of M. Thiers be seized by the Administration of the Domains, and his house in the Place St. Georges be razed to the ground. Citizens Fontaine, Delegate of the Domains, and Andrien, Delegate of the Public Service, are charged with the immediate execution of the present decree." In the Assembly to-day M. Thiers demanded a vote of confidence from the Assembly, granted by 495 to 10 votes. (See Feb. 9th, 1871). 12.-Died at Paris, aged 89, M. Auber,
* Masaniello,” and forty other operas.
13.-The Court of Session reverse a former decision in what was known as the “Para. guayan Case,” and find Dr. Stewart liable in payment of the bll, chiefly on the ground that, although it had been got from him through fear and force, yet he had acknowledged his liability by eighteen months afterwards writing a letter asking his brother to pay the amount of the bill from funds he had lodged in the Bank of Scotland. Madame Lynch was in the witness-box for five hours.
15.-Mr. Muntz's amendment on the Army Bill, designed to limit its operation to reguiation prices, and to leave over-regulation and the bonus system untouched, rejected by 260 to 195 votes.
The Pope issues a Brief directed against the professors in the Roman University who had presented an address to Dr. Döllinger "overflowing with errors, blasphemy, and unbelief.” His Holiness urged upon parochial priests the necessity of restraining the young from attending the lectures of such professors, and of opposing, at the same time, the torrent of unbelief into which they were likely to be driven.
16.-Destruction by the Commune of the Vendôme Column, erected by Napoleon I., principally of cannon taken at Ulm, to commemorate the victory of Austerlitz in 1805. It was covered with 425 bronze plaques, moulded in bas-relief to display the chief incidents in the Austrian campaign of that year. They were each 3 feet 8 inches high, and formed a continuous band, enclosing the column twenty-two times as it circled to the top, the entire length of the spiral being 840 feet. Instead of Charlemagne, as at first intended, it was surmounted by a statue of the First Napoleon in a Roman costume and crowned with laurel. After several postponements it was brought to the ground this afternoon in the presence of many thousands who had waited for hours to witness the spectacle. Owing to some engineering difficulties in cutting through the column at the base, it could not be brought down at the time originally fixed. The members of the Commune were installed in all their state in the balconies of the Etat Major of the National Guard and of the Minister of Justice, on the Place Vendôme, to witness the affair. Sentinels were posted about half way down the Rue de la Paix to prevent the crowd from approaching too close, as up to the last monient accidents were feared. After a good deal of intermittent drumming and trumpeting, and caracoling backwards and forwards of officers on horseback, and the continual ascent and descent of workmen-now of the column, now of its pedestal simply-and sundry flourishes of red flags, at about half-past five the ropes were tightened, and it was evident the end was at hand. Suddenly the column was observed to lean forward towards the Rue de la Paix, then finally to fall, with a dull heavy thud, raising, as it did so, an immense cloud of dust. Before it touched the ground it separated into three parts by its own weight, and on reaching the bed of dung and faggots spread to receive it, broke into at least thirty pieces. The statue of Napoleon, on reaching the ground, broke off from its pedestal at the ankles, then at the knees, the waist, and the neck, while the iron railings which surrounded the summit of the monument were shivered to pieces. Shortly after the column had fallen, spectators were permitted to traverse the Place to witness the
composer of "
14.-In consequence of a revolt in the garrison, the Communists withdraw from Fort Vanvres, leaving it to be occupied by a portion of the investing force, who also retain the adjacent village after fighting through it house hy house.
wreck, but were not permitted to take away any of the fragments.
17.-Sir Wilfred Lawson's Permissive Bill thrown out on the proposal for a second read. ing by 196 to 124 votes.
Explosion of a cartridge factory in the Avenue Repp, Paris, causing the death of over fifty people employed in the works. In the present disordered condition of the city, this calamity was at once attributed to treachery, and various citizens were arrested on picion.
The Commune threaten the lives of the Archbishop of Paris, and other hostages, Urbain, formerly a schoolmaster, who had in. stalled himself, with his mistress, in the Mairie of The Seventh Arrondissement, demanding that ten of the number should be shot within twenty-four hours, in retaliation for the alleged murder of a woman attached to one of the Commune ambulances.
18.-In an unusually crowded house, Mr. Disraeli calls attention to the “general con. duct of the Chancellor of the Exchequer. Reviewing the various changes in the Budget, and the irregularities as regards the house-tax and tea duties with which it had been accompanied, he complained that the Government had vouchsafed no explanation of the reasons why they abandoned their first proposals, and threw the whole burden of the year on direct taxation, and especially on that particular tax which the highest authority had declared to be a most unpopular tax, and one which most severely pinched the poor middle classes. Mr. Lowe briefly replied, complaining that Mr. Disraeli had played off a practical joke upon him by threatening a general indictment of his financial policy, and sinking into a criticism of a few small isolated points, which he described as the “veriest pedantries of finance.”
In Committee on the Army Regulation Bill, Colonel Anson moved an amendment on Clause 2 with the object of permitting the purchase of Exchanges. Mr. Cardwell, in opposing it, explained that it was not intended to prevent exchanges, but merely to prohibit money passing in such transactions, except the payment of travelling expenses.
To make an exception in favour of “exchanges” would be to strike at the abolition of purchase. After considerable debate the amendment was negatived by 183 to 146.
19.-Prince Arthur falls through a window, imperfectly fastened, in the billiard-room of Marlborough House, and is slightly injured in the head and foot.
The Commune issues a decree suppres. sing additional newspapers, and declaring that all adverse criticism on its proceedings will be treated with the rigour of martial law.
.- M. Rochefort arrested at Meaux and taken to Versailles.
19.—The Dutch iron steamship William III., intended to open up a new trade between Holland and Java, burnt in the Channel.
20.-Fire at Woolwich Barracks, the whole of the block forming the offices of the Quartermaster-General, the Brigade-Major, the Barrack Control Department Clerk's offices and stores being destroyed.
21.-After a siege extending over nine weeks, the Versailles troops this (Sunday) afternoon succeed in entering Paris by the St. Cloud gate at Point du Jour, and by the gate of Montrouge. Captain Trèves, an officer of the navy, crept up quietly from the trenches to the rampart at the Point du Jour. To his astonishment he found the insurgents had retired. He immediately called up 300 sailors, who took possession of the gate. Other troops followed up, and before anyone really felt that the affair had commenced, it was all over. Not a rifle was fired at this point, nor was there a single man wounded. The insurgents at once run up a white flag over the Auteuil gate, but took occasion to strengthen a position of some importance they had taken up on the Arc de Triomphe. The division of General Douay entered by the gate of St. Cloud, and occupied the salient between the ramparts and the via. duct. Here there was a second bastion of considerable solidity. The soldiers entered the half-ruined barracks and casemates, and made prisoners of a number of insurgents whom they found concealed there. Immediate preparations were then made for the advance right and lest, but as the enemy was still keeping up a fire from 7-pounders and mitrailleurs, along the bastions between Vaugirard and Montrouge, a regular assault of these positions by the division under General Cissey was determined upon. On the left General Ladmirault took the gates of Passy and Auteuil, and then still keeping to the left seized the Arc de Triomphe. General Vinoy, entering by the Point du Jour, passed the Seine, and opened the gate of Sèvres to General Cissey. By two o'clock General Cissey was master of the Faubourg St. Germain as far as Mont Parnasse, and General Clinchant was at the New Opera House. In the Assembly M. Thiers said :-“ The slight resistance we have met with warrants us in hoping that Paris will soon be restored to its true sovereign-to France. We are honest men. We will visit with the rigour of the law those men who have been guilty of crime against France, and have not shrunk from assassination or the destruction of national monuments. The laws will be rigorously enforced. The expiation shall be complete.”
23.-M. Thiers reports to the Prefects thao the Assembly has now 80,000 soldiers within Paris. General Cissey,” he said, " has taken up his position from the railway station at Mont Parnasse to the École Militaire, and is proceeding along the left bank towards the Tuileries. Generals Douay and Vinoy are enclosing the Tuileries, the Louvre, and the
Place Vendôme, in order subsequently to ad- Everyone is now crying out, “1 hc Paiais vance upon the Hôtel de Ville. General Royal burns !' and we ascertain that it does. Clinchant, having made himself master of the We cannot see Notre Dame or the Hôtel Dieu. Opera, the St. Lazare Railway Station, and the It is probable that both are fast becoming Batignolles, has carried the barricades at ashes. Not an instant passes without an exClichy. General Ladmirault is approaching plosion. Stones and timber and iron are flying the foot of Montmartre with two divisions. high into the air, and falling to the earth with General Montaudan, following the movement horrible crashes. The very trees are on fire. of General Ladmirault, has taken Neuilly, Le They are crackling, and their leaves and Vallois, Perrey, and Clichy, and is attacking branches are like tinder. The buildings in the St. Ouen. He has taken 105 guns and crowds Place de la Concorde reflect the flames, and of prisoners. The resistance of the insurgents every stone in them is like bright gold. Montis gradually declining, and there is every martre is still outside the circle of the flame; ground for hoping that, if the struggle is not but the little wind that is blowing carries the finished to-day, it will be over by to-morrow at smoke up to it, and in the clear heavens it rises the very latest, and for a long time. With black as Milton's Pandemonium.
The new respect to the killed and wounded it is impos- Opera House is as yet uninjured ; but the sible to fix the numbers, but they are conside- smoke encircles it, and it will be next to a rable. The army, on the contrary, has suffered miracle if it escapes. We see clearly now that but very slight loss." About 6 P.M., a second the Palais de Justice, the Sainte Chapelle, the circular gave intimation that the tricolour flag Préfecture of Police, and the Hôtel de Ville was then waving over the Buttes Montmartre are all blazing without a possibility existing of and the Northern Railway Station. These
any portion of any one of them being saved decisive points were carried by the troops of from the general wreck and ruin.” ExasperaGenerals Ladmirault and Clinchant, who cap- ted at the success of the Versailles troops, the tured between 2,000 and 3,000 prisoners. Commune in the afternoon seemed fully deterGeneral Douay took the Church of the Trinity, mined to fire, with petroleum, as much of the and marched upon the Mairie in the Rue capital as they had in their possession. One Drouot. Generals Cissey and Vinoy advanced order found on a National Guard, set forth that towards the Hôtel de Ville and the Tuileries. “ The citizen delegate commanding the barThe losses of the insurgents up to this time racks of the Château d'Eau, is invited to give were put down at 12,000 killed and wounded, the bearer the cans of mineral oil necessary for and 25,000 prisoners.
the chief of barricades of the Faubourg du
Temple. Signed, Brunel, Chef de Légion.” 24.-The morning news from Paris was that In the evening, about nine o'c. uck, and
when the Communists still held out at the barricades they had possession of only a small part of the of the Place Vendôme, and the Place de la city in the east, the Commune posted up the Concorde. Later in the day the startling in- last of its long series of decrees, No. 398— telligence was spread abroad that the Louvre “Destroy immediately every house from the and Tuileries had been set on fire by the windows of which there has been firing on the insurgents. The Commune, it appeared, de- National Guard, and shoot all the inhabitants termined to keep its promise of perishing in a if they do not give up and execute the authors sea of blood, and under a canopy of flame, fired of the crime. As many, it was said, as the greater number of the public buildings in that 12,000 were taken prisoners before midnight, part of the city through which they were now and in some quarters, where the resistance was being driven by the Versailles troops. The especially stubborn, piles of corpses were built glories of Paris, the Times correspondent wrote, up near the barricades. are rapidly passing away in smoke and flame, such as have never been witnessed since the 24.–Massacre of the hostages in the prison burning of Moscow, and amid a roar of cannon, yard of La Roquette, principally at the instigaa screaming of mitrailleurs, a bursting of pro- tion of Raoul Rigault, a ferocious profligate, jectiles, and a horrid rattle of musketry from whom the Commune had named Procureur. different quarters which are appalling. “A · Général, and his subordinate, Ferré, who had more lovely day it would be impossible to arrived at the prison after firing the Préfecture imagine, a sky of unusual brightness, blue as of Police with the design of burning the the clearest ever seen, a sun of surpassing bril- prisoners alive. About half-past seven in the liancy, even for Paris, scarcely a breath of wind evening, the Director of the prison ascended at to ruffle the Seine. Such of the great buildings the head of fifty Federals to the gallery, where as the spreading conflagration has not reached the principal prisoners were confined. An stand in the clearest relief as they are seen for officer went round to each cell, summoning probably the last time ; but in a dozen spots, first the Archbishop, and then in succession M. on both sides of the bridges, sheets of flame Bonjean, the Abbé Allard, Fathers Ducoudray and awful yolumes of smoke rise to the sky and and Clair, and the Abbé Déguerry, Curé of positively obscure the light of the sun. As the Madeleine. As the prisoners appeared, well as we can make out through the flame and they were marched down to the road running smoke rushing across the gardens of the Tuile- round the prison, on each side of which were ries, the fire has reached the Palais Royal arranged National Guards, who received the cap tives with insults and injurious epithets. They for I could not stand it. Mr. Moon said, 'I were next taken into the courtyard facing the will say it again, and if you are not silent I infirmary, where they found a firing party will fing the bottle at your head.'” She awaiting them. Monseigneur Darboy stepped stated that she then jumped up with a knife in forward, and, addressing his assassins, uttered a her hand. They struggled and fell, and she few words of pardon. “Do not,” he said, saw the blood pouring out but she could not “profane the word liberty ; it is to us alone it tell how. Delongs, for we shall die for liberty and faith.”
25.— Thesummary execution of many women, Two of these men approached the Archbishop,
in Paris, on the charge of poisoning and fireand, in face of their comrades, knelt before him,
raising by petroleum, caused much comment beseeching his forgiveness. The other Federals
on the desperate measures found to be necesat once rushed upon them, drove them back
sary for suppressing the Commune. A cor. with insulting reproaches, and then, turning
respondent of the Times witnessed one such towards the prisoners, gave vent to most violent
scene :-“I took a walk,” he writes, “ down expressions. The commander of the detach.
the Rue Rivoli towards the Hôtel de Ville, to ment appeared ashamed of this, and, ordering judge of the amount of damage done, and at silence, uttered a frightful oath, telling his men
the corner of the Rue Castiglione became aware that they were there " to shoot those people,
of the approach of a great crowd of people and not to bully them.” The Federals were
yelling and shaking their fists. The cortege silenced, and, upon the order of their lieu
was headed by a company of mounted gentenant, loaded their weapons. Father Allard
darmes, behind whom came two artillerymen, was placed against the wall and was the first
dragging between them a soiled bundle of rags shot down. Then M. Darboy, in his turn, sell.
that tottered and struggled, and fell down The whole six prisoners were thus shot, all under the blows showered upon it by all evincing the utmost calmness and courage. who were within reach. It was a woman, M. Déguerry alone exhibited a momentary who had been caught in the act of spreading weakness, attributable, however, rather to his
petroleum. Her face was bleeding and her state of health than to fear. After this tragical
hair streaming down her back, from which her execution, carried out without any formal wit
clothing had been torn. On they dragged her, nesses and in the presence only of a number of
followed by a hooting mob, till they reached bandits, the bodies of the unfortunate victims
the corner of the Louvre, and there they propwere placed in a cart belonging to a railway
ped her up against a wall, already half dead company, which had been requisitioned for the
from the treatment she had received. The purpose, and taken to Père-la-Chaise, where
crowd ranged itself in a circle, and I have they were placed in the last trench of the
never seen a picture more perfect and complete “ fosse commune ” side by side, without even in its details than was presented by that scene. an attempt to cover them with earth. The
The gasping, shrinking figure in the centre, body of the Archbishop was afterwards re
surrounded by a crowd who could scarce be covered, embalmed, and laid in state. His
kept from tearing her in pieces, who waved funeral, together with that of Monseigneur
their arms crying 'A l'eau, à l'eau !' on one Surat, Grand Vicar of the diocese, Father
side a barricade, still strewn with broken guns Déguerry, Curé of the Madeleine, and the Rev.
and hats-a dead National Guard lying in the MM. Bécourt and Sabatier, the Incumbents
fosse—behind a group of mounted gendarmes, of Notre Dame de Bonne Nouvelle and Notre
and then a perspective of ruined streets and Dame de Lorette, was celebrated, on the 7th blackened houses, culminating in the extreme of June, in the Cathedral of Notre Dame,
distance in the still burning Hôtel de Ville. by the Papal Nuncio and four of the French
Presently two revolvers were discharged, and Bishops, in the presence of the ministers of
the bundle of rags fell forward in a pool of State, generals of the army, and members of blood. The popular thirst for vengeance was the National Assembly. The two immediate
satisfied, and the crowd dispersed in search of predecessors of Archbishop Darboy met with further excitement elsewhere." violent deaths—M. Sibour, assassinated by a priest in the Church of St. Etienne du Mont,
26.-Miss Burdett Coutts gazetted Baroness and M. Affré, shot on a barricade in June,
of Highgate and Brookfield in the county
of Middlesex. 1848. 25.–The American Senate ratify the Treaty
Theinsurgent position at Belleville stormed
and taken after a sharp struggle. One extraof Washington by 50 votes against 12.
ordinary feature in the street fights at this time, Inquiry at Marlborough Street Police was that many of them were carried on with a Court, into the charge brought against Flora crowd of non-combatants, men, women, and chil. Davy, or Newington, of having stabbed Frede- dren, as close to them on both sides as if the whole rick Moon within her residence, Newton Road, affair were a theatrical representation of a sen, Westbourne Grove. Her own account of the sational melodramatic kind, where a good deal transaction was :- -“We were sitting after of powder and blue lights would be burnt, bu. dinner at table, and Fred made an observation no bullets or lives would be spent. “In streets to me about my daughter which annoyed me in which fighting actually occurs no one of excessively. I begged him not to repeat it, course shows except combatants, and those
show as little as possible, lying down or shelter- was strewn with corpses. The soldiers were ing behind extempore barricades and windows. so furious that the officers found it necessary to The people indoors, as may be supposed, do warn strangers of the danger of incurring not keep near them, as the bullets fired down suspicion. Dombrowski died in the Hôtel de the sides of the streets under cover of doorways Ville, from wounds received at a barricade in or corner houses glance and ricochet about in the Rue d'Ornano ; and Delescluze fell fighting the wildest way. Scarcely a window escapes
at the Château d'Eau. Bisson and Tavernier if the fight lasts long, but adjoining streets, run- were captured and shot. ning at right angles to the fighting ground, are for the moment comparatively safe, and the
29.-M. Thiers orders the disarmament of people crowd about the doorways in these, the
Paris, and the dissolution of the National more venturesome getting close to street cor
Guard of the Department of the Seine. ners, and every now and then cautiously craning Whit Monday kept, for the first time, as their necks round to see, if possible, whether a Bank Holiday, under Sir J. Lubbock's Bill, shots tell."
recently passed. 27.-The Newcastle engineers strike in On a petition being brought up in the favour of the nine hours' movement, about National Assembly to-day relative to the capi. 9,000 leaving the works in Newcastle and tulation of Metz, General Changarnier made a Gateshead,
speech in which he detailed the facts that pre
ceded the retreat of the Army of the Rhine 28.-In Paris to-day, the Commune is de
into that fortress, and said he must reproach scribed as dying hard,” the fighting being the Commander-in-Chief with indecision and unusually desperate in and around Belleville,
loss of time on that occasion, faults which led Menilmontant, and Père-la-Chaise. Even the
to the fortress being completely invested by the women fought savagely. “No quarter was
Germans. Famine alone had been the cause given to any man, woman, or child found in
of the army in Metz being reduced to power. Numerous arrests are taking place in lessness. Marshal Bazaine had not been fortuthe streets of Paris, and military law is being
nate ; but the cession of Metz was neither applied with the utmost rigour in all cases. All
preconcerted nor voluntary. General Chanprisoners are immediately sent up for judg.
garnier concluded by urging the Assembly not ment to the Provost-Marshal's court at the
to allow an odious suspicion to rest upon geneChâtelet. The executions now take place at rals who were brave soldiers and honourable three fixed points--the Champ de Mars, the
M. Thiers said he was happy to see Parc Monceaux, and near the Hôtel de Ville.
General Changarnier undertake the desence of Batches of as many as 50 and 100 at a time
one of the most valiant soldiers of France. He are shot. No person whatever is allowed to
assented to the proposal for an inquiry ; which, leave Paris on any pretext, unless bearing indeed, had been demanded by Marshal Ba. a special permit signed either by Marshal
zaine himself; but he left the decision upon MacMahon or the chief of his staff. There is
this question to the Sovereign Assembly. less difficulty in entering Paris, but all strangers
General Le Flô, the Minister for War, then are subjected to rigorous examination, and, if ascended the tribune and said :-“The law their papers are not satisfactory, to arrest.
upon this subject is most formal. Every Great dread of incendiaries still prevails ; all
Commander who surrenders a fortress to the cellar gratings, and area openings, through enemy must be tried before a Council of War. which combustible matter might be introduced, I shall do my duty with regard to all the capi. hermetically sealed.”
tulations- those of Metz and Sedan as well as
the others which occurred during the war. A proclamation, signed by Marshal MacMahon, announces the delivery of Paris. Victor Hugo expelled from Belgium “Inhabitants of Paris !” he wrote, “ The army
for offering his home as an asylum to refugee of France has come to save you.
Paris is Communists. delivered. Our soldiers at four o'clock captured the last positions occupied by the in- Père Hyacinthe, writing to the Gaulois, surgents. To-day the struggle is over,
and declares that in the recent calamities which had order, labour, and security revive." The overthrown France the Church had not done fighting appears to have ceased about 3 P.M.
“ Instead of the promises and teachA few shots were fired from the windows at ings of the Gospel to the disinherited of this Belleville, where frightful scenes were said to world, the Church in the noisy echoes of the have been enacted. The more desperate press, and sometimes even by the mouth of its characters, felons and escaped forçats of the bishops, treated of matters of bitter controversy worst description, turned at the last moment about the Pope-King, the dogmatisation of in. on their own comrades because they refused to tolerance, and the canonisation of the Inqui. continue the fight. Some women murdered, sition. I do not calumniate the political and with knives, two young men for the same religious régime that we have submitted to for reason. In consequence of the firing from the
more than twenty years, and which is summed windows an immense number of executions up in these two words--'Scepticism at Paris ; occurred The park of the Buttes Chaumont fanaticism at Rome.''