a petulance and peculiarity of humour, by alarming the duke, exciting the curiosity of the public, puzzling the multitude, and giving rise to a thousand ridiculous conjectures.

In 1758, the British government resolved to attack the French on their own soil, and the Duke of Marlborough was constituted commander-in-chief of the land forces destined for that service. His troops disembarked on the 5th of June, in Cancalle bay, two leagues distant from St. Maloes, against which they marched, in two columns; but discovering, on their approach, the impossibility of carrying it by a coup-demain, they contented themselves with setting fire to the shipping, and such magazines as they found accessible; in defence of which, although they were under the cannon of the town, the enemy did not fire a single shot. No descent was ever attended with less licentiousness in the invaders, or with less injury to the poor inhabitants of the country invaded. A small storehouse was spared, because it could not be set on fire without endangering the whole district; and the French houses, which their inhabitants had abandoned, were left untouched.

Having reimbarked his troops without opposition, the duke proceeded to reconnoitre the town of Grandeville, on the coast of Normandy; but, learning that a large body of the enemy's forces had encamped in the neighbourhood, he directed his course towards Cherbourg, and had already made some preparations to attack that place, when a hard gale setting in towards the shore, the transports ran foul of each other, and it was deemed imprudent to hazard an attempt at landing. Provisions having, by this time, become scarce, and much sickness prevailing among the troops, the

duke thought proper to return to St. Helen's, where he arrived on the 29th of June.


THIS officer was born in Ireland, about the year 1715. Early in life he went to America, with his uncle, Sir Peter Warren; and, after hesitating for some time as to what profession he

Although the success of the armament had fallen far short of public expectation, the duke, soon after his return, was appointed commander-inchief of all the British forces intended


serve in Germany, under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick. He did not, however, live long enough to distinguish himself on the plains of Minden, his death occurring on the 28th of October, 1758, at Munster, in Westphalia; whence his remains were conveyed to England, and interred at Blenheim. By his wife, a daughter of Lord Trevor, he left several children; the eldest of whom succeeded to his title and estate. At the time of his decease he was lordlieutenant of Bucks and Oxfordshire, master of the ordnance, colonel of the royal regiment of artillery, general of foot, ranger of Whitney forest, a governor of the charter house, a privycounsellor, LL. D. and F. R. S.


Never," says one of his cotemporaries, speaking of the duke, "did the nation lose, in one man, a temper more candid and benevolent, manners more amiable and open, a more primitive integrity, a more exalted generosity, a more warm and feeling heart." Smollett describes him as having been a nobleman, who, although he did not inherit all the military genius of his grandfather, yet far excelled him in the amiable and social qualities of the heart,-who was brave beyond all question, generous to profusion, and goodnatured to excess. "It is surprising," observes the same historian, "that the death of the duke was never attributed to the secret practices of the incendiary correspondent, who had given him to understand, that his vengeance, though slow, would not be the less certain."


should adopt, at length, entered the army; in which he gradually rose to the rank of major-general. In 1755, he was placed at the head of an expedition against Crown Point; which,


however, he did not succeed in capturing, although he obtained a brilliant victory over the French, under General Dieskau, whom he took prisoner. Parliament testified its approbation of Johnson's conduct on this occasion, by voting him £5,000. In 1759, he commanded the provincials of New York, and acted under Prideaux, at the siege of Niagara, until that general was killed in the trenches by the bursting of a cohorn, when Johnson took the chief command. With a view to relieve the place, a body of regular troops, provincials and savages, amounting to one thousand seven hundred men, attacked the British, with great impetuosity, on the morning of the 24th of July. Johnson, however, having received information of their approach, made a most skilful disposition of part of his troops to receive them on their route; posting the residue in such a manner as to secure his trenches from any attempt that might be made by the garrison. The engagement commenced about nine o'clock, and before ten, the French were completely routed. During the battle, and the subsequent pursuit, which was kept up for more than five miles, seventeen of the enemy's officers were taken, including their first and second in command. The garrison of Niagara, who had witnessed the defeat of their friends, surrendered in the course of the day; and Johnson, in addition to the stores in the fort, recovered about £8,000 in specie, which had been buried by the French in a neighbouring island.

He now devoted his attention to the establishment of a more permanent and extensive communion, than had previously existed, between the British and the Indians; and effected several advantageous treaties with the Senacas,

and other tribes. In June, 1760, he
induced one thousand of the Iroquois to
join General Amherst, at Oswego; and,
subsequently, encouraged the colonists
to intermarry with the aboriginal in-
colonel of the Six Nations, as well as
habitants. He was, at length, chosen
superintendent of Indian affairs for the
on the banks of the Mohawk river, he
northern parts of America; and, settling
manners and language of the Indians;
soon became well acquainted with the
relative to which he sent an interesting
communication to the Royal Society, in
years afterwards, leaving a son, who
November, 1772. He died about two
succeeded to the baronetage.

Brave, energetic, and enterprising,
Johnson was particularly well qualified
for the services on which he was em-
ployed. He is described as having
popularity among all kinds of men,
possessed such a genius for acquiring
that the regular troops respected, the
most adored him. It is added, that he
provincials loved, and the Indians al-
was a man of perfect integrity, and em-
ployed his talents solely for the benefit
obtained over Dieskau, although it did
of his country. The victory which he
not lead to the result that had been
expected, infused confidence into the
British, who appear to have been greatly
near Fort du
disheartened by the recent defeat, by
Braddock's forces,
the French and Indians, of General
The capture of Niagara
effectually broke off, according to the
communication so much talked of, and
Annual Register of the period, "that
so much dreaded, between Canada and
Louisiana; and, by this stroke, one of
the capital political designs of the
war, was defeated in its direct and im-
French, which gave occasion to the
mediate object."



THIS nobleman, third son of the first
Duke of Dorset, was born in 1716, and
christened after his godfather, George
the First. He commenced his educa-
tion at Westminster school, and con-
cluded it at Trinity college, Dublin,

where he took an honorary degree. After passing some time at Paris, with his father, he entered the army; and, was present at the battles of Fontenoy joining the British forces in Flanders, and Dettingen; in the former of which

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resigned in 1779; and that of secretary of state for the colonies, which he retained up to the conclusion of the All the disastrous American war. rigorous measures adopted against the colonists, met with his most zealous support; he sternly opposed every attempt that was made to effect a termination of hostilities; and, at length, became so unpopular, that, dreading the indignation of the people, during the riots in 1780, he barricadoed his house; upon which, however, no attack was made.

viscount took his seat, met with a simi-
lar fate. Lord Sackville did not long
enjoy his elevation; his death occur-
ring on the 26th of April, 1785; at
which time he was a privy-counsellor,
one of the keepers of Phoenix park,
near Dublin, and clerk of the council
in Ireland. By his wife, Diana, the
daughter of John Sambroke, Esq. he
had two sons and three daughters.

On receiving intelligence of the surrender of the British army at York town, he got into a hackney coach, and, after taking up Lord Stormont and the lord chancellor, at their respective residences, proceeded with them, in the same humble vehicle, to Lord North. The premier received the disastrous news which they brought, according to Lord George's account," as he would have taken a ball in his breast," throwing up his arms, pacing wildly up and down the room, and exclaiming, many times, with deep emotion, "O God! it is all over!"

He was tall, robust, and active: the
expression of his features was intellec-
tual; but his acquirements were far
In public, he was
from extensive.
haughty and reserved; in private, quite
"No man," says Wraxall,
the reverse.
"who saw him at table, or in his draw-
his deportment or conversation, that
ing-room, would have suspected, from
the responsibility of the American war
reposed principally on his shoulders."
ness, according to the same author, his
Though clear, as well as rapid, in busi-
style, even in official despatches, was
He displayed con-
frequently careless.
so irritable, that the opposition often
siderable powers of eloquence, but was
tion of ministers' intentions, by artfully
obtained from him precocious informa-
exciting his feelings during the heat of

Lord George soon afterwards resigned his office; and, at an interview with the king, who expressed his inclination, in some manner, to reward him for his services, solicited the honour The king of being created a peer. consented to do so; and Lord George then requested to be made a viscount; because, as he submitted, if he were called to the house of lords merely as a baron, his secretary, his lawyer, and his father's page, would all take precedence of him: the first, at that time, being Lord Walsingham; the second, Lord Loughborough; and the third, Lord Amherst; who, as Sackville stated, had often rode on the braces of the coach, in which his father, when viceroy, was conveyed to the Irish house of lords.

His conduct at the battle of Minden has occasioned some controversy. Wraxall endeavours to make it appear that he was a hero; and other writers hint that his disobedience of Ferdinand's orders was, perhaps, intentional; because, at that time, he happened to be on bad terms with the prince: but they who thus attempt to vindicate him against the charge of cowardice, blacken lent of his enemies have done, by attrihis reputation more than the most viruThe first buting to him a detestable and traitorous dereliction of his duty, on account of a Earl Grey, according to Perceval Stockprivate misunderstanding. least misconduct at the battle of Mindale, acquitted Lord Sackville of the den; and a writer in the Annual Reas a commander of admirable talents, gister, published in 1763, pities him, moment, lost an opportunity that would "who, by the error or misfortune of a have ranked him for ever among the Marlboroughs and Brunswicks!" On a calm investigation of his conduct, it does not, however, appear that he possessed much military talent; but, on

The king, soon afterwards, created him Viscount Sackville; but, before he took his seat, the Marquess of Carmarthen moved an address to the crown, that, as Lord George Germaine was still under sentence of a court-martial, he ought not to be raised to the peerage. This motion was lost; and another, to the same effect, which was brought forward on the day when the new

the other hand, although deservedly dismissed from the service for his disobedience, it is not at all probable, judging from his behaviour at Fontenoy, Dettingen, Cherbourg, and in a duel, which he fought with Governor Johnstone, that his culpable neglect of Prince Ferdinand's orders, to pursue a retreating enemy, arose from cowardice. During the investigation of his conduct, it is said, that he absurdly exhibited the coat he had worn at Fontenoy, (which appeared to have been penetrated by several bullets,) as a proof of his habitual bravery.

His conduct, while colonial secretary, was rash and impolitic, but so consonant to the views of George the Third, that he became a great favourite at court. Among many other proofs of his influence, it is stated, that, at his solicitation, Dr. Eliot, whom the king disliked, was created a baronet. "Well, my lord," observed his majesty, on this occasion, "since you desire it, the doctor shall be a baronet; but he sha'n't be my physician, though, for all that." "No," replied Lord George, "he shall be my physician, and your majesty's baronet."

He was suspected of having written the letters of Junius, and a work has recently been published, in which his supposed authorship of those celebrated compositions is gravely and elaborately

investigated. It throws, however, but little additional light on the subject; and, certainly, by no means proves that Sackville and Junius were identical. Although, in political opinions, they, on many subjects, agreed, yet, the abilities of Sackville were decidedly unequal to the production of the worst of the letters. His mind was comparatively uncultivated; his reading limited; and, although Stockdale ventures to term him an elegant classic, other writers, who knew him better, state, that he had "but little acquaintance with Horace, Tacitus, or Cicero ;" and that, during his retreat at Drayton, where he had a fine library, he rarely opened a book. The productions of Junius were beautifully polished: but Sackville's style, according to his apologist, Wraxall, (who describes him as passing little time either at his desk or in his closet) was negligent and unstudied. "I should be proud," said he, on one occasion, to a friend, “to be capable of writing as Junius has done: but there are many passages in his letters I should be very sorry to have written." It is also worthy of especial notice, that Junius broadly imputes to him a gross deficiency of personal courage; a fact, which should, perhaps, be deemed quite conclusive against Sackville's supposed authorship of the letters.


JEFFERY, the son of Jeffery Amherst, of Riverhead, in Kent, was born on the 29th of January, 1717, and, at an early age, became page to the Duke of Dorset, while lord-lieutenant of Ireland. He entered the army in 1731; and, proceeding to Germany, acted as aid-de-camp to Lord Ligonier, at the battles of Dettingen, Fontenoy, and Roucoux, and served in the same capacity to the Duke of Cumberland, at Laffeldt and Hastenbech. He became a major-general, and colonel of the fifteenth regiment of foot, in 1756; and, in 1758, was appointed to the chief command of the land forces, amounting to fourteen thousand men, in the expe

dition against Louisburgh; in sight of which, the fleet, consisting of one hundred and fifty-one sail, under the conduct of Boscawen, in which they had embarked, arrived on the 2nd of June, in that year. Several days elapsed before a landing could be effected, in consequence of the prodigious surf; but, at length, on the 8th of June, although the weather was still terrifically boisterous, and the enemy had protected the coast by numerous batteries, a division of the troops, supported by several frigates, moved towards the shore, under the command of Wolfe, who subsequently fell on the heights above Quebec. Many of the boats were destroyed or overset

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