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By his wife, a parish church, at which he had been a daughter of the Earl of Buchan, he vived him. His father died of fatigue had eleven children, but only five surat the battle of Hochstet; his maternal uncle was killed at Steenkirk; and his eldest brother, when only sixteen years old, fell at the siege of Namur.
shall not spare it." He continued all night under arms, wrapped up in his cloak, and sheltered by a rick of barley. At three in the morning he called his four domestic servants to him, and addressing them in a pathetic tone of christian exhortation, bade them fare"There is great well, as if for ever. reason to believe," says Doddridge, his spiritual friend and biographer, "that he spent the little remainder of the time, which could not be much above an hour, in those devout exercises of the soul, which had been so long habitual to him, and to which so many circumstances did then concur to call
In person, Colonel Gardiner was strongly built, and well-proportioned; in stature, unusually tall; and in the expression of his countenance, intelleche has never been excelled. He once tual and dignified. In calm heroism, he esteemed for courage, without any refused a challenge; but, so highly was imputation on his character as a soldier. "I fear sinning," said he, on this occasion, "though you know I do not fear fighting!" The energy he displayed, on the day preceding the fight, at Presnotwithstanding his bodily infirmities, ton-Pans, his pious exhortation to his domestics, his devotion before the battle, and his calm, unflinching bravery, during charm around his memory, by which the contest, have thrown a romantic In conversation he was it will, doubtless, be long and deservedly embalmed. disposition, exceedingly charitable; and, cheerful, and eminently persuasive; in in religious principles, though a strict dissenter, amiably tolerant to those who most materially differed from him in doctrinal points. The circumstance ness and impiety to enthusiastic devowhich led to his conversion from lewdtion, may be easily explained without the intervention of supernatural agency. He had passed the evening amid the excitation of gay, and, perhaps, dissolute society; he was about to transgress one of those holy ordinances, an obedience to which, the book that fell he had previously, at times, suffered into his hands most probably enjoined; most bitterly from the compunctions of conscience; and, not long before, had been thrown from his horse with such violence, that his brain, perhaps, was slightly affected by the fall: these circumstances, acting on so susceptible an imagination as Gardiner appears to have possessed, doubtless, produced that defusion of the senses, to which the happy amelioration of his conduct has been principally attributed.
Although the young Pretender, in going over the field, after the battle, is said to have gently raised this brave soldier's head, and to have exclaimed, "Poor Gardiner! would to God I could restore thy life!" yet, it is asserted, that the rebels treated his body with great indignity, and stripped his house, which adjoined the scene of contest, of every article it contained. He was interred in the burial ground of Tranant, his
SIR JOHN COPE.
OF the early part of Sir John Cope's career, no particulars appear to have been preserved. In 1742, he was one of the generals appointed to command the troops despatched to the assistance of the Queen of Hungary. In 1745, he acted as commander-in-chief of the forces in Scotland, and obtained an inglorious notoriety by the disasters of his campaign against the rebels. After a variety of movements, for many of which Cope has been much condemned, the king's forces encountered the insurgents at the village of PrestonPans, on the 21st of September, 1745. At break of day the engagement commenced. The English horse, panicstruck by the impetuous onset of the Highlanders, and the peculiarity of their mode of attack, fled in confusion, leaving the artillery wholly unprotected. The infantry behaved with rather more courage and steadiness, and Cope attempted to rally the fugitives, at the end of the village, but in vain: the defeat became general, and Cope himself, putting, as it is said, a white
cockade in his hat, passed unsuspected among the enemy, and escaped.
He was now removed from his command, and, shortly afterwards, a board of general officers investigated his conduct, which, much to the surprise of the public, was pronounced to have been perfectly blameless. In 1751, he was placed on the staff in Ireland, where he died, on the 28th of May, 1760; at which time he was a knight of the Bath, a lieutenant-general, and colonel of the seventh regiment of dragoons.
Cope was not destitute of courage, but apparently possessed little or no skill as a commander. His name was long a by-word for contempt, and his defeat became the subject of numberless songs, English and Scotch. Some of these still exist, and to the inspiring tune of one of them, "Hey, Johnny Cope, are ye wauking yet," a Scotch regiment marched exultingly to the charge, at the celebrated attack on the French army, made by the troops under Lord Hill, at Arroyo Molino.
OF the early part of this officer's life
but little is known. He was one of the
would never attempt to carry it into effect. The consequence was, that Charles Edward's troops arrived within a short distance of the position occupied by the royalists, near Falkirk, before Hawley was aware of their apHe had often boasted that two regiments of horse would be quite sufficient to ride over the whole Highland army his own dragoons, however, on being attacked by the rebels, gallopped from the field in a most dastardly manner; and the whole of the royal forces fled at the first onset.
Though censured and despised by the public for his conduct at the battle of Falkirk, Hawley was still treated with great cordiality by George the Second and the Duke of Cumberland:
of the latter he was always a favourite; most probably on account of his strict maintenance of discipline, for which he was called, in the army, The Chief Justice. It is related, that an early copy of a memorial, published in 1753, respecting the heir-apparent's education, having been sent to Hawley, some person maliciously observed, that the author had acted most judiciously, if he wished to have the work propagated; for, as the general could not read, he must, of necessity, communicate it to others.
He died possessed of considerable property, in or about the year 1759, leaving rather a curious will, of which the following are extracts:-" As I began the world with nothing, and as all I have is of my own acquiring, I can dispose of it as I please. I direct and order that (as there's now a peace, and
WILLIAM ANNE KEPPEL, EARL OF ALBEMARLE.
THIS distinguished general, only son of the first Earl of Albemarle, a Dutchman of noble lineage, who, for his eminent services, had been raised to the earldom, by King William, was born at Whitehall, on the 5th of June, 1702, and was partly named after his godmother, Queen Anne. He received his education in Holland; and, on his return to England, in 1717, became captain of the first regiment of footguards, with the rank of lieutenantcolonel. In 1718, he succeeded to his father's title and estates; and, in 1722, being then at his family seat, in Guelderland, had the honour of entertaining the Bishop of Munster.
Stair, on the 14th of April, 1742. In the following year he became a lieutenant-general, and displayed great gallantry at the battle of Dettingen. In 1744, he served with Marshal Wade; and, in 1745, fought and was wounded at the battle of Fontenoy. In 1746, he commanded the right wing of the royal army, at the battle of Culloden; and was soon afterwards appointed general and commander-in-chief of his majesty's forces in Scotland.
In 1725, he was created a knight companion of the Bath, and, in March, 1727, nominated aid-de-camp to the king. In 1731, he obtained the command of the ninth regiment of foot, then at Gibraltar; and, two years afterwards, that of the third troop of horseguards. He was appointed governor of Virginia, on the 26th of December, 1737; a brigadier-general, on the 2nd of July, 1739; a major-general, on the 20th of February, 1741; and second in command, of the British forces in the Netherlands, under field-marshal
In 1747, he commanded the British infantry, at Vall, and continued to serve under the Duke of Cumberland until the termination of hostilities, when he proceeded to the French court as British ambassador and plenipotentiary. On the 12th of July, 1750, he was installed, by proxy, a knight of the Garter; in the following year, he became groom of the stole, and a member of the privycouncil; and acted as one of the lords justices of the kingdom, during the king's visit to Hanover, in 1752. On the 22nd of December, 1754, he died suddenly at Paris; whither he had been despatched to demand the liberation of some British subjects, who had been unwarrantably detained by the French government. His remains were brought
I may die the common way) my carcass may be put any where-'tis equal to me; but I will have no more expense, or ridiculous show, than if a poor soldier (who is as good a man) were to be buried from the hospital. The priest, I conclude, will have his fee; let the puppy take it. Pay the carpenter for the carcass-box. I give to my sister £5,000. As to any other relations, I have none who want; and as I never was married, I have no heirs. I have, therefore, long since, taken it into my head to adopt one son and heir, after the manner of the Romans, who I hereafter name, &c. &c." "I have written all this," he adds, "with my own hand; and this I did, because I hate all priests of all professions, and have the worst opinion of all members of the law."
over to England, and privately interred at South Audley street chapel, near Grosvenor square. He appears to have been held in great estimation by George the Second, (to whom, as well before as after his accession, he was a lord of the
bedchamber,) for integrity, courage, and talent.
On the 29th of November, 1757, the duke received a letter, from an unknown hand, signed Felton, which contained the following extraordinary passages:-"It has employed my invention, for some time, to find out a method of destroying another, without exposing my own life: this I have accomplished, and defy the law. Now for the application of it: I am desperate, and must be provided for. You have it in your power-it is my business to make it your inclination, to serve me; which you must comply with, by procuring
By his wife, Anne, daughter of Charles, the first Duke of Richmond, to whom he was united in 1723, he had eight sons and seven daughters.
CHARLES SPENCER, DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH.
THIS nobleman was born on the 22nd of November, 1706. In 1729, he succeeded his elder brother in the earldom of Sunderland; and, in 1733, became Duke of Marlborough, as heir to his mother, the daughter and co-heiress of John Churchill, the first duke. In 1740, he was made captain and colonel of the second troop of horse-guards, and was soon after installed a knight of the Garter. In 1743, he accompanied the king to Germany; and, at the battle of Dettingen, where he commanded the brigade of foot-guards, he particularly distinguished himself.
Disgusted by the political animosities which soon afterwards prevailed, he resigned his regiment; yet, in 1745, he was one of the first to raise a military force, for the support of government against the insurgent Jacobites. He subsequently became a lieutenantgeneral, steward of the king's household, member of the privy-council, and a lord justice during the king's absence on the continent. In 1755, he was keeper of the privy seal; and, in 1757, president of the board of general officers, convened to inquire into the conduct of the commander of the troops in the unsuccessful expedition against Rochefort.
me a genteel support; otherwise, my life, or your own, will be at a period before this session of parliament is over. I have more motives than one for singling you out first upon this occasion; and I give you this fair warning, because the means I shall make use of are too fatal to be eluded by the power of physic. If you think this of any consequence, you will not fail to meet the author on Sunday next, at ten in the morning, (or on Monday, if the weather should prove rainy on Sunday) near the first tree beyond the stile, in the foot-walk to Kensington."
The duke punctually attended this appointment, and within about twenty yards of the tree mentioned in the letter, he saw a man, whom he thus addressed: "I believe you have something to say to me." 64 "No," replied the man, "I don't know you." "I am the Duke of Marlborough," said his grace; "now that you know me, I imagine you have something to say." The man briefly answered that he had not, and the duke, who was on horseback, then rode away. It appears, that, on this occasion, he wore his star, carried pistols in his holsters, and had posted a friend at some distance from the appointed place of meeting. Two or three days afterwards, he received a second letter, signed F., in which the writer acknowledged the duke's punctuality, and added, "it was owing to you that it answered no purpose. The pageantry of being armed, and the ensign of your order, were useless, and too conspicuous. You needed no attendant; the place not being calculated for mischief, nor was there any intended. If you walk in the west aisle of Westminster abbey, towards eleven o'clock, on Sunday next, your sagacity will point out
the person, whom you will address, by asking his company, to take a turn or two with you."
On the following Sunday, the duke accordingly went to Westminster abbey, about the appointed hour, and after he had been there a few minutes, saw the same person whom he had met in the park, looking at the monuments. "I asked him," observes the duke, in his account of the transaction, "if he had any thing to say to, or any commands for me. He replied,No, my lord, I have not.' I said, Surely you have.' He said, 'No, my lord.' He walked up and down one side of the aisle, and I the other, to give him a little more time; but he did not speak. I then went out at the great door, and left him in the abbey. There were two or three people placed in disguise, ready, if I had given them the signal, to have taken him up."
Soon afterwards, the duke received a third letter from his mysterious correspondent, who, after stating his conviction that the duke had had a companion with him in the abbey, proceeded thus:-"You will see me again soon; as it were, by accident, and may easily find where I go to, in consequence of which, by being sent to, I shall wait on your grace, but expect to be quite alone, and to converse in whispers." "The family of the Bloods," added he, "is not extinct, though they are not in my scheme." Subsequently, a fourth letter was sent to the duke, in which the writer stated, that the son of one Barnard, a surveyor, in Abingdon buildings, was acquainted with some secrets that nearly concerned his grace's safety. In consequence of this, the duke sent a message to young Mr. Barnard, requesting him to call at Marlborough house. Barnard replied, that he would wait on his grace, at half past ten o'clock in the inorning of the following Friday. He faithfully kept his appointment; and immediately, on entering the duke's room, his grace knew him, as he states, to be the same person to whom he had spoken in the park and the abbey. The duke then mentioned the various threatening letters he had received; of which Barnard denied all previous knowledge.
He was, however, soon afterwards
apprehended, and, on his trial, which took place at the Old Bailey, in May, 1758, all the preceding circumstances were given in evidence against him. For his defence, he called several witnesses, who gave him an excellent character. They also proved that he was in a very respectable station in life, above pecuniary wants, and the presumptive successor to his father's business, which was very extensive. He had, as it appeared, accurately related to many individuals, the particulars of his interviews with the duke, whose conduct he had designated as being excessively odd. It was proved, that, when the prosecutor saw him in the park, he was on his way to Kensington; whither his father had sent him with a message to a person named Calcut, to whom, as well as to his uncle, with whom he dined, he related the circumstance of his having been accosted by the duke.
In order to account for the singular coincidence, of his being in the abbey at the precise hour appointed for a meeting there, by the second letter to the duke, a brewer, named Greenwood, was called, of whose evidence, the following is an abridgment:-"I breakfasted at the prisoner's father's, on the Sunday in question, and, with great difficulty, prevailed on young Barnard to dress himself, and walk with me to the park. When we reached Henry the Eighth's chapel, I took him by the sleeve, and said, Barnard, you shall go through the abbey.' After we had looked for some time at the monuments, I saw the Duke of Marlborough, and having been previously informed of what had taken place between my companion and his grace, in the park, and noticing the particular behaviour of the duke, I observed to Barnard, He certainly has something to say to you; will go into the choir, but do you walk up and down, and possibly he will speak.' Soon after,
saw the duke and the prisoner conversing together, and as soon as his grace departed, I returned to Barnard, who told me what had passed." On this and the previous evidence Barnard was acquitted.
The duke never discovered the mysterious disturber of his peace; whose object, as an historian suggests, was, perhaps, nothing more than to gratify