made a grandee of the first class, in Spain. In 1821, he was made general in the army; obtained the colonelcy of the fourteenth foot in 1826, and the governorship of Dumbarton Castle in 1829. For his repeated services, he frequently received the thanks of parliament; and Sheridan, speaking of him, said, "he had known him in private life, and never was there seated a loftier spirit in a braver heart." Alluding to his services during the retreat to Corunna, he said, that "in the hour of peril, Graham was their best adviser-in the hour of disaster, Graham was their surest consolation." The conduct and character of Lord Lynedoch have been the subject of eulogium by Walter Scott, in his Vision of Don Roderick, the concluding stanzas of which are dedicated to his lordship.

MAITLAND, (Sir THOMAS,) the third son of the Earl of Lauderdale, was born about 1760; and, having entered the army in 1778, rose rapidly to the rank of lieutenant-general, without having achieved any military exploit of importance. In 1813, he was appointed governor and commander-in-chief over Malta; and was subsequently nominated lord-high-commissioner of the Ionian islands, and commander-in-chief of the forces in the Mediterranean. He died at Malta, in 1824, at which time he was a privy-counsellor, and knight grand cross of the Bath, and of the Ionian orders. Sir Thomas is principally to be considered in his capacity of governor; in which character he gave the Greeks a constitutional charter, framed on the principles of policy and justice, and restored their country to great comparative prosperity, without imposing additional taxes on the people. was not, however, free from unpopularity; which he is said to have incurred, in a great measure, by removing the statue of Count Schulembourg from the citadel of Corfu, to make way for his own, and by superintending the negotiation which led to the surrender of the Christian town of Parga, into the hands of the Turks. He, nevertheless, died much respected and lamented; and, at his funeral, an oration in praise of him was spoken by Count Bulgaire, a nobleman of one of the first families in Corfu.


MUNRO, (Sir THOMAS, Bart..) was born about 1760, and, in 1778, proceeded to India, where he distinguished himself in the Mysore war; and was nominated one of the assistants to Colonel Read, in settling and governing the provinces captured from Tippoo Saib. His conduct at the taking of Seringapatam attracted the notice of Lord Wellesley, who selected him to administer the government of Canara, and also appointed him over the provinces ceded by the Nizam, in 1801. In 1804, he obtained the rank of lieutenantcolonel; and, after having visited England in 1808, was sent by the East India Company to Madras, on an important mission, which he performed in a most satisfactory manner. In 1813, he attained the rank of colonel; and, in 1817, received the rank of major-general, and was appointed to head an expedition against Soondoon, which he captured. For his services, he was made a commander and knight companion of the Bath, and a vote of thanks to him was moved in the house of commons, on the 4th of March, 1819, by Mr. Canning, who passed the highest compliments upon General Munro, both as a military and a civil officer. In 1820, he was appointed governor of Madras; in 1825, was created a baronet; and died in India, on the 6th of July, 1827, of cholera morbus. Sir Thomas Munro was remarkable not only for his skill and bravery as an officer, but for the vigour of his mind, and the comprehensiveness of his understanding. England," said Mr. Canning, "never produced a more accomplished statesman, nor India, fertile as it is in heroes, a more skilful soldier."



SPENCER, (Sir BRENT,) the descendant of a respectable Irish family, was born in or about the year 1760, and entered the army in 1778. was first engaged in active service, at Brimston Hill, in the island of St. Christopher, when that fortress, which had been considered almost impregnable, was taken by the French. Having gradually risen to the rank of major, he commanded the thirteenth foot, at Jamaica, in 1791. For some time afterwards he was actively employed in different parts of the West Indies; and, in 1797, became a brigadier-general.

On his return to England, he was made aide-de-camp and equerry to the king, with whom he appears to have been an especial favourite. He commanded the fortieth regiment in the expedition to the Helder, in 1799; and obtained much praise from the Duke of York for his gallantry at the storming of Oudecapel. In 1801, he went out to Egypt, at the head of a brigade of light troops, forming part of the reserve under Sir John Moore; and distinguished himself at the commencement of the campaign, by carrying with the bayonet, an entrenchment which had severely galled the British troops during their landing. He subsequently displayed much bravery in the actions on the 13th and 21st of March; commanded the successful attack against Rosetta, and received the thanks of the commander-in-chief for his brilliant conduct in the affair before Alexandria. At the conclusion of the war, he returned to England; and was appointed brigadier-general of the staff in the Sussex district. In 1805, he became a major-general; and in 1807, he commanded a brigade at the siege of Copenhagen, where he covered the embarkation of the troops, which, it was supposed, would have been interrupted by the Danes. In 1808, he was sent out to the peninsula, and received the thanks of Sir Arthur Wellesley, for his advice and assistance at the battles of Rolica and Vimiera. Shortly after the convention of Cintra, he returned to England, and, as a reward for his services, was created a knight of the Bath. In May, 1810, he was appointed second in command of the army in Portugal, where he displayed great ability and courage, especially at Busaco and Fuentes D'Onor. In 1811, he came back to England, and was made a lieutenant-general; in 1821, he became a full general; and after passing some years in rural retirement, died at the Lee, near Great Missenden, in Buckinghamshire, on the 29th of December, 1828. In addition to his other honours, Sir Brent Spencer was governor of Cork, and a knight of the Portuguese order of the Tower and Sword. In private life, Spencer was much beloved; and, as a commander, deservedly admired for his firmness, skill, and zealous devotion to his military duties.

CAMPBELL, (Sir ALEXANDER, Bart.) born in Scotland, in 1761, entered the army in 1776, and commanded three companies of the ninety-seventh regiment, on board Admiral Darby's ship, in 1780. In 1781, he served at the siege of Gibraltar, but remained on half-pay from 1783 till 1787, when he was appointed to the seventy-fourth regiment, then forming for service in the East Indies, and for which he raised nearly five hundred men. In 1793, he went to India; and, in 1794, was appointed brigade-major to the king's troops on the coast of Coromandel, and subsequently, in the same year, was selected governor of Madras, for the civil, judicial, and military charge of the settlement and fort of Pondicherry. In 1799, at which time he was a lieutenant-colonel, he joined the army under General (afterwards Lord) Harris, sent against Tippoo Sultaun; and at the siege and capture of Seringapatam, he acquitted himself with such bravery, as to call forth the strongest expressions of approbation from the commander-inchief. In 1800, he was appointed to the command of Fort Bangalore; and in the following year, commanded the force destined to reduce the Danish settlement of Tranguebar, which he effected. In 1802, he was appointed to the command of the northern division of the Madras army; and, in 1805, he succeeded the Duke of Wellington, then Sir Arthur Wellesley, in the command of Seringapatam, and all the Tippoo Sultaun's dominions. In 1808, he returned to England, and was appointed a brigadier-general, and placed on the staff in Ireland. In 1809, he was appointed to the staff of the army serving in Portugal and Spain; and was present at the crossing of the Douro, and in the pursuit of General Soult. At Talavera, where he received a severe wound in the thigh, he commanded the right wing of the British army, and distinguished himself in such a manner, that he was specially recommended for promotion, and consequence, made colonel of the light infantry volunteers. In 1810, he was made a major-general; knighted in 1812; and, in 1813, landed at Mauritius, as commander of the forces, with the local rank of lieutenant-general. In 1815, he was created a baronet; in the same year was

made colonel of the eightieth foot; and, in 1820, was appointed commander-inchief at Madras, in the occupation of which office he died, at Fort St. George, in December, 1825; on which occasion the Company's army went into mourning for a fortnight. He is described as having been a man of great talent, distinguished for zeal and attachment to the service, and a soldier of the most intrepid and tried courage. He married, first, Olympia Elizabeth, sister to Sir John Morshead, Bart., by whom he had two sons and three daughters; and, secondly, Elizabeth Anne, daughter of the Rev. Thomas Pemberton, by whom he had a son and a daughter.

CRADOCK, (JOHN FRANCIS, Baron Howden,) whose family claims descent from the ancient princes of Wales, was born on the 12th of August, 1762, and was the only son of John Cradock, Archbishop of Dublin. He entered the army in 1777, and, in twelve years, had reached the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He served in the West Indies, and the disturbed districts of Ireland; and, on the breaking out of the war with France, was employed at the reduction of Martinico, St. Lucia, and Guadaloupe. He was wounded in the campaign on the first of these islands; and, on his return to England, he received the thanks of parliament. His regiment being reduced, was placed on half-pay, but, in 1798, he was made major-general, and he acted as quartermaster-general during the rebellion in Ireland. He was in the actions at Vinegar Hill, and Ballynahinch, at which latter place he was severely wounded. In the war in Egypt, he took a conspicuous part, and received from the Grand Seignor the order of the Crescent. Soon after, he was appointed to the chief command of the East India Company's forces, at Madras; was made lieutenant-general; and, after the departure of Lord Lake, commanded, for some time, the whole of the forces in the Indian peninsula. The native troops became dissatisfied with some regulations he made respecting their dress, and which gave rise, in 1806, to the mutiny at Vellore. commanded the British troops left to occupy and defend Portugal, in 1808-9, and was superseded in that command


by Sir A. Wellesley. Subsequently, he was made governor of Gibraltar, a situation which he soon resigned. In 1809, he obtained the command of the fortythird foot; and the government of the Cape of Good Hope was given to him in 1811, but he resigned it in 1814, when he was inade general in the army. The grand cross of the Bath was conferred on him soon after; and, in 1819, he was raised to the peerage, by the title of Baron Howden, of Grimston, in the county of Kildare. This being an Irish barony, he, in 1820, unsuccessfully presented himself as a candidate for York, on the ministerial interest. His lordship married the third daughter of the Earl of Clanwilliam, in 1798, by whom he has one son, a lieutenant-colonel in the army.

FITZGERALD, (Lord EDWARD,) fith son of the first Duke of Leinster, and grandson of Charles, second Duke of Richmond, was born on the 15th of October, 1763. After the death of his father, he went to reside with his mother and her second husband, Mr. William Ogilvie, under whose superintendence his education was directed, chiefly towards military pursuits, for which he had evinced an early predilection. In 1779, he returned to England, and, having entered the army, sailed to America, where he became aide-decamp to Lord Rawdon, and greatly distinguished himself by his intrepidity and courage. During this campaign, he gave many proofs of valour amounting to rashness, and was, on one occasion, left insensible in the field, at Entaw Springs, severely wounded in the thigh; in which state he was found by a poor negro, who nursed him in his hut, till he recovered. In 1783, he was on General O'Hara's staff, at St. Lucia, and returning to his native country, he entered the Irish house of commons; but he found a parliamentary life, he said, so insipid, that, but for his mother, he believed he should have joined the Turks or Russians. In 1786, he entered himself a student of the Military Academy at Woolwich; and, at the termination of his parliamentary career, proceeded on a tour to the continent, on his return from whence, an attachment he had previously formed, having become hopeless, induced him to join his regiment

in America, where, according to Mr. Moore, he imbibed those republican notions which, ultimately, proved so disastrous to him. Through his instrumentality, the celebrated William Cobbett, then a sergeant-major in his regiment, was discharged, who spoke of him as a most humane and excellent man, and the only real honest officer he ever knew in the army." Having determined on returning to England, he made several journies through unvisited tracts of country on his way thither, and arrived at home in 1790, when he learned that the lady to whom he had been attached was married to another. At this time, his uncle, the Duke of Richmond, being in office, he was, through his recommendation, appointed to lead the enterprise, then in contemplation, against Cadiz, on his promise that he would not appear in the Irish parliament in opposition to government. Being returned, however, to parliament, by the Duke of Leinster, he was accused, by the Duke of Richmond, of breaking his word, and a rupture took place between them, which ended in his losing the appointment. During the progress of the French revolution, in 1792, he visited Paris, and became intimate with Paine, of whom he wrote in terms of admiration and enthusiasm, and desired his mother to address him as "Le Citoyen Edward Fitzgerald." Shortly afterwards, he assisted at a dinner, given by the English in Paris, in honour of the successes of the

French armies, at which meeting he publicly renounced his titles, and expressed his republican principles in such a manner, that he was, without inquiry, dismissed the British army. Whilst in France, he married Pamela, the adopted daughter of Madame de Genlis, and the reputed child of Philippe Egalité; shortly after which, he proceeded to Dublin, "where," says Mr. Moore," he plunged at once into the political atmosphere, himself, more than sufficiently excited." Here he joined the society called The United Irishmen; and also attached himself to an armed association, under the name of the first national battalion; which the viceroy having issued a proclamation to put down, an address, approving of the measure, was proposed in par

liament, when Lord Edward exclaimed: "I give my most hearty disapprobation to that address; for I do think, that the lord-lieutenant, and the majority of this house, are the worst subjects the king has." "Take down his words," was immediately echoed from all parts of the house; "and being," says Mr. Moore, "permitted to explain, he did so with some humour, by repeating what he had before declared, adding, 'I am

am sorry for it;' which apology, after a debate, next day, of two hours' long, was accepted." At this period, treasonable associations were being organized over the whole of Ireland, and were defended by Lord Edward in parliament, who, some time afterwards, went to Paris to treat with the French directory on behalf of the conspirators. On his return to Ireland, he was suspected by the government, but he, nevertheless, continued his secret measures against it, till at length a warrant was issued for his apprehension, together with the other leaders of the conspiracy. He was, however, previously to his capture, afforded many opportunities of escape, of all of which he refused to avail himself, saying: "It is now out of the question; I am too deeply pledged to these men to be able to withdraw with honour." A thousand pounds was then offered for his aprehension; and information having, at length, been obtained of his retreat, he was secured, after a desperate struggle with his assailants, in which he killed Major Ryan, and was himself much wounded. On being lodged in prison, he was treated with great care and attention, and every exertion was made to procure his pardon, by his friends and relatives, who, it is said, were assisted in their endeavours by the Prince of Wales. During his captivity, his illness increased to such a degree, that he occasionally became delirious, but towards its termination he grew calm and composed, and died, with perfect resignation, on the 3rd of June, 1798. Mr. Moore represents Lord Edward as the hero and the martyr of a good cause; and dedicates his biography to a lady, as the memoirs of her illustrious relative. He says, that the concession, late, but effectual, of those measures of emancipation and reform, which it was the first object of Lord

Edward and his brave associates to obtain, has set a seal upon the general justice of them, which no power of courts or countries can ever do away. Lord Edward Fitzgerald possessed considerable mental powers and great personal bravery, but wanted that prudent command over his passions necessary to form a great civil, military, or political character. Being himself the slave of his own ardent impulses, they were capable of being so excited and worked upon as to render him the tool of others. General Sir John Doyle wrote of him: "Of my lamented and ill-fated friend's excellent qualities I should never tire in speaking. His frank and open manner, his universal benevolence, his gaieté de cœur, his valour almost chivalrous, and, above all, his unassuming tone, made him the idol of all who served with him. His affection for his family, and particularly for his mother, formed the most amiable point in his character, and his letters to her are full of the tenderest expressions of love and duty." His widow retired to Hamburgh, and married a second time in less than two years after his decease. The attainder was removed from his name some time afterwards.

HISLOP, (Sir THOMAS,) son of Colonel Hislop, was born on the 5th of July, 1764, and entered his father's regiment (the royal artillery) as a cadet, in 1778, but remained till the following year at the Royal Academy, Woolwich. In 1780, he went to Gibraltar, where he was stationed till 1783, when he became a lieutenant. He afterwards served as captain at the siege of Toulon, and in Corsica; was made a major on his return home; and, in 1795, went to the West Indies, as lieutenant-colonel of the thirty-ninth regiment. He reduced the Dutch colonies of Demerara, Essequibo, and Berbice, of which he was appointed governor; and, in 1803, he became lieutenant-governor of Trinidad. In 1809, he was advanced to the rank of majorgeneral; and, in 1810, acted as second in command against Guadaloupe: he received a medal for his services, and resumed his command at Trinidad; but, early in 1811, returned, on account of ill health, to England. In a short time, he again engaged in active service, and

was placed on the staff of Bombay, with the local rank of lieutenant-general, and the command of the Company's troops. He was captured by an American frigate, in his voyage to India, and returned to England in a cartel. He was immediately appointed to the command of the Madras army; was created a baronet, on the 2nd of November, 1813; and proceeded, in June, 1814, to Metza, having received the rank of lieutenantgeneral. He held an important command in the campaign against the Pindarees and the Mahratta princes; though the vote of thanks passed by the house of commons and the India Company each contained a clause in which those bodies declared they did not mean to offer any opinion on the charge of putting to death, in cold blood, the governor of Talnier, which was imputed to Sir Thomas Hislop. The accusation was, however, never investigated; and he was made K. C. B. in September, 1818; knight grand cross in the following month; and, in 1822, was permitted an augmentation of his arms, and received the command of the ninety-third regiment. In December, 1829, he obtained command of the forty-eighth. Sir Thomas Hislop was always regarded as a brave officer; but is particularly distinguished for the valour he displayed on his voyage from England to Bombay, in the Javanese. This ship, having no troops on board, being attacked by a privateer, Sir Thomas, though obliged to remain inactive, stood at the capstan, encouraging the sailors, while bullets and splinters were flying about on every side. To his gallantry on this occasion, he is said to be indebted, both for his appointment to the Madras command and his elevation to a baronetcy.

HOPE, (the Honourable JOHN, Earl of Hopetown,) son of the second Earl of Hopetown, was born on the 17th of August, 1766, and having been educated abroad, joined the army, as a volunteer, at the age of fifteen. Having obtained a cornetcy in the tenth dragoons, in the year 1784, he was gradually advanced to the rank of lieutenant-colonel of the twenty-fifth foot, to which he was appointed in 1793; and he was employed under Sir Ralph Abercromby, in 1795, as adjutant-general, with the local rank

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