mutiny at Fort Ricoli. Though not brilliant, his career was at once honourable to himself and useful to the nation.

PHIPPS, (HENRY, Earl Mulgrave,) was born on the 14th of February, 1755; and, on entering the army, rose gradually to the rank of a captain and lieutenant-colonel, which he became in 1783, having previously served with distinction both in America and the West Indies. In 1790, he was raised to the rank of colonel; and, in 1792, succeeded, on the death of his brother, to the Irish barony of New Ross, in the county of Wexford. In 1793, he was appointed colonel of the thirtyfirst foot; and, in 1794, in which year he was created Baron Mulgrave, in the British peerage, greatly distinguished himself at the taking of Toulon, and was raised to the rank of major-general. On the 1st of June, 1801, he was promoted to be lieutenant-general; and he was subsequently appointed chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster; secretary of state for the foreign department; and first lord of the admiralty. In 1809, he was raised to the rank of general; and, in the following year, he resigned his post at the admiralty for the office of master-general of the ordnance. In 1812, he was created an earl; since which he has received the order of a knight grand cross of the Bath; become governor of Scarborough Castle; and filled the posts of custos rotulorum, and vice-admiral of the east riding of the county of York. He commenced his parliamentary career in 1789; and, in both houses, generally supported the measures of government. The merits of Lord Mulgrave as a soldier, if not of the highest, are of a respectable order; and for his services in America, the West Indies, the Mediterranean, and in Holland, he received the approbation and thanks of his commanding officers, in their public orders. He married, on the 20th of October, 1795, Sophia, daughter of William Maling, Esq., of West Henington, in Durham, and has several sons and daughters.

CATHCART, (WILLIAM SCHAW, Earl,) was born in 1755, and received his education at the University of Glasgow, with a design of following the

profession of the law. Coming, however, to his family estates, in 1776, he entered the army in the year following, and went out to America, where he served in the sixteenth light dragoons, and became successively aide-de-camp to Sir T. Wilson and Sir Henry Clinton. After having conducted himself with great gallantry, in several actions, he was appointed aide-de-camp to the commander-in-chief, and served as such at the battle of Monmouth Court-House; and having raised the corps called the Caledonian Volunteers, he was appointed to it with the provincial rank of colonel, and occasionally commanded with it at the outposts. On the 13th of April, 1779, he obtained the majority of the thirty-eighth foot; during the autumn of which year, he was appointed to serve as quarter-master-general to the forces in North America, till the arrival of General Dalrymple. After having been present at the siege of Charlestown, he, in 1780, returned to England; and, in the following year, obtained a company, with the rank of lieutenantcolonel, in the Coldstream guards; which, in 1789, he exchanged for the twenty-ninth foot, and became colonel of that regiment. In 1793, he was appointed brigadier-general, and attached to the forces under Lord Moira; and, in 1794, joined the Duke of York's army, at Arnheim; and served with it during the remainder of the campaign. In 1797, he was appointed colonel of the second regiment of horse guards, placed on the staff in Great Britain; and made a lieutenant-general on the 1st of January, 1801. In 1805, he was ordered as ambassador to Russia; but, instead of proceeding thither, was sent to take the command of the British army, in Hanover, where he acquired an entire ascendancy over the senate of Bremen, and conciliated the Russian general, Bensingen, and all the officers of his army, with whom the British were then combined. He was recalled home after the death of Mr. Pitt, and acted as commander of the forces in Scotland, till 1807, when he was sent on a mission to Sweden; and afterwards joined Lord Gambier in the expedition against Copenhagen. On his return to England, he was rewarded with the dignity of an English viscounty; and, on the 12th of January,

1812, was raised to the rank of general. In 1813, he was again called upon to be employed on a diplomatic mission to St. Petersburgh; and, during the same year, the Emperor Alexander conferred upon him the imperial Russian order of St. Andrew, and the cross of the military order of St. George, of the fourth class; and, on the 18th of June, 1814, he was created a British peer. He has the reputation of a brave, intelligent, and trust-worthy officer; and, as a statesman, always supported the war system, and generally voted for the measures of ministers. In June, 1779, he married, at New York, in America, the daughter of Andrew Elliot, Esq., of that place, by whom he has had issue, five sons and three daughters.

COOKSON, (GEORGE,) was born about 1755, and after having served as a midshipman in the navy until 1777, he, in the following year, obtained a commission in the second regiment of artillery, with which he proceeded to the West Indies in 1780. After various services, he was, in 1800, appointed, with the rank of major, to the command of the artillery under Brigadiergeneral Maitland, at the siege of Belleisle. He afterwards proceeded with the army to Egypt, and landed in the Bay of Aboukir all the field-pieces, according to a plan of his own, never before adopted. Previously to quitting Egypt, where he conducted himself with much skill and bravery, he was presented with a gold medal by the Grand Seignior, and appointed to a troop of horse artillery, and on his return to England, in 1803, he was promoted to a majority, and in the year following, to a lieutenant-colonelcy. In September following, he was appointed to the command of the artillery in the Dublin district, to which situation he returned, after having gone out with the artillery to Hanover, under the command of Lord Cathcart. In May, 1807, he served under Lord Cathcart, at Copenhagen; and, in October, 1808, he embarked, in command of the artillery, forty-eight field-pieces and one thousand two hundred men, to be landed at Corunna, with the army under General the late Sir David Baird. On the 29th of December following, he supported, with the horse artillery, the cavalry on the plains of Benevente,


when the French general, Lefebre, and several of the imperial army, were made prisoners. After the retreat to Corunna, he, on the 13th of January, 1809, prepared and blew up the two great magazines three miles from that place, containing nearly twelve thousand barrels of gunpowder. In July, he commanded the artillery at Walcheren; and, after the surrender of Flushing, he returned to England, where he succeeded to a colonelcy in the royal artillery; and, on the 4th of June, 1814, was promoted to the rank of major-general in the army. He was one of the most efficient artillery officers of his day; and has seen more service than almost any man of the same standing in the army. His prowess and skill were of a first-rate character; and it was confessed by various commanders-in-chief, that to him is due no inconsiderable portion of the successes that attended the armies to which he was attached.

MONTAGUE, (EDWARD,) fourth son of Admiral, and brother of Viceadmiral Montague, was born about 1755; and was educated for the army at the Military Academy, Woolwich. In 1770, he went out as a cadet to the East Indies. About 1781, being appointed to the command of a company, he was employed under General Goddard, in demolishing the various forts in the Rohilla country; and whilst attempting to force the gates of one, he was severely wounded in the cheek by an arrow, which entering on one side of his face, nearly penetrated to the other. He instantly broke the shaft off close to the iron barb, and gallantly leading on his corps to the attack, succeeded in penetrating and carrying the fort; the point of the arrow remaining in his face for several days afterwards. In 1784, he obtained the rank of major; and at the siege of Cuddalore, manifested such superior judgment in taking post on an eminence, that he was complimented on his skill, by an officer of rank in the army of the enemy. In the expedition against Seringapatam, he was selected by Marquess Cornwallis, to attack the stupendous fortresses of Nunderdroog and Ramahdroog; the first of which was pronounced, by the engineer, almost impregnable. He was ordered to pro


ceed from Bangalore to join the army, with his best train of artillery, and the expedition with which he performed the movement, is said to have excited the astonishment of the whole army. He shortly afterwards reduced the strong fort of Severndroog, a service in which he displayed great tact and activity. In 1794, he was advanced to the rank of lieutenant-colonel; and was chosen to command the corps attached to the Bengal army, about to join General Harris in his enterprise against Seringapatam. About three days previously to its capture, serving with his usual gallantry in the trenches, his arm was shattered by a cannon-ball, in such a manner as to require immediate amputation. The wound proved fatal; but such was his unconquerable spirit, that after the operation, he insisted on being carried into the trenches, where he continued to the last to encourage his men by his presence. He was of a generous, frank, and benevolent nature; beloved both in public and private life, and especially by the army, with which he had served for a period of twenty years.

AUCHMUTY, (Sir SAMUEL,) was born in 1756, and entered the army, at the age of twenty, as a volunteer in the forty-fifth foot, then serving in America. He soon attained the rank of lieutenant, and was engaged in several actions, particularly those of Brooklyn and White Plains. On his return to England he exchanged into the seventy-fifth, and went to India, where he served, from 1783 to 1796, on the Malabar coast, in Mysore, against the Rohillas, and at the first siege of Seringapatam. In 1795, he became major of the seventy-fifth foot; and, about two years after, lieutenant-colonel of the tenth. In 1800, he went out to Egypt, where he acted as adjutantgeneral until the middle of 1802. He was next employed, with the rank of brigadier-general, in South America. Arriving at the Rio de la Plata, at the end of 1806, he assumed the chief command; General Beresford, with the main body of the British forces, being then in the enemy's hands at Buenos Ayres, which had recently been captured by the Spaniards. In January, 1807, he attacked Monte Video, which his


troops, after having repulsed the garrison in a sally, carried by storm, on the 3rd of the following month. May, he was succeeded by General Whitelocke, under whom he bore a part in the disastrous affair at Buenos Ayres, the result of which was a total evacuation of the territory of La Plata by the British, and eventually the dismissal of Whitelocke from the service. In 1808, he was made a major-general; and two years afterwards, took the chief command of the forces in the Carnatic. After having completely defeated the Dutch, and, in conjunction with the navy, reduced Java, he returned to England, in 1813, and was made a lieutenant-general. He subsequently became commander-in-chief of the forces in Ireland, where, in August, 1822, while riding in Phoenix Park, he suddenly dropped from his horse and expired. He had been rewarded for his services with the thanks of parliament on two occasions; a grand cross of the Bath; a gold medal, commemorative of the capture of Java; and, in 1812, with the colonelcy of the seventy-eighth. Unsupported either by family or wealth, but endowed with much courage and great abilities, Sir Samuel Auchmuty acquired that rank in the service, and those honours from his sovereign and the country, which he so well deserved, by merit alone. In private life his character is said to have been decidedly estimable.

PITT, (JOHN, Earl of Chatham,) eldest son of the great statesman, was born on the 10th of September, 1756; and having entered the army, rose by degrees to the rank of a full general. In 1778, he succeeded to the title of Earl of Chatham; and, by the influence of his brother, became successively first lord of the admiralty, lord privy seal, lord president of the council, and master-general of the ordnance. About 1807, he became governor of Jersey; and about 1820, was appointed governor of Gibraltar, having previously been raised to the dignity of K. G. The Earl of Chatham did not display much ability either as a statesman or soldier; the solitary exploit by which he obtained notoriety in the latter character, being as commander of the ill-fated expedition to Walcheren; the success of

which, had it been probable, he had by no means the talent or energy to ensure. He married, in 1783, Mary Elizabeth, second daughter of Thomas Townshend, first Viscount Sydney, by whom he has no issue.

he has interfered but little in public matters; and, in 1825, he succeeded his brother as Earl of Donoughmore, being, at that time, colonel of the eighteenth foot and governor of Stirling Castle. Lord Donoughmore was not only a distinguished and successful general, but, when he saw occasion to be so, an able and eloquent statesman. In the Irish parliament, he supported the cause of the union; and, during the discussion of that measure, is said to have delivered one of the most argumentative, eloquent, and impressive speeches, perhaps, ever produced in any legislative assembly.

WHITELOCKE, (JOHN,) was born about 1759, and was brought up to the military profession, under the patronage of Lord Aylesbury, who placed him at Lockee's Military Academy, near Chelsea, and, in 1777, procured him an ensigncy in the fourteenth regiment of foot. In 1787, having married a daughter of Mr. Lewis, chief clerk of the war

HUTCHINSON, (JOHN HELY, Earl of Donoughmore,) the second son of the celebrated Hely Hutchinson, was born in Ireland, on the 15th of May, 1757; and, after receiving a liberal education at Eton, returned to complete his studies at Trinity College, Dublin. He commenced his career in the army as cornet of the eighteenth dragoons; and after removing to two other regiments, went to finish his military education at Strasburgh, whence he was recalled to take his seat in the Irish house of commons, as one of the members for the city of Cork. On the breaking out of the war with France, in 1793, he obtained permission to raise a regiment, with which he assisted to put down the revolt in Ireland. He served in the first expedition to Hol-office, he became a field-officer, through land, as colonel, and afterwards as major-general, under the Duke of York, and went out to Egypt as second in command under Sir Ralph Abercromby. At the death of that officer, at the battle of Alexandria, he assumed the chief command; and, in that capacity, successfully terminated the Egyptian campaign. As a reward for his services, he had the order of the Bath bestowed on him; he was returned to the first imperial parliament after the union, but, being created an Irish peer, in 1801, he did not take his seat. He was, at the same time, further rewarded with a pension of £2000 per annum, and was raised to the rank of lieutenant-general. At the peace of Amiens, he returned home; and, after having unsuccessfully performed two diplomatic missions to Russia, he turned his attention to politics, and joined the opposition in the house of peers. Notwithstanding, however, his political sentiments, he was, in 1815, made one of the knights grand crosses; and, on the announcement of Queen Caroline's intention to come to England, was deputed, by the king, to meet Mr. Brougham at St. Omers, and propose to him certain terms for the residence of her majesty abroad. Since that period,

the influence of his father-in-law; and in 1793, was promoted to the lieutenantcolonelcy of the thirteenth foot, with which he served some time in the West Indies. He returned to England in 1794, when he was appointed to the home staff; and, on the 1st of September, 1795, he was made colonel of a regiment in the West Indies, and promoted to the rank of brigadier-general on the 10th of the same month. In 1807, at which time he was a lieutenantgeneral, he served with Sir S. Auchmuty at the siege of Buenos Ayres; after the unsuccessful attack on which town, he returned to England, and was brought to a court-martial for his conduct in the affair. Four charges were preferred against him, the substance of which was, that he had not exhibited proper management or exertion in the attack on Buenos Ayres; and that he had concluded a treaty with the enemy, for the surrender of Monte Video, after he had captured that fort, and had every means for retaining possession of it. In his defence he stated that the inhabi. tants of Buenos Ayres were too much exasperated with the British to render its reduction of any advantage; and that he had yielded up Monte Video at the suggestion of the enemy's general,

who informed him that unless a cessation of hostilities took place, he could not answer for the lives of the British prisoners. He was, however, found guilty, and sentenced to "be cashiered, and be declared totally unfit and unworthy to serve his majesty in any military capacity whatever;" which sentence, notwithstanding his former services, was carried into effect, with the approbation of the king. General Whitelocke was a most valiant officer; and less blame was attached to him on the occasion of the court-martial, than to those who acted in command with him, on the faith of whose advice he is said to have acted, more than on his own experience, which, as a military tactician, was certainly too inconsiderable to warrant the trust assigned to him.

ASTON, (HARVEY,) born in 1760, attained the rank of captain in the army about 1784; and, soon after the breaking out of the war with France, having become a lieutenant-colonel, he joined the army in India. His conduct gained him promotion to the rank of colonel, in 1796; and he was soon after put in command at Tangore. In 1799, while absent from his regiment, having been informed of a quarrel between a lieutenant and Majors Picton and Allan, he declared in a private letter, that he considered the two latter had acted towards the lieutenant with illiberality. This having come to the ears of the majors, they demanded a courtmartial, which was refused, and the colonel himself was called upon for an explanation. He answered that he could not be called to account for his public conduct by the officers of his corps, but added that he should be ready to give satisfaction to any one who could allege any thing against him as a private gentleman. He was accordingly challenged by Major Picton, and a meeting followed, when the major's pistol flashed in the pan, and Colonel Aston fired in the air. The next day satisfaction was demanded of him, in offensive language, by Major Allan, with whom he accordingly went out, and having received his antagonist's fire without showing signs of being hurt, the colonel, in an erect posture and with the utmost composure, levelled his pistol, to show he

had the power to discharge it, and then laying it across his breast, said, "He was shot through the bodyhe believed the wound was mortaland he therefore declined to fire-for it should not be said of him that the last act of his life was an act of revenge." He languished for a week in excessive pain, which he bore without a murmur, and died deeply regretted by all who knew him.

GRAHAM, (THOMAS, Lord Lynedoch,) entered the army as a volunteer, and, in 1794, served at the siege of Toulon, under Lord Mulgrave; for his conduct on which occasion he received the special thanks of that nobleman. Having returned to England, he raised a battalion of the ninetieth regiment, of which he was appointed lieutenant-colonel, and colonel in 1795. In the year following, he obtained permission to join the Austrian army; and, on his return to Gibraltar, proceeded with the expedition against Minorca, and was, for two years, at the blockade of Malta. In 1803, he was made major-general; and, in 1808, accompanied Sir John Moore, as aide-de-camp, in his expedition to Sweden; and, subsequently, went with that general to Spain. In 1809, he commanded a division at the siege of Flushing; in 1810, he commanded the British troops at Cadiz, and was made a lieutenant-general; and, in 1811, fought and won the battle of Barossa. The same year he was made second in command under Lord Wellington, and was present at the siege of Ciudad Rodrigo; but, his sight failing him, he was obliged to return to England. In 1813, he again joined the army in Spain, led the left wing at Vittoria, reduced the town and citadel of St. Sebastian, crossed the Bidassoa, and (after a severe contest) established the British army on the territory of France. Ill health again compelled him to go to England, and, with the local rank of general, he was appointed to command the forces in Holland. On the 3rd of May, 1814, he was created a peer of the empire, by the title of Baron Lynedoch, of Balgowan, Perthshire, and refused a grant of £2000 per annum, to himself and heirs, which was intended to have accompanied his elevation. He was also

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