« VorigeDoorgaan »
with nine squadrons of horse, and as many battalions of infantry. The troops on both sides fought with the most desperate courage, keeping up their fire until the muzzles of their pieces met, and then charging each other at the point of the bayonet. Four hundred of the enemy were left dead on the field. In 1715, being then a majorgeneral, he held a command in the north of England at the time of the rebellion. When Forster took possession of Preston, Wills marched against that town with six regiments of horse, and one battalion of foot; and had advanced to the bridge of Ribble, before the rebels were aware of his approach. They then began to raise barricadoes, and prepared for a defence. On the 12th of November, Wills made a vigorous attack upon the town in two different places, but was repulsed with very considerable loss. The next day, General Carpenter having arrived with a body of troops, assumed the chief command, and the rebels soon after surrendered. In 1716, General Wills was appointed colonel of the third regiment of foot; in 1726, colonel of the first regiment of foot guards; and, in 1739, was promoted to the rank of general of foot, and field-marshal. He was also a knight of the Bath; lieutenant-general of the ordnance; and sat in parliament for Totness, from 1713 until the time of his death, which took place on the 25th of December, 1741.
VAN KEPPEL, (ARNOLD Joost, Earl of Albemarle,) son of a Dutch noble, was born in 1670, and came over to England as a page of honour to William, who made him one of the grooms of the bedchamber; master of the robes; and subsequently created him, for his courage and fidelity in the army, Baron Ashford, Viscount Bury, and Earl of Albemarle in Normandy. He was a major-general before 1697, and in that year was employed in the camp at Promelles. In the year following, he was appointed colonel of the first troop of horse guards; and introduced the Polish envoy to William at Loo, which seat the king afterwards presented to him. He was soon after installed a knight of the Garter, and seemed to have engrossed the royal
favour so entirely, that he disposed of every thing that was in the king's power. On the death of the king, who had bequeathed to him two hundred thousand guilders, he retired to his native country, where he took his seat as a member of the nobility in the assembly of the states general, and was appointed general of the Dutch forces. In 1705, he paid a visit to England; and, attending the queen to Cambridge, received the honorary degree of doctor of laws: soon after which he returned again to Holland; and having left the Hague to join the army under Auverquerque, he was at the forcing of the French lines near Tirlemont. He also bore a part in the battles of Ramillies and Oudenarde; and, at the siege of Lisle, was despatched, by the Duke of Marlborough, with thirty squadrons, to cover a convoy of ammunition, which the enemy were endeavouring to intercept; which service he successfully effected. In 1711, he conducted a convoy of ammunition and artillery to the siege of Bouchain; and, commanding at the battle of Denain, in 1712, he was made prisoner; but was soon released, and entertained Prince Eugene for the winter season in his house at the Hague. On the death of Queen Anne, he was sent, by the states general, to Hanover, to congratulate George the First on his accession to the British throne; and afterwards received him, with the Prince of Wales, on the frontiers of the united provinces. In 1716, he was made colonel of the Swiss battalion in the Dutch service, and held several of the highest offices in his native country. He died on the 30th of May, 1718; leaving, by his wife, a daughter of the Lord of St. Gravemoor, an only son, who succeeded him in his titles and estates. Bishop Burnet describes the Earl of Albemarle as a cheerful young man, that had the art to please; but was so much given up to his own pleasures, that he could scarcely submit to the attendance and drudgery that was necessary to maintain his post: he had all the arts of a court, and was civil to all. He shared in all the pleasures of William, who never suffered him to be long absent from his person; and he was equally trusted and admired by Queen Anne and George the First.
His exquisitely beautiful person, expensive mode of living, his open and lively conversation, elegant manners, and a total absence of all Dutch phlegm, contrasting forcibly with the stiff rectitude of his rival, Portland, endeared him to the English nation, who lamented his death, in the prime of manhood, with sincere regret. He, however, came under the lash of Swift, who has thrown out a dark and virulent hint respecting his companionship in William's pleasures.
LIGONIER, (FRANCIS,) a military man of great bravery, was a younger brother of the first Earl Ligonier. When Bland's dastardly dragoons lost their brave commander, Gardiner, at the battle of Preston Pans, George the Second promoted Ligonier to the vacant colonelcy; observing, "I will give them a man who will make them fight." Although so enfeebled by illness, that he could scarcely sit his horse, he would, contrary to all advice, march with the army to Falkirk, where he commanded the brigade of dragoons, at the head of which he displayed extraordinary but unavailing gallantry. During the contest, and subsequent retreat to Linlithgow, where he arrived about one o'clock in the morning, his clothes were completely soaked by the rain, and the consequence was a violent cold, which soon carried him off. The inscription on a monument, erected to his memory by Lord Ligonier, states that he was, "though a native of France, a zealous protestant, and subject of England, and sacrificed himself in its defence against a popish pretender."
TYRAWLEY, (JAMES O'HARA, Lord,) was born in 1690, and having entered the army, served, when only seventeen years of age, at the battle of Almanza, in Spain. He was in action during the remainder of Queen Anne's wars; became colonel of the royal English fusileers; and, a few years after the accession of George the First, was made a baron by that monarch. In 1727, he was appointed aide-de-camp to the king, and gradually rose to the rank of field-marshal; having, in the meantime, become colonel of various regiments, and acted twice as an ambassador to
Portugal; and being, at the period of his last promotion, colonel of the Coldstream regiment of foot guards, and governor of Portsmouth. He died in 1774, when his title became extinct, having left no issue by his wife, who was a daughter of Lord Mountjoy. He was a man of the most commanding talents, both as a soldier and a diplomatist, and in both capacities rendered eminent services to his country.
HODGSON, (STUDHOLM,) was born in 1708; and, in 1761, at which time he was a lieutenant-general, distinguished himself by commanding the British troops at the attack on Belleisle, which he took, after an obstinate siege of two months. Before he could effect the landing of his troops, General Hodgson was three times repulsed, and he had no ordinary obstacles to surmount in leading his men to the siege; the cannon having to be drawn up steep rocks, and then dragged, for two leagues, along a very rugged road. For his services on this occasion, he was, on the 19th of March, 1765, promoted to be major-general; on the 21st of September, he was nominated governor of Fort St. George, and Fort Augustus, in Scotland; on the 8th of November, he attended the funeral of his Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland, as gentleman of the horse; and, on the 2nd of August, 1796, he created a field-marshal; and died in 1798. On the occasion of the taking of Belleisle, the city of London addressed the king, and various other demonstrations of public joy took place; and it was thought that no action of greater gallantry had been performed during the whole war, than that by which the enemy had been driven from the possession of the town by the British troops under the command of General Hodgson.
FAWCETT, (WILLIAM,) was born in Yorkshire, about 1720, and after having received his education at the free grammar school in Lancashire, obtained a commission in the army, for which he had imbibed an early predilection. His first military essay was as a volunteer in Flanders, where, by his gallant conduct, he obtained a pair of colours; but marrying soon after, re
signed them, at the earnest request of his wife's family. His desire, however, for a military career remaining unabated, he entered the third guards, and devoted himself with great zeal to the theoretical study of his profession. With a view to his further improvement, he also made himself acquainted with the continental languages, and published, shortly afterwards, a translation from the French of Marshal Saxe's Art of War, and two other works on the same subject from the German. Having attained the situation of adjutant, his abilities and unremitting attention recommended him to the late General Elliot, who took him to Germany as his aide-de-camp, and on the death of the general, he filled the same situation under the Marquess of Granby. In this capacity he brought the accounts of the battle of Warburgh to England, where he was introduced to George the Second, who received him graciously, and not the less so, it is added, on his giving the whole account of the action in German. Soon after he was rewarded with a company in the guards, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel in the army; and became military secretary to, and the intimate and confidential friend of, Lord Granby. He was afterwards employed in settling part of the affairs in the war with Germany; by which means he became known to the great Frederick, whose opinion of his talents, it is said, was so high, that he made him some very tempting offers, which he, however, declined. He died on the 22d of April, 1804; being, at the time, colonel of the third dragoon guards, and governor of Chealsea Hospital, in the chapel of which he was buried; his funeral being followed by the Prince of Wales, the Dukes of Clarence and Kent, and several distinguished noblemen and statesmen.
MELVILLE, (ROBERT,) was born in Scotland, on the 12th of October, 1723; and, after having passed some time at the grammar school of Leven, completed his education at the universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh; by the latter of which, after he had distinguished himself as a military man, he was honoured with the degree of doctor of laws. Early in 1744, he joined the allied army in the Netherlands, as ensign in the twenty-fifth
regiment of foot, with which he returned, in the following year, to serve against the Pretender's adherents in North Britain. At the latter end of 1746, he was again sent abroad with his regiment, and obtained a lieutenancy for his conduct at Laffeldt. While besieged in Ath, after the battle of Fontenoy, he narrowly escaped destruction, a shell having passed through the bed in which he slept. While proceeding to Ireland, at the termination of the war, he was wrecked on the coast of Normandy, but escaped without injury; and, in 1751, obtained a captain's commission. He was next employed on the recruiting service, in Scotland; and became aide-de-camp to the Earl of Panmore. In 1756, he served as major of the thirty-eighth, in Antigua; and, subsequently, assisted in the expeditions against Martinique and Guadaloupe: on the reduction of the latter, he was appointed its lieutenant-governor; and, on the death of Brigadiergeneral Crump, in 1760, he succeeded to the chief government. He had previously been made a lieutenantcolonel of the sixty-third regiment; and, on his return to England, in 1763, as a reward for his eminent services, after the fall of Guadaloupe, during the reduction of the other French islands in the West Indies, he was promoted to the rank of brigadier-general, and made captain-general and governor-inchief of Grenada, the Grenadines, Dominica, St. Vincent, and Tobago. In this station, which he filled for about seven years, his conduct appears to have been prudent, distinterested, and productive of much benefit to the colonists. On the cession of Tobago, in 1783, to the French, by whom it had been taken during the war, General Melville was deputed, with Mr. (afterwards Sir William) Young, to solicit some indulgence from the French government towards the British settlers on the island, for whom ministers had neglected to obtain the usual stipulations. On the termination of his mission, which proved decidedly successful, he visited Switzerland, Italy, the Low Countries, Germany, &c., chiefly with a view of examining the spots on which great military events, ancient and modern, had taken place. Guided by Polybius, he traced a new but appa
rently obvious rout of Hannibal's march across the Alps. To military research he appears to have been much attached; he also displayed a strong inclination towards botanical pursuits, and was an unwearied labourer in the cause of charity. He projected, and, at his own expense established, the Royal Garden, in the island of St. Vincent, which, however, was afterwards supported entirely by government; and to the funds of various benevolent establishments, especially to those of the Scottish Corporation, or Hospital, in London, he contributed not only much from his purse, considering the narrowness of his means, but largely by his exertions. He was a fellow of the Royal and Antiquarian Societies of London and Edinburgh; a member of the Board of Agriculture; a warm supporter of the Society of Arts; and, at the time of his death, which occurred on the 29th of August, 1809, a full general; having been elevated to that rank in October, 1789. During the latter part of his life, he was afflicted with blindness, a misfortune which he remotely attributed to his having been severely injured by the explosion of a house, while he commanded the advanced posts at Guadaloupe.
KINGSLEY, (WILLIAM,) descended from an ancient family who take their name from a place in Cheshire, was born in Kent, where his family had settled, and acquired large possessions. In 1742, he was aide-de-camp to the Earl of Dunmore, who commanded the troops sent over to Flanders for the service of the Queen of Hungary. He was present at the battle of Dettingen, in 1743; and, in the following year, was made captain-lieutenant, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. At Laffeldt, he distinguished himself by his exertions, and narrowly escaped with his life, a cannon-ball passing between his legs, and killing four men behind him. In the year 1757, he went with the twentieth regiment, of which he was then colonel, in the expedition against Rochefort, and was to have commanded the troops at the landing. In 1758, he was advanced to the rank of majorgeneral, and appointed to the staff in Germany. At Minden, where, in conjunction with Waldegrave, he com
manded the British infantry, which bore the brunt of the battle, his regiment suffered more than any other in the field, and displayed the most extraordinary prowess. General Kingsley
had his horse shot under him, and his hat and clothes were perforated with bullets. As he was leaving the field of battle, a soldier cried out to his comrade, "Look at the old boy, he's weli peppered." He received the thanks of Prince Ferdinand for his great courage, and the good order in which he conducted his brigade; and historians unite in attributing the victory to the few regiments of British infantry, commanded by Waldegrave and Kingsley. He also was engaged in the night attack on Zierenberg; when, out of one thousand French, four hundred were taken prisoners, with two pieces of artillery, and great numbers were slaughtered by the troops, whom they exasperated by firing from the houses. He died unmarried, in 1769, and was buried in the family vault at Kennington, near Ashford, in Kent, where his descendants still possess a small estate. General Kingsley was a skilful and gallant officer, and much beloved in the British army. His popularity has been handed down by tradition, and a painting of his head hangs out as the sign, at the inn, near Maidstone. He was a frank, downright Englishman, who discharged his duty with earnest zeal. In his manuscript account of his early campaigns, which contain some valuable plans and information, he more than once complains of the inefficiency of the general officers, and the unaccountable indulgence frequently shown by the allies to "the most perfidious, ungrateful, and imposing Dutch." Sir Joshua Reynolds has painted his portrait; and his features, indicative of his character, are regular, bold, and manly.
FANNING, (EDMUND,) was born about 1725; and although bred to the profession of the law in America, chiefly distinguished himself in that country by raising several regiments, which he commanded in the service of government against the insurgents. In 1774, as a reward for his services, he was appointed surveyor-general of the royal lands in North Carolina; after which he suffered severely, both in person and
property, from the attacks of the revolutionists, against whom he continued to fight until the close of the American war. He came to England in 1782, at which time he was a colonel; and he was ultimately promoted to the rank of general. In 1785, he was appointed lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia and its dependencies; and, in 1786, on the recal of Lieutenant-governor Paterson, he was removed to the Island of St. John, now Prince Edward Island, where he remained till 1805. The bravery and fidelity of this officer merit the highest eulogium; his services not being merely those of a hireling, but of a voluntary, loyal, and devoted subject. He was always favourably mentioned by his commanding officer in the public despatches; and Lord North, among others, spoke of him, in the house of commons, in terms of the highest approbation.
WALL, (JOSEPH,) was born in Dublin, in 1737; and, after having conducted himself with great gallantry and ability in the king's service, obtained a command in that of the East India Company, and went out to Bombay, from whence, in a few years, he returned to Ireland. It is said that he now commenced the trade of fortune-hunting; and was so intrusive to one lady, that she instituted a prosecution against him for assault and defamation. In 1773, he was appointed secretary and clerk of the council of the province of Senegambia, in Africa; and, in 1782, he was lieutenant-governor of the island of Goree, with the rank of a fieldofficer. In that year, his ill state of health compelled him to return to England, and as he was preparing for his embarkation, discontent arose among the troops, who demanded a settlement for their short allowance, which so enraged him, that he ordered one of them, Benjamin Armstrong, a serjeant in the African corps, to receive eight hundred lashes. No court-martial was summoned; but the man having been stripped, was tied to the gun-carriage, and flogged by five or six blacks with pieces of rope, while the governor stood by, exclaiming, "Lay on, you black rascals, or I'll lay on you! cut him to the heart! cut his liver out!" in consequence of which, the man died in a few
days. On Wall's arrival in England, an inquiry was instituted into his conduct; when, from the absence of the principal witnesses, the charges were not substintiated, and he was set at liberty, but was subsequently apprehended in 1784. He, however, escaped to Scotland, where he married a sister of Lord Seaforth, and passed over to France, whence he returned in disguise, in 1797; and, in 1802, surrendered himself for trial, in the hope of an acquittal, and being enabled thereby to obtain possession of a considerable property belonging to his wife. He, however, was found guilty, and sentenced to be hanged; and though twice respited, was executed on the 28th of January, amidst the yells and execrations of an immense mob. Governor Wall was six feet four inches in height, of a comely person, and elegant manners, but does not appear to have possessed one redeeming virtue to detract from the obloquy so deservedly attached to his name.
CRAIG, (JAMES HENRY,) was born about 1740, and having entered the army, served with distinction in various parts of the world, but particularly in America, where, in 1790, he attained the rank of full colonel. In 1794, he was made major-general; and, in the following year, commanded the expedition sent against the Cape of Good Hope, which led to the reduction of that colony. In 1797, he commanded a successful expedition against Manilla; and being afterwards raised to the rank of lieutenant-general, and the local one of general, he, in conjunction with Sir J. Stuart, conducted the army of the Mediterranean to Sicily. In 1807, he was appointed commander-in-chief of Canada; colonel of the seventieth foot, in 1809; and, died in 1812, after having received the honour of K. B. Sir James Craig was an officer of great merit and ability, and displayed great judgment in his government of Canada, during a most delicate and trying period of affairs.
HARCOURT, (WILLIAM, Earl Harcourt,) was born on the 20th of March, 1743; and entered the army, in 1759, as an ensign in the foot guards. In the following October, he obtained a captaincy in the sixteenth light dragoons;