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generalship, Moore was much and deservedly eulogized. At the battle of Aboukir, he behaved with his usual gallantry; and though severely wounded in the leg, refused to quit the field until the defeat of the enemy was announced. For his services, on these and other occasions during the Egyptian campaign, he was rewarded, on his return to Europe, with the order of the Bath.
At the peace of Amiens, he was placed on the home-staff, and, on the renewal of hostilities, stationed at Sandgate, in Kent; where he put in practice a plan he had previously conceived, and which has since been generally adopted, of qualifying regiments to act either as light troops, or in the usual way; rendering his own regiment, in this particular, a pattern corps. was next employed, as lieutenant-general, and second in command, under General Fox, of the forces in the Mediterranean. He succeeded the latter officer in 1807; and, early in the following year, was sent, at the head of ten thousand men, to aid the King of Sweden; with whom, however, he had some personal difference, and was consequently placed under arrest; on extricating himself from which, he returned, with his troops, to England.
He was, shortly afterwards, sent to the peninsula, to act under Generals Dalrymple and Burrard. This subordinate rank, as he had already on two occasions been employed as commander-in-chief, was deemed an infringement of military etiquette; but Moore, though rather hurt, on receiving his orders, observed, that while able, he could never refuse to serve his country; and that, if the king commanded him to act as an ensign, he should certainly obey. He reached the head quarters of the British army, soon after the convention of Cintra ; his superiors in command were successively recalled; and, at length, he assumed the chief command.
into Spain, under an assurance that sixty or seventy thousand Spaniards would cover his entry: but he penetrated to Salamanca, without even a Spanish piquet to protect his front. Frere, the English minister at Madrid, however, urged him to move towards the capital; but, hearing that the corps under Castanos had been defeated, so that his own was the only army in the peninsula opposed to the French, and against which, the whole force of the latter might, therefore, be concentrated, Moore determined on a retreat. His retrograde movement had scarcely commenced, when Frere having informed him, that the cause of patriotism was in a most prosperous state at Madrid, (although Napoleon had, on the day preceding the date of the letter, taken possession of the capital without a blow,) Moore formed a junction, with a reinforcement sent out under Baird, and advanced to attack Soult, at Saldanha.
The most important period of his life now commenced; it was brief, brilliant, and disastrous. Our limits preclude the possibility of giving a detailed account of those movements which ended in the battle of Corunna; a rapid sketch of them can alone be afforded. Moore, it appears, advanced
The two armies were already on the eve of a contest, when intelligence reached the commander-in-chief, that not only had Soult received large reinforcements, but that Napoleon, at the head of a formidable body of troops, had left Madrid, with an intention of getting to the rear of the British forces. Moore, consequently, again retreated. The enemy pursued him closely; and, though the troops under Lord Paget repulsed them at Sahagun, the situation of the British soon became almost desperate. Their line of march lay through a desolate country; the winter had set in with much severity; rain, sleet, and snow, rendered the roads almost impassable; provisions were dreadfully scarce; the bullion, with which Moore had been provided, was abandoned, because he had no means of conveying it; the baggage of his men was destroyed; their clothes were in tatters; their feet blistered by long marches, and cut for want of shoes; the peasants afforded him no assistance; and, to complete the distress of his situation, the troops, at length, became insubordinate, and committed so many serious excesses, that he found it necessary, on more than one occasion, to have recourse to capital punishment, for the purpose of obtaining even a partial compliance with military discipline. Still the courage of the British was
unsubdued; and, though retreating in much disorder, the enemy's advanced guard never approached them without being repulsed. Moore himself, being constantly with the rear of his troops, was invariably present whenever a shot was fired, or the French came in sight.
At length, the British reached the hills behind Corunna; where, on account of the transports destined to receive them not having yet arrived, they remained for three days. 14th of January, 1809, the sick, cavalry, and part of the artillery, were em. barked: on the following day, the enemy slightly attacked their outposts; and, on the 16th, a general engagement took place. The British, in this battle, amounted to little more than a third of the enemy's number; they were greatly reduced in strength by a fatiguing retreat, during which they had experienced the most dreadful privations; yet they encountered the French with an intrepidity that has never been surpassed. Their right wing was first attacked, but without success; the enemy then attempted to take them in flank, but Moore charged and repulsed them, at the head of the forty-second, exclaiming, as he advanced, "Highlanders, remember Egypt!" Soon afterwards, a cannonball shattered his left shoulder, and beat him to the ground. Some of his attendants immediately attempted to unbuckle the sword from his wounded side; but he resisted their well-meant endeavours, observing, that he had rather his weapon should go out of the field with him.
The battle continued until dusk, when the enemy gave way at all points, and the British embarked without molestation. Moore was carried to Corunna; where, on hearing of the victory, he exclaimed, "I hope the people of England will do me justice;
hope my country will be satisfied!" Shortly before his death, which took place on the same evening, he observed to Colonel Anderson: "You know, sir, that I always wished to die in this manner." A grave was hastily dug for him, at midnight, by his troops, in a
bastion of the citadel; where, in the true, but poetical language of his monodist, No useless coffin inclosed his breast,
Nor in sheet, or in shroud they wound him;
Sir John Moore died unmarried. In person, he was tall and graceful; and his features, until worn by service, were particularly handsome. He possessed strong natural eloquence, great conversational powers, and that smartness of reply which often passes for wit. As a soldier, his conduct procured him the admiration and respect of some of his most distinguished cotemporaries. Pitt solicited his friendship, and was often guided by his advice on military subjects: Fox told him, when his appointment to the chief command in India was suggested, "that he could not give his assent, in the state in which Europe then was, to send to such a distance, a general in whom he had such entire confidence:" Napoleon said, that "his talents and firmness alone saved the British army from destruction; he was a brave soldier, an excellent officer, and a man of talent; he made a few mistakes, which were, probably, inseparable from the difficulties with which he was surrounded, and caused, perhaps, by his information having misled him :" Wellington declared, that he "saw but one error in Sir John Moore's campaign:" and Soult described him, as taking every advantage that the country afforded, to oppose an active and vigorous resistance."
Within a fortnight after his death, a high eulogium was passed on his conduct, in general orders to the army. A monument was erected to his memory in St. Paul's, and another at Glasgow. On the spot where he fell, a commemoration stone was placed, by Soult, to testify the high respect with which he was regarded by his enemies; and a pillar was afterwards raised at Elvina, according to the terms of its inscription, "by the gratitude of Spain, to the glory of the English general, Moore, and his valiant countrymen, in memory of the action of the 16th of January, 1809."
MARQUESS OF ANGLESEA.
HENRY WILLIAM PAGET, MARQUESS OF ANGLESEA.
HENRY WILLIAM, eldest son of the Earl of Uxbridge, was born on the 17th of May, 1768; and received his education at Westminster School, and Christchurch, Oxford. In 1793, he was appointed to the command of a regiment, which he had raised at his own expense, among his father's tenantry, in Staffordshire; in the following year he served under the Duke of York, in Flanders; and again, in the expedition to Holland, in 1799.
On the 10th of December, 1808, being then a major-general, he joined Sir John Moore, in the peninsula; and shortly after, at the head of only four hundred men, routed a detachment of the French army, amounting to nine hundred, of whom, he made two hundred prisoners. At Mayaga, he again defeated the enemy, with an inferior force; and at Benevento, in the presence, it is said, of Napoleon, repulsed the French advanced guard, took Geso successfully neral Lefebre, and covered the retreat of the English, that they were not molested again up to At the battle their arrival at Corunna, fought near that place, on the 16th of January, 1809, Lord Paget, when the rifle corps were about retreating, brought up the reserve to strengthen the right wing, and attacked the enemy so vigorously, that the British remained masters of the field, and embarked, a few hours afterwards, without opposition.
Shortly after his return from the continent, a verdict was obtained against Lord Paget, with £20,000 damages, in an action for criminal conversation with Lady Charlotte Wellesley, a daughter of the Earl of Cadogan, and wife of the Honourable Henry Wellesley, brother It is to the hero of the peninsula. creditable to his lordship, that on the trial of the cause, he instructed his counsel to abstain from all observations tending to justify his conduct; and also to declare that he was not solicitous about the mitigation of damages, if it could be supposed that any sum a jury might give, would really compensate the plaintiff for the deep wrongs he had sustained.
At this period he was a married man, having been united to a daughter of the Earl of Jersey, in 1795, by whom he had eight children. Lady Paget subsequently obtained a dissolution of the marriage according to the laws of Scotland; and was united to the Duke of Argyle, in 1819. A fortnight after the trial, a hostile meeting took place between Lord Paget and Captain Cadogan, Lady Wellesley's brother, but his lordship having stated, on the ground, that
nothing could ever induce him to add
From 1806 to 1812, he had repre-
At the battle of Waterloo, he be-
that their apprehensions were groundless. The French, unable to withstand the shock of their attack, fell back in confusion," and then," to use an expression of one of the guards, "the British had only to ride with them and work away."
After having already charged on two occasions, Lord Uxbridge headed a terrific attack on nine thousand of the enemy, of whom three thousand were taken prisoners, and nearly the whole of the residue slain. The battle had nearly closed, when a ball from a field piece struck him on the leg, which was subsequently amputated, and deposited in a garden at the village of Waterloo.
Five days after the battle, the earl was created Marquess of Anglesea: he also obtained, for his eminent services, grand crosses of the Bath, and the Guelphic order; various honours from foreign princes; and eventually became a knight of the Garter. In passing through Lichfield, on his return to England, the corporation of that city presented him with a splendid sword; and, some time afterwards, a noble column was erected in North Wales to commemorate his achievements, by the inhabitants of the principality.
During the queen's trial he became unpopular with the mob, on account of the support which he gave to the bill of pains and penalties. On one occasion, he was surrounded by the populace, who insisted on his shouting, "The queen for ever!" After much resistance, he at length reluctantly cried, "The queen! the queen!-And," added he, 66 may all your wives be like her!"
In April, 1827, during the premiership of Canning, he was made mastergeneral of the ordnance; and in February, 1828, the Wellington cabinet intrusted him with the vicegerency of Ireland. A few years before, he had, in parliament, hinted at the feasibility of quelling the disturbances there, by sending hussars, to gallop sword in hand through the country; and it was feared that his conduct, as lord-lieutenant, would be arbitrary and unconciliating. The reverse, however, was the fact; he attached himself to no party, and, regarding in his administration neither persons nor politics, acquired, perhaps, more popularity than any of
his predecessors. In December, 1828, Dr. Curtis, the Roman catholic primate of Ireland, having transmitted him a copy of a letter recently written to that prelate, by the Duke of Wellington, the marquess returned an answer, in which he avowed opinions with regard to catholic emancipation, differing materially from those expressed in his grace's communication to the primate. Immediately afterwards, it was officially announced that the marquess had ceased to be lord-lieutenant, and he took his departure from Dublin, on the 19th of January, 1829, amid the strongest expressions of public regret. The shops were closed, as if a national calamity had occurred, and he was escorted to the place of embarkation by thousands of all classes. On his return to England, he took an early opportunity of declaring in the house of lords, that emancipation was the only panacea for Ireland; and subsequently, when the relief bill was in progress, he said, "Suppose this bill passed next week, and that war should be declared the day after, there would not be the least difficulty in raising fifty thousand ablebodied men, in the course of six weeks, in Ireland, ready to march to any point in which their services might be required. The passing of this bill would be worth more to the British empire than one hundred thousand men."
After the measure had been carried, he entered into a vindication of his conduct while viceroy, and in justification of his letter to the catholic primate, "which," said he, "having given great offence to his majesty, led, as I have been told, to my recal." His removal was, apparently, a necessary sacrifice to the expediency of the moment, government not being then fully prepared, or perhaps, not fully determined, to bring forward the catholic claims as a ministerial measure; and his conduct while in office was so satisfactory, that his restoration to the vicegerency speedily followed his removal.
at the earliest period of his military
in private life, not altogether "sans reproche." With one glaring exception, which some maudlin enemies to morality and social virtue have fruitlessly endeavoured to palliate, (although the marquess himself, during the dis cussion of his offence, displayed such manliness and common sense, as to disclaim any attempt at its extenuation,) his conduct as a man appears to be above censure. Many of his advocates have attributed his extraordinary courage, to a recklessness produced by remorse for his previous intercourse with Lady Charlotte Wellesley; at the same time, imputing to him more prudence with regard to personal hazard, after he had become the father of a second family. But on reviewing his conduct, it does not appear that, under any circumstances, he ever "bated one jot" of the daring gallantry which he had displayed
WILLIAM CAN BERESFORD, VISCOUNT BERESFORD.
THIS nobleman, natural son of the first Marquess of Waterford, and brother to Admiral Beresford, entered the army in 1785, as ensign in the sixth foot, with which he served in Nova Scotia, until 1790. While there, being out with a shooting party, a covey of partridges rose, at which he desired Ensign Molyneux, who was present, to fire: the ensign complied, when, unfortunately, a shot from his piece entered Beresford's eye, and entirely deprived it of sight.
Three years after, being then captain of the sixty-ninth foot, he accompanied the expedition to Toulon; on the final evacuation of which, he went to Corsica, and was present at the taking of St. Fiorenzo, Bastia, and Calvi. In 1795, he sailed, with Sir Ralph Abercromby, for the West Indies, as lieutenant-colonel of the eighty-eighth, but his regiment put back, and was drafted. In 1799, he was despatched to the East Indies; whence he proceeded, at the head of a brigade of Sir David Baird's army, by the Red Sea, to Egypt; and, in 1800, he received the brevet of colonel.
On returning home, he was sent to
Ireland, where he served against the few remaining rebels who still held out. While on this service, a yeomanry corps, which he had been solicited to inspect, instead of receiving him with presented arms, were, on his reaching them, most complacently standing at
Their captain, who, only a few days before, had boasted of the discipline of his troops, in vain vociferated the word of command; and Beresford had already intimated his determination to report them as grossly ignorant, or insubordinate, when, it is said, a serjeant stepped from the ranks, and thus addressed him :-" Plase your honour, don't think the corps doesn't know its exercise as well as any souldiers in the land; but the truth is, the min and the captain, of late, ha'n't been on spaking terms!"
In 1805, he shared in the conquest of the Cape of Good Hope, whence he was sent, with the rank of brigadier-general, at the head of a small detachment, against Buenos Ayres, which he took; but, after obtaining some other successes, he was compelled to surrender, by a force greatly exceeding his own. He remained a prisoner for six months;