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propose such terms as those on which the convention was based; but, under his comparatively advantageous circumstances, and these are not to be ascribed either to negligence or want of skill on the part of Dalrymple,-it is doubtful whether the treaty ought, on calm consideration, to be deemed so injudicious or disgraceful as it has been represented. Even if it merited severe censure, that censure should have fallen on others rather on Dalrymple. He
THIS officer was born at Norwich, about the year 1752; and, having entered the army at an early age, served as a volunteer in Eliott's light dragoons, at the battle of Felinghausen. In 1762, he became cornet of the sixth dragoons; and, in 1770, captain in the ninth foot, of which, in 1790, he was made lieutenant-colonel, by brevet; having, in the interim, distinguished himself at the affair of Trois Rivières, and other engagements between the British forces and the Americans, in one of which he was taken prisoner.
Shortly after his last-mentioned promotion, he joined the patriots in the Netherlands against Austria, and for some time commanded a body of their forces, with the rank of major-general. Their attempt proving unsuccessful, he returned to England, and proposed to raise a force of three or four thousand men, from the wreck of their army, for the British service, but his offer was declined; because, it is said, Lord Cornwallis, then commander-in-chief in India, had desired that no more foreigners might be sent out to him; the Hanoverians under his command being unfit for service.
reached the army when Junot had been allowed to avoid what should have been the consequences of his defeat. He knew nothing of the country, or the real state of his antagonist, but from the report of his predecessors in command; with whose full concurrence he concluded a treaty, the entire odium of which he was unjustly doomed to bear. "All the responsibility," he observes, "was placed on me, and all the direction in others."
In 1792, the subject of our notice presented a memorial to the king, earnestly recommending the establishment of a corps of riflemen; and, on the 6th of April, in the next year, he addressed a letter to Lord Amherst, then commander-in-chief, in which, after stating that he had just returned from serving in the French army, as Mareschal de Camp, and had declined
the rank of lieutenant-general, in the Brabant service, he endeavoured, but without effect, to procure a command in the army then raising to join Prince Cobourg. He is said to have vainly solicited employment in various subsequent expeditions; and on the return of the British troops sent to the Helder, under the Duke of York, whose failure he had confidently predicted, he proposed to raise a regiment of riflemen at his own expense, but his offer was rejected. He now published A Treatise on the Necessity of having Sharpshooters in the British Service; and, the want of such troops having been sensibly felt by the forces in Holland, two regiments of them were shortly after organized.
His next publication, of which only forty copies were printed, was A Military Description of the County of Kent; in which he censured the camp that had been formed at Brighton, and contended that, before the troops there stationed could have an opportunity of intercepting it, an invading force might reach London. He had the satisfaction of seeing his ideas on this subject adopted; and, at the Duke of York's request, he subsequently drew up accounts of the military positions in various other parts of the kingdom, by which, he appears to have materially increased his reputation. On the 21st of August, 1795, he was made full colonel; and, on the 18th of June, 1798, majorgeneral. In the next year, he addressed an important letter to the Right Honourable William Windham, on a re-organization of the British
army, in which he shewed the value of irregulars, as sharp-shooters, in an enclosed country. About the same period, he addressed another letter to Mr. Windham, in which he strongly censured the practice of flogging; for which, he proposed to substitute, in cases of desertion, the milder but more efficient punishment of branding on the shoulder. He also published An Address to the People of Norfolk and Suffolk, on the threatened invasion, which produced such an effect, it is said, that, shortly after, three companies of riflemen were raised in Norwich, twelve battalions of volunteers in Norfolk, and almost as many in Suffolk. In addition to these productions, he wrote a treatise on the use of Martello towers; another on that of portable guns, for the protection of the coast; and, An Account of the Revolutionary War of 1792, in which he censured the conduct of Dumourier, although that celebrated general had, it appears, offered him the command of the army of Brabant.
On the 30th of October, 1805, he was made a lieutenant-general; and, on the 4th of June, a full general. On the return of the Bourbons to France, he received a cross of St. Louis, as a token of gratitude from the restored monarch; having, as it is related, in his History of the Revolution, risen from his bed, on the night of the 9th of August, 1792, and proceeded to the Thuilleries, for the purpose of assisting to protect Louis the Sixteenth, whom, as his aide-decamp had informed him, the mob of St. Antoine were preparing to massacre. It appears that while he was in Paris, about that turbulent period, he regularly transmitted accounts of every important event that occurred, to General Rainsford, and that his letters were invariably forwarded, through Lord Granville, to George the Third, whom, in one of them, he seems to have grievously offended, by observing that ministers would be either madmen or fools, to engage, under existing cir
cumstances, in a contest with France. At the time of his death, which took place at his estate, called Crown Point, near Norwich, in the month of April, 1817, General Money was colonel of the East Norfolk Yeomanry Cavalry. He was eminently instrumental in establishing the rifle corps; but doubts exist as to his qualifications for command, and it is clear that he never enjoyed the confidence of government. He appears, however, to have possessed considerable talent as a military man; and in animal courage he had but few equals. On one occasion, during a violent thunder-storm, which deterred another person who had previously agreed to accompany him on an aeronautic excursion, he entered the car alone, uttering a brutal defiance to the elements, and ascended. After having been carried a distance of thirty miles, the gas in the balloon, by some accident, rapidly escaped, and it fell into the sea. Money, however, though up to his neck in water, clung to its wreck until rescued by the crew of a vessel, who luckily discovered his perilous situation.
The cause of the sudden death of Broughton, the celebrated pugilist, which had previously been hidden in mystery, was fully revealed, on an inspection of General Money's papers. It appears that Broughton having fallen into difficulties, had resorted to highway robbery, and, unfortunately for himself, stopped the general. "I know you, Broughton," said Money, "and will not be plundered. Go about your business; and I will never discover you." Broughton, however, insisted on having the general's purse. "Well, if you will, you must," said Money, producing a pistol, and instantly lodging its contents in Broughton's body;"There," added he, "now go home, Broughton, and keep your own secret; I'll never discover you." The pugilist soon died of his wound; and it was not until after General Money's decease, that the secret transpired.
THIS nobleman, son of Earl Moira, was born on the 7th of December, 1754. Having completed his education at Oxford, where he took an honorary degree, he made a tour on the continent; and, in 1771, entered the army, for which he had entertained a strong predilection from his boyhood, as ensign of the fifteenth regiment of foot. In 1773, he embarked, as lieutenant of the fifth regiment of foot, for America; and, at the battle of Bunker's Hill, while commanding the grenadiers, received two shots in his cap.
In 1775, he obtained a captaincy in the sixty-third, and was soon after appointed aide-de-camp to Sir Henry Clinton. He subsequently distinguished himself at the battles of Brooklyn and White Plains; and, in 1776, was nominated adjutant-general of the British forces in America, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He then served with credit in the hazardous retreat of the British, from Philadelphia to New York; and, about the same time, raised a company, chiefly from the American ranks, which he called the volunteers of Ireland. One of these being caught in the act of going over to the Americans, he ordered the man to be tried by his own comrades, who sentenced him to immediate execution. This example prevented the recurrence of the evil.
FRANCIS RAWDON, MARQUESS OF HASTINGS.
and, in the following April, attacked by surprise, and after a bloody contest, completely routed a very superior army to his own, encamped by General Green, near the hill of Hobkirk.
At the battle of Monmouth, Lord Rawdon so distinguished himself, that he was intrusted with a small army to proceed to South Carolina, to keep the Americans in check until he should be reinforced by Lord Cornwallis. Though the number of the enemy trebled that of his own men, he disposed of them so advantageously, that he was enabled to keep the American army in check for forty-eight hours; and, indeed, at one time, might have commenced the attack with a probability of victory. He, however, waited the coming up of Lord Cornwallis, and in the battle of Camden, on the 16th of August, 1780, led a division. In February, 1781, he drove Generals Sumpter and Morrison from the disputed district of Provence ;
After this victory he conducted the retreat, when the English forces evacuated the province; and after continuing to harass General Green for some time, without effect, he proceeded to Charlestown; where he arrived about the time of the execution of the American colonel, Haynes, who, after having voluntarily sworn allegiance to the British, was found guilty of having tempted a corps to desert to the army of the enemy. Lord Rawdon, though he endeavoured to save him, incurred a degree of undeserved odium, it being supposed that he had acquiesced in the severity of the government. His health had now become impaired by the climate, but he still persevered in his duty, sometimes giving his orders from a cart, which, on account of weakness, he used as a conveyance. Gradually growing worse, he embarked for his native country, and, on his passage, was taken prisoner by the Glorieux, in which he was conveyed to Brest, but soon returned to England on an exchange of prisoners.
On the 5th of March, 1783, he was created a peer by the title of Baron Rawdon, and appointed the king's aide-de-camp. In October, 1789, he succeeded to the title of his uncle, the Earl of Huntingdon, when he assumed the name and arms of Hastings. He now became intimate with George the Fourth, (then Prince of Wales,) and acted as second to the Duke of York, in his duel with Colonel Lennox. He shortly afterwards moved an amendment on the regency question, in favour of the Prince of Wales; and, in 1793, succeeded to the title of Earl Moira, being, about the same time, raised to the rank of major-general. He wrote the address presented to the king, by the grand lodge of freemasons, and afterwards proceeded with a body of troops to join the Duke of York in the Netherlands. He arrived
at Ostend, on the 30th of June, 1794, and by bespeaking quarters for twentyfive thousand men, though he had but ten thousand, completely outgeneralled the celebrated French commander, Pichegru, who was in the neighbourhood, with an army double in number to that of Moira. He advanced rapidly on Bruges, and so effectually checked the French forces, that he covered the retreat of the main body of the British, and joined the Duke of York's division.
Having successfully performed the object of his mission, he returned to England, and held a nominal command at Southampton, until the summer of 1795, when he was appointed to head a body of troops designed to make a descent on the coast of Britanny. He not only refused the acceptance of pay, but expended £30,000 from his private purse for the public benefit on this occasion; and soon afterwards, declined accepting the command of a regiment, on the ground that it might be conferred on older and more deserving officers.
He vigorously opposed the measures of the Tory government, and in 1791, conferred (though no result followed) with some members of the house of commons, on the subject of forming a cabinet, exclusive of the friends of Messrs. Pitt and Fox. In 1803, he was appointed commander-in-chief in Scotland, and in October of the same year, attained the rank of general. On the 12th of July, 1804, he married Flora Muir Campbell, the bride being given away by the Prince of Wales; and in 1806, was made master-general of the ordnance, but held the office only until the Tories again obtained the ascendancy. He took an active part in the prince's behalf during the investigation of the conduct of the Princess of Wales; and in 1808, succeeded, by the death of his mother, to her ancient English baronies.
In June, 1811, he was elected governor of the Charter House, by the Prince of Wales; on whom the choice devolved, in consequence of the equality of votes obtained by the Archbishop of York and Lord Harrowby, who were candidates. In June, 1812, after the assassination of Mr. Perceval, Lord Moira was intrusted, by the Prince of Wales, with the formation of a ministry,
but he could not succeed, owing to the refusal of Lords Grey and Grenville to co-operate, unless the cabinet had the appointment of the officers of the royal household. It is said that he had full power to concede this point to those whom he had selected for his colleagues, but that, on the prince declaring himself ready to part with all his domestic officers, Lord Moira replied, "Then you shall not part with one of them." This conduct gave great satisfaction to his royal patron, who conferred on him the order of the Garter, and the governor-generalship of British India; which he held for nine years: during which period he was created Viscount Loudoun, Earl of Rawdon, and Marquess of Hastings; and twice received the thanks of the directors and court of proprietors of the East India House, and of the two houses of parliament. His health, it is said, being affected by the climate, and his great exertions, he requested to be recalled from his government, and, in 1822, returned to England. Too generous to have ainassed wealth, his circumstances again made employment desirable, and on the 22nd of March, 1824, he was nominated governor and commander-in-chief of Malta; but after a short stay, he was compelled, by ill-health, to leave his government, and he died on the 22nd of November, 1826, on board the Revenge, then lying in the bay of Baia.
Some weeks before his death, an unfortunate fall from his horse produced very distressing effects on a hernia, from which he had long suffered. Among his papers were found directions, that his right hand might be amputated, preserved till the death of the marchioness, and then buried with her in her coffin.
In manners he was courteous, yet dignified; and in disposition so profuse, that although born to a princely fortune, and after having filled several lucrative offices, he died poor. As a military commander, he displayed considerable skill, and the most exalted intrepidity. While governor-general of India, he brought several measures of great magnitude to a successful issue; and during his parliamentary career, frequently distinguished himself by the zeal and eloquence with which he advocated liberality and toleration.
SIR DAVID BAIRD.
DAVID, the fifth son of William Baird, Esq., of Newbyth, was born about the year 1755, and, in 1772, became an ensign in the second foot. In 1778, he obtained the grenadier company of a regiment raised by Lord Macleod, which, about two years after, was nearly cut to pieces by the troops of Hyder Ali. On this occasion, Baird, after having been wounded in four places, fell into the hands of the enemy, and remained for three years and a half a prisoner.
On obtaining his release, he joined his regiment at Arcot, whence, in 1787, he proceeded, on leave of absence, to England. In 1791, he returned to India, as lieutenant-colonel of his corps, which had previously become the seventy-first, and commanded a brigade of sepoys, under Lord Cornwallis, at the siege of Seringapatam. In 1793, he was intrusted with a brigade of Europeans, at the siege of Pondicherry; and, in 1797, served as brigadier-general at the Cape of Good Hope; whence, in the following year, he was removed, with the rank of major-general, to the staff in India. Early in 1799, he joined the army forming at Vellore. On the 4th of April, he was despatched to scour a tope, where it was suspected an advanced guard of the enemy had been posted. This supposition proved, however, to have been erroneous; and Baird led his brigade in what he imagined to be the road back to head quarters. He had not proceeded far, when Lieutenantcolonel Lambton perceived, from the position of the Great Bear-it being a clear night,-that they were evidently marching to the north, right towards the enemy's forces. Baird, on being apprised of this fact, said that he knew well enough what he was about without consulting the stars, and went on. Soon after, he suddenly came up to one of Tippoo's out-posts; after dispersing which, he consulted a pocket compass, and finding that Lambton was right, hastily retraced his steps, and succeeded in reaching the British camp. On the 4th of May, he led the storming party at Seringapatam so gal
lantly, that he was presented with the state sword of Tippoo Saib.
In 1800, he was removed to the Bengal staff, and, in 1801, became colonel of the fifty-fourth, and joined the forces in Egypt, shortly after the surrender of Alexandria. In the next year he conducted a body of troops across the desert to India; where, in 1803, being then on the Madras staff, he commanded a large division of the army, forming for an attack on the Mahrattas, until Major-general Wellesley was placed at its head, when Baird solicited leave to return to England. On his voyage home, the vessel in which he had embarked, after having been captured by a French privateer, was retaken, while sailing into Corunna.
In 1803, he obtained permission from his sovereign to wear the Turkish order of the Crescent, and, in 1804, received the honour of knighthood. Shortly after, he became a knight companion of the Bath. In 1805, he was made a lieutenant-general; and, in the next year, commanded the expedition which defeated the Dutch army at the Cape of Good Hope, and entirely subjugated the colony. In 1807, he led a division, under Lord Cathcart, at the siege of Copenhagen, where he was slightly wounded. In 1808, he embarked with a considerable reinforcement for Sir John Moore, in Spain, under whom he led the first division at the battle of Corunna, where he had his arm shattered. On the death of Moore, he assumed the chief command, and soon after his arrival in England, was created a baronet. He also received the thanks of parliament for his services, an honour which he had thrice before obtained.
He became a full general in 1814; and subsequently, for some time, held the chief command in Ireland; he was also made governor, in succession, of Kinsale, Fort George, and Inverness. At the time of his death, which occurred on the 18th of August, 1829, he was justly considered one of the most intrepid, skilful, and experienced officers in the British service."