3 All these were joined togeth-1 5 And in the fourteenth year er in the vale of Siddim, which came Chedorlaomer, and the kings is the salt sea.

that were with him, and smote 4 Twelve years they served the Rephaims bin_Ashteroth Chedorlaomer, an in the thir- Karpaim, and i the Zuzims in teenth year they rebelled. Ham, k and the Emims in Shaveh

g ch. 15. 20. Deut. 3. 11. h Josh. 12. 4. & IS.

entat 3. 17. Nnm. 34. 12. Josh. 3. 16. Ps. 19. 34. fcb. 9. 28.

12. i Deut 2. 20. k Deut. 2. 10. 11.

Arab usages on both sides. That their often happens, a lesser judgment was force was not numerous is evident from made the precursor of a greater. the circumstance that the petty kings 3. All these were joined together in of the plain ventured to give them bat- the vale of Siddim. That is, these last tle on their return flushed with success, named kings, ruling the cities of the and from the small body by which plain, having entered into a league or they were defeated. There are few confederacy, for the defence of their sheikhs of the present time who can territory, assembled their forces in the bring more than 300 horsemen into place mentioned. The original phrase action;

and if we suppose each of the for "joining battle' v. 8, is different. It four ‘kings' brought such a number of would seem from this text that the part men, lightly armed, and unencumbered of the valley of Jordan occupied by with baggage, we have probably the these cities and their territories, and highest estimate that can be allowed in which now forms the bed of the Dead the present instance. They were prob- Sea, was then called "The vale of Sidably mounted on camels, and few dim.' For observations on the overthings are more common in our own throw of these cities and on the Dead day than to hear of Arabs or Turco- Sea, see Notes on ch. 19. 24, 25. mans, in even much smaller numbers, 4. Twelve years they served Chedor traversing extensive deserts, scouring laomer. It would seem, therefore, on the country beyond, sacking villages, the whole, that the ascendancy of the menacing and entering large towns in kingdom of Babylon, founded by the the night, all with astonishing rapidity, sons of Ham under Nimrod, had at and return laden with captives and this time ceased or declined, and that spoil. The affair has the appearance Persia, settled by the descendants of altogether of a Turcoman chapporo on Shem, had become the dominant naa large scale. Pict. Bible. The five tion of the Eastern world. In this fact cities here mentioned stood near 10- we see the incipient accomplishment of gether on the plain of Jordan, consti- the prediction, that Canaan should be tuting what is frequently termed the the servant of Shem.- - In the thir Pentapolis, or five-fold city, and, ex- teenth year they rebelled. That is, recept Zoar, were all afterwards destroy- fused to pay tribute, the usual sign of ed by fire from heaven. Sodom and subjection. Thus it is said of HezeGomorrah are always so mentioned as kiah, 2 Kings, 18. 7, 'And he rebelled to appear the principal of the five, and against the king of Assyria, and served Bela was pro the least important. him not,' i. e. withheld the tribute Had they heard the voice of the first which had formerly been exacted of the rod, and humbled themselves in repen- kings of Judah. tance, they might have escaped the 5. Smote the Rephaims-Zuzima stroke of the second ; but as it was, as | Emims. These would seein to haro

6 1 And the Horites in their king of Bela, (the same is Zoar); mount Seir, unto El-paran, which and they joined battle with them is hy the wilderness.

in the vale of Siddim ; 7 And they returned, and came 9 With Chedorlaomer the king to En-mishpat, which is Kadesh, of Elam, and with Tidal king of and smote all the country of the nations, and Amraphel king of Amalekites, and also the Amor- Shinar, and Arioch' king of Elites, that dweltmin Hazezon- lasar; four kings with five. tamar.

And the vale of Siddim 8 And there went out the king was full of uslime-pits; and the of Sodom, and the king of Go- kings of Sodom and Gomorrah morrah, and the king of Admah, filed, and sell there : and they that and the king of Zeboiim, and the remained fled to the mountain.

1 Deut. 2. 12, 22. m 2 Chron. 20. 2.

n ch. 11. 3. 0 ch. 19, 17, 30.

been people of extraordinary stature 7. And they returned, and came to inhabiting the country east of the Jor-En-mishpat. That is, turned about, dan and Dead sea. The country of after smiting the people above menthe Rephaims is identified with that of tioned, and taking a northerly direcBashan, the last king of which, Og, so tion entered the valley of the Jordan, famous for his stature, was dispos- and attacked the inhabitants of the sessed by the Israelites, when the city plain. En-mishpat, i. e. fountain of of Ashteroth was given to the half- judgment, is so called by anticipation. tribe of Manasseh, whose allotment | This name was conferred in consewas east of Jordan. The Zuzims and quence of the circumstance recorded Emims had been previously dispossess- Num. 20. 10, where God gave judged of their territory by the children of ment or sentence against Moses and Moab and Ammon, the sons of Lot. Aaron for their offence thus committed. The invading chiefs appear to have -1 All the country of the Amaleoverrun the eastern bank of the Jor- kites. Heb. -P32297 7770 35 all tho dan, from near its source, to the desert field of the Amalekite. This also by south of Canaan, through which they anticipation; as Amalek was not yet proceeded westward toward the Med- born. Gen. 36. 10, 11. Understand it iterranean ; and, after having made a of the country afterwards occupied by near approach to that sea, returned, the Amalekites. The sacred writer and on their re-ascent through the vale speaks of places by the names most of the Jordan, gave battle to the kings familiar in his own times. of the plain. This account of their 10. And the vale of Siddim was full track will be readily understood by ref- of slime-pits. Heb. nonna 18 erence to any map in which the sit

was pits, pits, of slime; an idiom comutions of the early nations of this mon to the Hebrew when it would conregion are given. I Shaveh Kiria- vey the idea of a great number. So thaim. Or, the plains or flats of heaps, heaps,' Ex. 8. 14. 'Ranks, Kiriathaim.'

ranks (Gr.),' Mark, 5. 40. It denotes 6. And the Horites in their mount either places where asphaltum or bitSeir. The name imports droellers in umen oozed out of the ground, obcaves, Troglodites. For an account of structing the flight of the discomfited mount Seir and the land of Edom, see host; or places which had been excanote on ch. 36. 9.

vated in digging bitumen to be employ

11 And they took p all the 12 And they took Lot, Abram's goods of Sodom and Gomorrah, a brother's son, who dwelt in and all their victuals, and went Sodom, and his goods, and de


q ch. 12. 5. r ch. 13. 12.

their way.

p ver. 16, 21.

ed perhaps in the construction of their Persians, who had also maltreated the houses; a material which, from being inhabitants, who had afterwards filed strongly impregnated with sulphureous to the mountains. The news of this matter, would render their city a more transaction having been carried overeasy prey to the devouring element. night to the next large village, about See note on ch. 19. 24, 25.- - Fell | twenty miles distant, the Persians, on there. That is, fell in the sense of their arrival there the next day, found being completely routed, and for the it completely deserted by the inhabimost part slain, though these kings tants, who had, in the short interval, and others, it appears from v. 13, 17, removed with all their live stock and 21, survived. - And they that re- goods to the mountains. He found it mained fled to the mouniain. Heb. in this condition a fortnight later; the 0978 the sur rivors. 'Mountain' inhabitants being afraid to come back is here to be understood as a collective till the soldiers should have returned singular for mountains or mountain- from their expedition. Burckhardt, in ous regions in the vicinity. It is still his 'Notes on the Bedouins and Wahaa common practice in the East for the bys,' p. 337, mentions that, when the inhabitants of towns and villages to Wahabys menaced Damascus in 1810, hasten for safety to the mountains in the inhabitants sent off all their valutimes of alarm and danger, or at least able property to the mountains of Lebto send their valuable property away. anon.' Pict. Bible. The moveables of the Asiatics, in 11. Took all the goods. Or, all the camps, villages, and towns, are aston- substance. The word is singular in the ishingly few compared with those original, implying collectively all their which the refinements of European moveable property. The Greek renlife render necessary. A few carpets, ders it somewhat strangely Tny (RTOV kettles, and dishes of tinned copper, racav all their horse-force; a kind of compose the bulk of the

property, property which they were very unlikewhich can speedily be packed up, and ly to possess. - [ And all their vicsent away on the backs of camels or tuals. "Fulness of bread,' was part of mules, with the women and children their sin, Ezek. 16. 49; and now clean. mounted on the baggage. In this way ness of teeth' is made a piece of their a large village or town is in a few punishment, in God's just judgment! hours completely gutted, and the inhab- Trapp. itants, with every stick and rag be- 12. And they took Lot, &c. A litlonging to them, can place themselves eral rendering of this verse, according in safety in the mountains. The writer to the order of the words in the origiof this note travelled in Koordistan in nal, is as follows;_' And they took Lot, 1829, following, in one part of the and his goods, Abram's brother's son, journey, the course which had recently and departed: and he was dwelling in been taken by the Persian troops in Sodom.' 'He that walketh with wise their march from Tabreez to Sulima- men shall be wise, but the companion nieh. He came to one large village of fools shall be destroyed.' Prov. which had been partially burnt by the | 13. 20. The passage is so constructed 13 | And there came one that brother of Eschol, and brother of had escaped, and told Abram the Aner: 'and these were confedHebrew; for he dwelt in the erate with Abram. plain of Mamre the Amorite,

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as to give a sort of melancholy em. Septuagint, which is adopted by several phasis to the fact of Lot's dwelling in of the early Greek fathers, principally Sodom, which is entirely lost sight of no doubt on the authority of that verin our translation. The unhappy man sion. The advocates of this opinion now begins to reap the bitter conse- object to the derivation of the name quences of taking up his abode in the from Eber or Heber, the great grandmidst of the habitations of wickedness. son of Shem, and one of the ancestors "That wealth, which was the cause of of Abraham, on the ground, that the his former quarrels, is made a prey to Scriptures do not represent him as an merciless heathens; that place, which historical personage of any special nohis eye covetously chose, betrays his toriety, and that no reason can be aslife and goods.

How many Chris- signed why his name should now be tians, whilst they have looked at gain, first used as an appellative of Abraham, have lost themselves! Bp. Hall. seeing that five generations had inter

13. And told Abram the Hebrero. vened between him and Eber, during Heb. 291 29233 7997. Gr. ann- which we have no evidence that it was γειλεν Αβραμ τώ περιτη told Abram the employed as a patronymic at all. But passenger. This is the first instance to this it may be answered, that no of the occurrence of the word 'He- other descendant of his sustained the brew. It may perhaps be applied to same relation as did Abraham to the Abraham here for distinction' sake, to great promise made to Shem, ch. 9. intimate that however closely connect- | 26, 27, on which we would refer to the ed for a time by league or friendship considerations adduced in our note on with his Amoritish neighbours, Mamre that passage. But apart from this, and his brethren, he was still mindful the philological reasons appear to us suf. of his extraction and his destiny, and ficicnt to warrant this view of the orihad not suffered himself to become a gin of the name. For (1) had the originaturalized Canaanite. As to the ori- nal may ibri been intended to convey gin of the term, opinions are much di- the import of passer-over which the vided. Modern interpreters, particular- Sept. assigns to it, grammatical proly of the German school, incline for priety would have required the partithe most part to have recourse to the cipial form 1279 ober, which has that etymology of the word, and as a distinct meaning. (2.) The analogy of aber has the import of transition or proper names ending in yod (9) decipassage, contend that the term was dedly confirms this mode of understandfirst applied to or taken by Abraham, ing it. Most of the patronymic and as an epithet to distinguish him as one gentile nouns in the language are formthat had come from beyond the Euphra- ed in the same way. tes. According to this hypothesis Moabite from 22 Moab; Dan. 'Abram the Hebrew' is equivalent to ite from 77 Dan; n233 Calebite from '; euphratean.' In this they are plainly Elon: and so in a multitude of simcountenanced by the rendering of the lilar cases. Why not suppose then

מאבי Thus

אלן Elomite from אלני ; Caleb כלב -Abrain the Transfluvian

or Trans

14 And when Abram heard | vants, w born in his own house, that u his brother was taken cap-three hundred and eighteen, and tive, he armed his trained ser- pursued them *unto Dan.

w ch. 15. 3. & 17. 12, 27. Eccles 2. 7. x Deut. 34. 1. Judg. 18. 29.

uch. 13. 18.

that any Eberite (Hebrew) comes in Heb. in which 'Baal,' lord, has for from 29 Eber. Such names are al- the most part the signification of 'posmost invariably derived either as above sessor, proprietor,' expressing often to from a person, some ancestor of dis- the following noun the relation of adtinction, or from a place; country, or dictedness, or habitual usage; as Gen. city, which imparts its denomination 37. 19. 'Dreamer;' Heb. 'lord of to an individual, asyn Mitzri, an

dreams;' i. e. addicted to dreaming ;

Gen. 49. 23. 'Archers ;' Heb. 'lords Egyptian, 4370 Arbi, an Arabian ; of arrows;" i. e. inured to the use of 7973-7 Shiloni, a Shilonite. But as

arrows, 2 Kings 1. 8. 'Hairy man;' the name - 29 ibri has no local refer- Heb. lord of hair ;' i. e. possessor of ence which can account for its use in hair; Prov. 22. 24. 'Angry man;' this connection, we seem to be forced Heb. 'lord of anger;' i. e. one habitto resolve it into a patronymic term, ually given to the indulgence of anger. and if so, to what origin can it be so 'lords of covenant implies those traced with more probability than to who were allies of long standing and 139 Eber? (3.) The passage Num. peculiarintimacy; who habitually stood 24. 24, goes strikingly to corroborate by the patriarch in this relation. 'Gr. the present interpretation ; 'And ships 'Sworn friends.' shall come from the coast of Chittim, 14. Abram heard that his brother and shall afflict Ashur, and shall afflict was taken captive. Lot was Abraham's Eber.' Here as by 'Ashur' is meant nephew, but he is called here his the sons of Ashur, or Assyrians, so by brother' in conformity to the usage so Eber are meant the sons of Eber, or

common in the Scriptures, which exHebrews; and accordingly, while the tends that term to all near kindred. Sept. in the former text renders 22 -1 Armed. Heb. Dan yarek, draw by neparns passenger, it here renders out; from a root signifying to unsheath may by Eßpalovs, Hebrews. For these a sword, or to draw out any weapon of reasons we feel little hesitation in tra

war; equivalent perhaps to 'put them cing the epithet to Heber. — For he in readiness,' as a sword when draron dwelt, &c. Heb. 150 #777 and he is ready for execution. Gr. noe Oumos was tabernacling. There is no suffi- numbered, mustered. - Trained. cient ground for rendering the pariicle Heb. 737 catechized, initiated, iny and by the illative 'for. It would structed, whether in civil or sacred appear from our mode of rendering as things, but especially the latter. It is, if the latter clause of the verse were however, very improbable that the intended to assign a reason for the fact peaceful patriarch, who was so much mentioned in the former. But for this engaged in the worship of God wherthere is no foundation in the original. ever he sojourned, should have made

- These were confederate with his household establishment a military Abram. Heb. 69 ya Baali be- school, 'training his domestics in the rith; i. e. lords or masters of cove- murderous arts of war. On the con. nant; an idiom of frequent occurrence trary, their training' was undoubtedly

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