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TABLE OF CONTENTS.

FRONTISPIECE.—“The Southwark entrance to London in Shakespeare's

time," a part reproduction of the large plate by the Dutchman
Claes Jan Visscher : "Londinum florentissima Britanniæ urbs.”
The portion selected shows the Bridge Gate, with the traitors'
heads on poles, and gives an idea of the animation of the main
street in the merry suburb. Note the number of inns with their
overhanging signs, the tables spread in the middle of the street,
with provisions for travellers to purchase, the groups of men
conferring together in front of their hostelry, the arrival of a
coach, etc. The Bear Garden, near which Shakespeare was living
in 1596, and the Globe, are to be seen in Visscher's engraving
somewhat to the left of what is here shown. The plate is ac-
companied with a Latin description, the colophon reading :
“Amstelodami, ex officina Judoci Hondii, sub signo canis vigilis,
1616."

BOOK V. (continued).

CHAPTER V.

THE PREDECESSORS OF SHAKESPEARE.

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I. THE ENGLISH DRAMA AT THE RENAISSANCE.--England at first

has the same dramatic literature as all other countries-Sur-
vival of mysteries and pious dramas-Moralities—They lead
in France to the comedy of characters—Progress in England
of the comedy of manners and observation-Religious and
political moralities—John Bale-Repressive measures

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Pageants, masques, and ballets-May games, St. George
and Robin Hood—“Pleasures at Kenilworth," Norwich
entertainment-Gascoigne and Churchyard-Masques at court

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II. THEATRES AND PERFORMANCES UNDER ELIZABETH.—Theatrical

troupes before the permanent theatres—Performances in the
inn-yards ; itinerant players and their poet-Hostility of the
municipal authorities and its consequences : construction of
theatres outside of the Lord Mayor's jurisdiction—The Shore-
ditch theatres : The Theatre, the Curtain, later the Fortune-
The Southwark theatres : Newington Butts, the Rose, the
Globe, the Hope—The Bear Garden ; bull and bear baiting-
Philip Henslowe and Alleyn—Theatres in the intermediary
space : the Blackfriars; the “private theatres "-Difference
with Paris and Italy-The Hotel de Bourgogne ; theatres of
Vicenza and Sabbioneta--Surprise of travellers on seeing the

number and success of the London theatres

Interior and exterior of the English theatres-Prices for the

pit, the galleries, and the stools on the stage–The “Lords'

room "-Roofless pit and covered stage-Ornamentation and

painting

Scenery and properties--Arras and hangings—Scant

scenery, abundant properties and practicables—“Nuncu-
pative" properties-Ropes and pulleys for goddesses, thrones,
dangling corpses, etc.-Important role of the carpenter and
painter-What the crowd demands: before all else, clearness

-" Thebes " upon a door-Richness of the costumes ; rôle of

“our tyerman"-Difference with the continent

The actors—Principal troupes-Contracts and profits of the

sharers, the ordinary players, and “hirelings"-Women's

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parts performed by boys—Children players-Composition of
the troupes; they include clowns or jesters, musicians,
dancers, fencers, acrobats, etc., Kemp, Tarleton, Armin-
"Trials of Wit"; John Taylor-Importance of dancers and
acrobats in the tours on the continent—The great tragedians :
Burbage, Field, Alleyn, etc.-Excellence of their acting and
importance of the histrionic art-Serious preparation of actors
-Their wealth and success

Less brilliant fate of authors—The traffic in plays--Hens-
lowe and his authors-Daborne—The fear of printers
Enormous destruction of plays of that period ...

Going to the play—The dinner at the ordinary; the cross-

ing of the river ; the play-bills—The public of the pit, of the

galleries, and of the stage-Fruit, tobacco, and drinks ;

"stinkards” and “strumpets" — The gallants – Puritan

protests; replies from theatre-lovers—The Prologue-

Attentive spectators and noisy ones—Critics and their note-

books—Evenings at the tavern: authors, actors and spectators

meet there-Literary discussions and wit combats

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III. THE IMMEDIATE PREDECESSORS OF SHAKESPEARE. - Play

factories—The demands, the tastes to be satisfied : those
of the crowd, not of the court—The tastes of the crowd
and the nature of the people - List of infallible means
of pleasing ; genius itself, if it discards them, fails—Sights
violent, moving, surprising, patriotic, contemporary, coarse ;
a mixture of the tragic and the comic-Frequent staging
of the same subjects and recourse to the same effects—Same
kings, same ghosts, same puns—Success proportioned to the
use made of the infallible means of plcasing-Jonson protests
but compromises--Shakespeare admits in his plays defects
at which he laughs--Increasing difference with France-
Tendency in one country to simplify, in the other to com-
plicate ..

The plays of Kyd, ele, Greene, Lodge, and their

anonymous contemporaries-Romantic dramas in Italian

fashion-Pseudo-biblical dramas—Murders and battles: the

"Spanish Tragedy"-The “Battell of Alcazar"_"The

Wounds of Civill War"-Domestic tragedies : “Arden of

Feversham," etc.-Fantastic dramas-Historical dramas :

their number and their success; they teach the people its

national history

IV. MARLOWE.-The greatest of Shakespeare's predecessors-His

life, his translations of classical poets---Morals, temperament,
miserable end-He understands and shares the tastes of his

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IV. INCREASING Fame; THE POEMS.--Shakespeare's profitable-

ness appreciated in his troupe—His dramas pay–His quiet
tastes; he lives apart from quarrels-He takes rank as a poet

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1. THE CLASSICAL AND THE SHAKESPEARIAN DRAMA.—Two oppo-

site systems : one selects, the other accumulates-One shows

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