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Obliges Sforza to surrender Milan, 232. Is forced to oppress the Milanese to satisfy his troops mutinying for pay, 235. Sets Moronè at liberty, and makes him his confidant, 236. Appoints Leyva governor of Milan, and advances to invade the Pope's territories, 237. His disappointed troops mutiny, 238. He determines to plunder Rome, 240. Arrives at Rome, and

assaults it, 242. Is killed, 243. Brandenburg, Elector of, avows the opinions of Luther, II. 178.

Albert of. See Albert. Bruges, a league concluded there between the Emperor and Hen.

ry VIII. of England, against France, II. 120. Brunswick, Duke of, avows the opinions of Luther, II. 178.

Henry Duke of, driven from his dominions by the Protestant Princes of the league of Smalkalde, III. 19. Raises men for Francis, but employs them to recover his own

dominions, 44. Is taken prisoner, ib. Buda, siege of, by Ferdinand king of the Romans, HII. 39. Is

treacherously seized by Sultan Solyman, ib.

C

Cajetan, Cardinal, the Pope's legate in Germany, appointed to

examine the doctrines of Martin Luther, II. 78. Requires Luther peremptorily to retract his errors, ib. Requires the Elector of Saxony to surrender or banish Luther, 80. His

conduct justified, ib. Calais, an ineffectual congress there, between the Emperor and

Francis, under the mediation of Henry VIII. II. 119. The careless manner in which it was guarded in the reign of Mary Queen of England, 324. Ineffectual remonstrances of Philip, and Lord Wentworth the governor, concerning its defenceless state, ib. Is invested and taken by the Duke of Guise, 325. The English inhabitants turned out, 326. Sti

pulations concerning, in the treaty of Chateau Cambresis, 346. Cambray, articles of the peace concluded there, between the Em

peror Charles and Francis of France, II. 268. Remarks on

this treaty, ib. Campe, peace of, between Henry VIII. and Francis, II. 67. Campeggio, Cardinal, made legate from Pope Clement VII. to

the second diet at Nuremberg, II. 182, 183. Publishes articles for reforming the inferior clergy, 183. Advises Charles

to rigorous measures against the Protestants, 281. Capitulation of the Germanic body, signed by Charles V. and pre

scribed to all his successors, II. 51. Caraffa, Cardinal, his precipitate election, III. 275. Is appointed

legate to Bologna, 278. Reasons of his disgust with the Emperor, ib.

Persuades the Pope to sollicit an alliance with France against the Emperor, 279, 280.

His insidious commission to the court of France, 294. His public entry into Paris, 295. Exhorts Henry to break his truce with the Em

va, 319.

peror, 296. Absolves Henry from his oath, 297. Negoci. ates a peace between the Pope and Philip, with the duke d' Al.

The fate of him and his brother on the death of Pope Paul, 349. Carlostadius, imbibes the opinions of Martin Luther, at Wittem

berg, II. 88. His intemperate zeal, 177. Awed by the re

proofs of Luther, ib. Carignan, besieged by the Count d'Enguin, and defended by the

Marquis de Guasto, III. 24. Guasto defeated in a pitched

battle, 25. The town taken, 26. Castaldo, Marquis of Piadeno. See Piadeno. Castile, how Isabella became possessed of that kingdom, II. 2.

The Archduke Philip's title acknowledged by the Cortes of that kingdom, ib. Isabella dies, and leaves her husband Ferdinand of Aragon, regent, 4.

Ferdinand resigns the crown of, 5. Ferdinand acknowledged regent by the Cortes, ib. Enmity between this kingdom and Aragon, ib. The particular dislike of the Castilians to Ferdinand, 6. The regency of, jointly vested in Ferdinand, Philip and Joanna, by the treaty of Salamanca, 9. Declares against Ferdinand, 10. The regency of, resigned by Ferdinand to Philip, ib. Philip and Joanna acknowledged King and Queen by the Cortes, ib. Death of Philip, 12. The perplexity of the Castilians on Joanna's incapacity of government, 13. Ferdinand gains the regency and the good will of the Castilians by his prudent administration, 14. Oran and other places in Barbary annexed to this kingdom by Ximenes, 15. Ximenes appointed regent by Ferdinand's will, until the arrival of Charles V. 21. Charles assumes the regal title, 24. Ximenes procures its acknowledgment, 25. The nobility depressed by Ximenes, 26. The grandess mutiny against Ximenes, 27. The mutiny suppressed, ib. Ximenes resumes the grants made by Ferdinand to the nobles, 28. The bold reply of Ximenes to the discontented nobles, 29. Other associates in the regency appointed with Ximenes at the instigation of the Flemish courtiers, 30. Ximenes.dies, .36. Charles acknowledged King by the Cortes, on his arrival, with a reservation in favour of his mother Joanna, 37. . The Castilians receive unfavourable impressions of him, 38. Disgusted by his partiality to his Flemish ministers, ib. Sauvage made chancellor, ib. William de Croy appointed archbishop of Toledo, 39. The principal cities confederate, and complain of their grievances, 41. The clergy of, refuse to levy the tenth of benefices granted by the Pope to Charles V. 53. Interdicted, but the interdict taken off, by Charles's application, 54. An insurrection there, ib. Increase the disaffection, 55. Cardinal Adrian appointed regent, on the departure of Charles for Germany, 57. The views and pretensions of the commons, in their insurrections, 139. The confederacy called the Holy Junta formed, 140. The proceedings of which are carried on in the name of Queen Joanna, 14). Receives circulatory letters from Charles for the

The ne

insurgents to lay down their arms, with promises of pardon, 143. The nobles undertake to suppress the insurgents, 147. Raise an army against them under the Condé de Haro, 148. Haro gets possession of Joanna, 149. Expedients by which they raise money for their troops, 150. Unwilling to proceed to extremities with the Junta, 151. The army of the Junta routed and Padilla executed, 154. Dissolution of the Junta, 156. The moderation of Charles towards the insurgents on his arrival in Spain, 161. He acquires the love of the Casti

lians, 162. See Spain. Catherine of Aragon, is divorced from Henry VIII. of England,

II, 293. Dies, 353. Catherine à Boria, a nun, flies from her cloister, and marries

Martin Luther, II. 22.4. Catherine di Medici. See MEDICI. Cavi, peace concluded there between Pope Paul IV. and Philip

II. of Spain, III. 319. Cercamp, negociations for peace entered into there between Phi

lip II. of Spain, and Henry II. of France, III. 341. gociations removed to Chateau Cambresis, 344. See Chateau

Cambresis. Characters of men, rules for forming a proper estimate of them,

III. 53. Applied to the case of Luther, ib. Charles IV. Emperor of Germany, his observations on the man

ners of the clergy, in his letter to the archbishop of Metz, II.

92. Note. Charles V. Emperor, his descent and birth, II. 1. How he came

to inherit such extensive dominions, ib. Acknowledged Prince of Asturias by the Cortes of Castile, 12. His father Philip dies, ib. Jealousy and hatred of his grandfather Ferdinand towards him, 16. Left heir to his dominions, 18. Death of Ferdinand, ib. His education committed to William de Croy, Lord of Chievres, ib. Adrian of Utrecht appointed to be his preceptor, 19. The first opening of his character, 20. Assumes the government of Flanders, and attends to business, ib. Sends Cardinal Adrian to be regent of Castile, who executes it jointly with Ximenes, 33.

Assumes the re. gal title, 24. His title admitted with difficulty by the Castilian nobility, 25. Persuaded to add associate regents to Ximenes, 30. His Flemish court corrupted by the avarice of Chievres, 32. Persuaded by Ximenes to visit Spain, but how that journey is retarded, 32, 33. The present state of his affairs, ib. Concludes a peace at Noyen with Francis I. of France, and the conditions of the treaty, 34. Arrives in Spain, 35. His ungrateful treatment of Ximenes, 36. His public entry into Valladolid, 37. Is acknowledged King by the Cortes, who vote him a free gift, ib. The Castilians receive unfavourable impressions of him, 38. Disgusts them by his par. tiality to his Flemish ministers, ib. Sets out for Aragon, 39. Sends his brother Ferdinand to visit their grandfather Maximilian, ib. Cannot assemble the Cortes of Aragon in his own name, ib. The opposition made by that assembly to his desires, 40. Refuses the application of Francis I. for restitution of the kingdom of Navarre, ib. Neglects the remonstrances of the Castilians, 41. Death of the Emperor Maximilian, ib. View of the present state of Europe, 43. How Maximilian was obstructed in securing the Empire to him, 42. Francis I. aspires to the Imperial Crown, ib. Circumstances favourable to the pretensions of Charles, ib. The Swiss Cantons espouse his cause, 46. 'Apprehensions and conduct of Pope Leo X. on the occasion, 47, 48. Assembling of the diet at Francfort, 48. Frederic duke of Saxony refuses the offer of the Empire, and votes for him, 49. And refuses the presents offered by his ambassadors, 50. Concurring circumstances which fa. voured his election, ib. His election, 51. Signs and confirms the capitulation of the Germanic body, 51, 52. The election notified to him, ib. Assumes the title of Majesty, ib. Accepts the Imperial dignity offered by the Count Palatine, am. bassador from the Electors, 53. The Clergy of Castile refuse the tenth of benefices granted him by the Pope, ib. Procures the interdict the kingdom is laid under for refusal, to be taken off, 54. Empowers Cardinal Adrian to hold the Cortes of Valencia, 55. The nobles refuse to assemble without his presence, ib. Authorizes the insurgents there to continue in arms, ib. Summons the Cortes of Castile to meet in Galicia, ib. Narrowly escapes with his Flemish ministers from an insurrection on that account, 56. Obtains a donative from the Cortes, 57. Prepares to leave Spain, and appoints regents, ib. Embarks, ib. Motives of this journey, 59. Rise of the rival. ship between him and Francis I. ib. Courts the favour of Henry VIII. of England and his minister Cardinal Wolsey, 61. Visits Henry at Dover, 65. Promises Wolsey his interest for the papacy, 66. Has a second interview with Henry at Gravelines, 67. Offers to submit his differences with Francis to Henry's arbitration, ib. His magnificent coronation at Aix-la-Chapelle, ib. Calls a diet at Worins, to check the reformers, 68. Causes which hindered his espousing the party of Martin Luther, 106. Grants Luther a safe-conduct to the diet of Worms, 107. An edict published against him, 108. His embarrassment at this time, 111. Concludes an alliance with the Pope, 113. The conditions of the treaty, 114. Death of his minister Chievres, and its advantages to him, ib. Invasion of Navarre by Francis, 115. The French driven out, and their general L'Esparre taken prisoner, 117.

War de clared against him by Robert de la Marck, lord of Bouillon, who ravages Luxemburg, 117, 118. Reduces Bouillon, and invades France, ib. His demands at the congress at Calais, 119. Has an interview with Cardinal Wolsey at Bruges, and concludes a league with Henry VIII. against France, 120. Pope Leo declares for him against France, 123. The French driven out of Milan, 129. Visits England in his passage to

Spain, 131. Cultivates the good-will of Cardinal Wolsey, and creates the Earl of Surrey his high admiral, ib. Grants the island of Malta to the Knights of St. John, expelled from Rhodes by Solyman the Magnificent, 133. Arrives in Spain, 135. A retrospect of his proceedings in relation to the insurrections in Spain, 136. Issues circulatory letters for the in. surgents to lay down their arms, with promises of pardon, 143. His prudent moderation towards the insurgents, on his arrival in Spain, 161. Acquires the love of the Castilians, 162. Enters into a league with Charles Duke of Bourbon, 167. Why he did not endeavour to get Wolsey elected Pope, 171. Invades Guienne and Burgundy, but without success, 173. His troops in Milan mutiny for want of pay, but are pacified by Moronè, 174. Undertakes an invasion of Provence, 186. Orders Pescara to besiege Marseilles, ib. Pescara obliged to retire, 187. Disconcerted by the French overrunning the Milanese again, 189. The revenues of Naples mortgaged to raise money, 190. His troops defeat Francis, and take him prisoner at the battle of Pavia, 196. His affected moderation at receiving the news, 197, 198. Avails himself of a treaty concluded between Lannoy and Pope Clement, but refuses to ratify it, 202. His army in Pavia mutiny, and are obliged to be disbanded, ib. His deliberations on the proper improvement of his disadvantages, 203. His propositions to Francis, 204. After many delays grants Sforza the investiture of Milan, 206. Morone's intrigues betrayed to him by Pescara, 207. Orders Pescara to continue his negociations with Moronè, 208. His rigorous treatment of Francis, 210. Visits Francis, 211. His kind reception of the Duke of Bourbon, 212. Grants Bourbon the dutchy of Milan, and appoints him general in chief of the Imperial army there, 213. Fruitless negociations for the delivery of Francis, ib. Treaty of Madrid with Francis, 2 14. Delivers up Francis, 217. Mar. ries Isabella of Portugal, 218. An alliance formed against him at Cognac, 228. Sends ambassadors to Francis to require the fulfilment of the treaty of Madrid, 230. Prepares for war against Francis, 231. The Pope reduced to an accommodation with him, 234. The exhausted state of his finances, 235. His troops under Bourbon distressed and mutinous for want of pay, 238. Bourbon assaults Rome and is slain, but the city taken, 242, 243. The Prince of Orange general on Bourbon s death, takes the castle of St. Angelo, and the Pope prisoner, 244. The Emperor's conduct on that occasion, 245. His dissentions with the Pope, how far favourable to the reformation, 247. His instructions to the diet at Spires, ib. His manifesto against the Pope, and letter to the Cardinals, 248. France and England league against him, 250. Is refused supplies by the Cortes of Castile, 254. Delivers the Pope for a ransom, ib. His overtures to Henry and Francis, 255. Their declaration of war against him, 257. Is challenged by

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