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ported by the Augustinians, and encouraged by Frederick
Elector of Saxony, ib. Is summoned to Rome by Pope Leo,
77. Obtains of the Pope leave to have his doctrines examined
in Germany, 78. Appears before Cardinal Cajetan at Augs-
burg, ib. His resolute reply to the peremptory order of Caje-
tan, to retract his principles, 79.
Withdraws from Augs-
burg, and appeals from the Pope ill-informed, to the Pope when
better informed, concerning him, ib. Appeals to a general
council, 81. The death of Maximilian, how of service to him,
82. Questions the Papal authority in a public disputation,
83. His opinions condemned by the universities of Cologne
and Louvain, 84. A bull of excommunication published
against him, ib. Pronounces the Pope to be Antichrist, and
burns the bull, 85. Reflections on the conduct of the court
of Rome toward him, 86. Reflections on his conduct, 87.
Causes which contributed to favour his opposition to the
church of Rome, 89. Particularly the art of printing, 102.
And the revival of learning, 103. He is summoned to appear
at the diet of Worms, 107. A safe.conduct granted him thi-
ther, ib. His reception there, ib. Refuses to retract his opi-
nions, 108. Departs, ib. An edict published against him, ib.
He is seized and concealed at Wartburg, ib. Progress of his
doctrines, 109. The university of Paris publishes a decree
against him, ib. Wrote against by Henry VIII. of England,
110. Answers both, ib. Withdraws from his retreat to check
the inconsiderate zeal of Carlostadius, 177. Undertakes a
translation of the Bible, ib. His doctrines avowed by several of
the German Princes, 178. His moderate and prudent conduct,
224. Marries Catharine à Boira, a nun, ib.
The great pro-
gress of his doctrines among the Germanic States, 275. En-
courages the Protestants dispirited by the Emperor's decree
against him, 281. His concern at the practices of the Ana-
baptists at Munster, 300. Is invited to Leipsick, by Henry
Duke of Saxony, 358. His opinion of Gropper's treatise to
unite the Protestants and Catholics, 387. Dies, III. 51.
Summary of his character, 52. Extract from his last will,
54. Note. See Protestants. A view of the extraordinary
effects of his revolt from the church of Rome, on that court,
and on Europe in general, II. 361.
Luxemburg, invaded by Robert de la Marck, lord of Bouillon,
II. 117. Invaded and over-run by the Duke of Orleans, III.
5. Is again invaded by Francis, 12,
Madrid, treaty of, between the Emperor Charles V. and his
prisoner Francis I. King of France, H. 214. Sentiments of
the public with regard to this treaty, 215.
Magdeburg, the city of, refuses to admit the Interim enforced
by Charles V. and prepares for defence, II. 162. Maurice
Elector of Saxony appointed to reduce it, 163. Is put under the ban of
the Empire, 174. The territories of, invaded by George of Mecklen-
burg, ib. The inhabitants defeated in a sally, 175. Maurice of Saxo-
ny arrives and besieges the city, ib. Surrenders, 176. The senate
elects Maurice their Burgrave, 177.
Mabmed, King of Tunis, history of his sons, II. 310.
Majorca, an insurrection there, II. 160. Which is quelled with difficul.
ty, ib. The moderation of Charles towards the insurgents, on his ar-
rival in Spain, 161.
Majesty, the appellation of, assumed by Charles V. on his election to the
Imperial crown, and taken by all the other monarchs of Europe, II.
Malines, council of, an account of, II. 365.
Malta, the island of, granted by the Emperor Charles V. to the knights
of St. John, expelled from Rhodes by the Turks, II. 153.
Mamalukes, extirpated by Sultan Selim II. II. 43.
Mamalukes, a faction in Geneva, so termed, some account of, II. 325.
Manuel, Don John, Ferdinand's ambassador at the Imperial court, pays
his court to the archduke Philip on Queen Isabella's death, II. 7. In.
tercepts Joanna's letter of consent to Ferdinand's regency of Castile, ib.
Negociates a treaty between Ferdinand and Philip, 9. Declares for
Maximilian's regency on Philip's death, 14. Is made Imperial ambas-
sador at Rome, and concludes an alliance between Charles V. and Leo
X. 114. The conditions of the treaty, ib. Procures Adrian of Utrecht,
to be elected Pope, 127.
Marcellus II. Pope, his character, III. 274. Dies, 275.
Marciano, battle of, between Peter Strozzi and the Marquis de Marigna-
no, III. 255.
Margaret of Austria, and Dowager of Savoy, aunt to Charles V. under.
takes with Louise, mother of Francis I. of France, to accommodate the
differences between those two monarchs, II. 266. Articles of the peace
of Cambray, 268.
Marignano, Marquis of, appointed commander of the Florentine army.
acting against the French, III. 253. Defeats the French army under
Peter Strozzi, 255. Lays siege to Siena, 256. Converts the siege
into a blockade, il. Siena surrenders, 257. Reduces Porto Ercole,
258. His troops ordered into Piedmont by the Emperor, ib.
Marck, Robert de la, Lord of Bouillon, declares war against the Emperor
Charles V. II. 117. Ravages Luxemburg with French troops, ib. Is
commanded to disband his troops by Francis, 118. His territories re-
duced by the Emperor, ib.
Marseilles, besieged by the Imperialists, II. 186. Rescued by Francis,
187. Interview and treaty there between the Pope and Francis, 292.
Martinuzzi, Bishop of Waradin, is appointed guardian to Stephen King
of Hungary, II. 391. His character, ib. Solicits the assistance of
Sultan Solyman against Ferdinand, ib. Solyman seizes the kingdom,
392. Is appointed to the government of Transylvania and the educa-
tion of the young King, jointly with the Queen, III. 181. _Negociates
with Ferdinand, 182. Prevails with the Queen to resign Transylvania
to Ferdinand, ib. Is appointed gorernor of Transylvania, and made
a Cardinal, 183. Is assassinated by Ferdinand's order, 184.
Martyr, Peter, his authority cited in proof of the extortions of the Fle-
mish ministers of Charles V. II. 38.
Mary of Burgundy, contracted to Lewis XII. of France, but married to
the Emperor Maximilian, II. 1.
Mary of England, her accession, III. 243. Receives proposals from the
Emperor Charles V. of marrying his son Philip, ib. The English averse
to this union, ib. The House of Commons remonstrates against the
match, 244. The articles of marriage, 245. The marriage ratified by
parliament and completed, 246. Re-establishes the Romish religion,
247. Persecutes the Reformers, ib. Invites Charles to England or his
resignation and passage to Spain, which he declines, 302. Is engaged by
Philip to assist him in his war against France, 309. Levies money by
her prerogative to carry on the war, 310. Her neglect in the security
of Calais, 324. Calais invested and taken by the Duke of Guise, 325.
Mary, danghter of James V. of Scotland, succeeds to the crown an
infant, III. 10. Is contracted to the Dauphin of France, 136. Is edu.
cated at the court of France, 171. The marriage completed, ib. As-
sumes the title and arms of England on the death of Mary, 343.
Matthias, John, a baker, becomes a leader of the Anabaptists at Mun-
ster, II. 297. Seizes the city, and establishes a new form of go-
vernment there, ib. Repulses the Bishop of Munster, 299. Is killed,
ib. See Boccold and Anabaptists.
Maurice, Duke of Saxony, his motives for not acceding to the Protestant
league of Smalkalde, III. 16. Marches to the assistance of Ferdinand in
Hungary, ib. His difference with his cousin the Elector, 17. His con-
duct at the Diet of Worms, 40. Joins the Emperor against the Protes-
tants, 79. His motives, 80. His insidious conduct towards the Elector,
81. Seizes the electorate of Saxony, 83. Saxony recovered by the
Elector, 88. His ineffectual endeavours to reduce Wittemberg for the
Emperor, 117. Obtains possession of the electorate, 120. Is formally
invested at the diet of Augsburg, 142. Becomes dissatisfied with the
Emperor, 157. His motives to discontent explained, 158. His ad.
dress and caution in his conduct, 159. Enforces the Interim in his terri-
tories, 160. Makes, nevertheless, professions of his attachment to the
Reformation, ib. Undertakes to reduce Magdeburg to submit to the
Interim, 163. Protests against the Council of Trent, 168. Is commis-
sioned by the Emperor to reduce Magdeburg, 175. Joins George of
Mecklenburg before Magdeburg, ib. The city capitulates, 176. Be-
gins to intrigue with Count Mansfeldt, 177. Is elected Burgrave of
Magdeburg, ib. Dismisses his troops, 178. His address in amusing
the Emperor, 179. Makes an alliance with Henry II. of France, to
make war on the Emperor, 186. Makes a formal requisition of the
Landgrave's liberty, 188. Joins his troops, and publishes a manifesto,
192. Takes possession of Augsburg and other cities, 194. An inef.
fectual negociation with Charles, 196. Defeats a body of the Empe-
ror's troops, ib. Takes the castle of Ehrenburg, 197. Is retarded by a
mutiny in his troops, 198. Enters Inspruck, and narrowly misses tak.
ing Charles, 199. A negociation between him and Ferdinand, 205.
Besieges Francfort on the Main, 209. His inducements to an accom-
modation, 210. Signs a treaty with the Emperor at Passau, 211. Re-
flections on his conduct in this war, 212. Marches into Hungary to op-
pose the Turks, 215. Is placed at the head of the league against Al-
bert of Brandenburgh, 229. Defeats Albert, but is killed in the battle,
230. His character, ib. Is succeeded by his brother Augustus, 232.
Maximilian, Emperor of Germany, claims the regency of Castile on his
son Philip's death, II. 13. Is supported in his claim by Don John
Manuel, 14. Loses it, 15. Obtains the government of the Low-Coun.
tries by the death of Philip, 18. Appoints William de Croy, Lord of
Chievres, to superintend the education of his grandson Charles, 19.
Concludes a peace with France and Venice, 33. Dies, 41. State of
Europe at this period, 42. His endeavours to secure the Imperial crown
to his grandson Charles, ib. How obstructed, ib.
Mecklenburg, George of, invades the territories of Magdeburg for the Em.
Medici, Cardinal de, elected Pope, and assumes the title of Clement VII.
II. 170. See Clement VII.
Medici, Catherine di, is married to the Duke of Orleans, 11. 291. Is
conjectured, by the Emperor Charles V. to have poisoned the Dauphin,
Medici, Cosmo de, made Duke of Florence, II. 350. Is supported by the
Emperor, and defeats the partizans of Lorenzo, 351. Asserts his in-
dependency against the Emperor, ÍII. 225. Offers to reduce Siena for
the Emperor, 253. Enters into a war with France, ib. See Marigna-
no. His address in procuring the investiture of Siena from Philip 11.
of Spain, 320. It is granted to him, 321.
Medici, Lorenzo de, assassinates his kinsman Alexander, II. 350. Flies,
ib. Attempts to oppose Cosmo, but is defeated, 351.
Medina del Campo, the inhabitants of, refuse to let Fonseca take the mili.
tary stores there for the siege of the insurgents in Segovia, II. 138.
The town almost burnt by Fonseca, ib. The inhabitants repulse him, ib.
Surrenders after the battle of Villalar, and dissolution of the Holy Jun-
Melancthon, imbibes the opinions of Martin Luther, II. 86. Is employed
to draw up a confession of faith by the Protestant Princes at the diet of
Augsburgh, 280. Is dejected by the Emperor's decree against the Pro-
testants, but comforted by Luther, 281. Is invited to Paris by Francis,
321. His conference with Eckius, 386. Is prevailed on to favour the
Interim enforced by the Emperor, III. 160.
Melito, Conde de, made Viceroy of Valencia, on the departure of Charles
V. for Germany, II. 57. Appointed to command the troops of the No-
bles against the Germanada, 159. Defeated by them in several actions,
160. Destroys the association, ib.
Ments, Archbishop of, artfully declares before the Emperor, the diet of
Augsburg's acceptance of the Interim, without being authorized by it,
Merville, a Milanese gentleman, employed as envoy from Francis I. to
Francis Sforza, Duke of Milan, his fate, II. 320.
Metz, seized by Montmorency the French general, III. 195. The Duke
of Guise made Governor of, 218. Is besieged by the Emperor, 220.
The Emperor desists, and retires in a distressed condition, 224. A
scheme formed by Father Leonard to betray the city to the Imperialists,
260. The conspiracy detected by the Governor, 262. Leonard mur-
dered by his monks, and his associates executed, 263.
Mezieres, in France, besieged by the Imperialists, II. 118. Gallant de-
fence of, by the Chevalier Bayard, ib. .The siege raised, ib.
Milan, Marechal de Foix, appointed to be the French Governor of, 11.
122. His character, ib. The Milanese alienated from the French by
his oppressions, ib. Invaded by the Ecclesiastical troops under Prus. ·
per Colonna, 123. The French driven out, 125. Oppressed by the
Imperial troops, 164. Invaded by the French, 169. Who are driven
out by Colonna, 170. The Imperial troops there mutiny for pay, but:
are appeased by Morone, 174. Abandoned by the French, ib. Over-
run again by Francis, who seizes the city, 188. The French retire on
the news of the battle of Pavia, 195. The investiture of, granted to
Sforza, 206. Taken from him and granted to the Duke of Bourbon,
213. Disorders committed by the Imperial troops there, 238. Oppres-
sive measures of Bourbon to supply his mutinous troops, 244. The
French forces there defeated by Antonio de Leyva, 265. Is again
granted by the Emperor to Sforza, 217. Death of Sforza, 327. The pre-
tensions of Francis to that dutchy, 328. Is seized by the Emperor, 329.
The Marquis del Cuasto appointed Governor, 340.
Mobacz, battle of, between Solyman the Magnificent and the Hungarians
Monastic orders, inquiry into the fundamental principles cf, II. 374. Peçu
liar constitution of the order of Jesuits, 375.
Moncado, Don Hugo di, the Imperial Ambassador at Rome, his intrigues
with Cardinal Colonna, against Pope Clement, 11. 233. Reduces the
Pope to an accommodation, 234. Is defeated and killed by Andrew
Doria in a naval engagement before the harbour of Naples, 259.
Monluc, is sent by the Count d'Enguien to Francis for permission to give
battle to the Marquis del Guasto, III. 24. Obtains his suit by his spi-
rited arguments, 25. Commands in Siena, when besieged by the Mar.
quis de Marignano, 256. His vigorous de fence, ib. Is reduced by fa-
mine, and capitulates, 257.
Monte Alcino, numbers of the citizens of Siena retire thither after the re-
duction of that city by the Florentines, and establish a free government
there, III. 257.
Montecuculi, Count of, accused and tortured for poisoning the Dauphin,
charges the Emperor with instigating it, II. 341.
Mlontmorency, Marechal, his character, II. 336. Francis adopts his plan
for resisting the Emperor, and commits the execution to him, ib. His
precautions, ib. His troops despise his conduct, 338. Observations on
his operations, 339. Is disgraced, III. 5. Conducts the army of Henry
II. to join Maurice of Saxony, and seizes Metz, 195. Dissuades Henry
from accepting the offered alliance with Pope Paul, 280. Commands
the French army against the Duke of Savoy, 312. Detaches D'Andelot
to relieve St. Quintin, ib. Exposes himself imprudently to an action,
and is defeated, 313. Is taken prisoner, 314. Negociates a peace be-
tween Philip and Henry, 334. Returns to France, and is highly honour-
ed by Henry, 335. His assiduity in forwarding the negociations, 344.
His expedient for promoting the treaty of Chateau Cambręsis, 347.
Montpelier, a fruitless conference held there for the restitution of the king-
dom of Navarre, II. 40.
Morone, Jerome, chancellor of Milan, his character, II. 122. Retires
from the French exactions in Milan to Francis Sforza, 123. His in.
trigues, how rendered abortive, 125. Quiets the mutiny of the Imperial
troops in Milan, 174. Is disgusted with the behaviour of Charles, 206.
Intrigues against the Emperor with Pescara, ib. Is betrayed to the Em-
peror by Pescara, 208. Is arrested at his visit to Pescara, 209. Is set
at liberty by the Duke of Bourbon, and becomes his confidant, 236.
Mouson in France taken by the Imperialists, II. 118. Retaken by Francis,
Mulbausen, battle of, between the Emperor Charles V. and the Elector of
Saxony, III. 114.
Muley, Hascen, King of Tunis, his inhuman treatment of his father and
brothers, II. 310. Is expelled by Barbarossa, 311. Engages the Em-
peror Charles V. to restore him, 312. Is established again by the sur-
render of Tunis, 317. His treaty with Charles, ib.
Muncer, Thomas, a disciple of Luther, opposes him with fanatical notions,
II. 222. Heads the insurrection of the peasants in Thuringia, 223. His
extravagant schemes, ib. Is defeated and put to death, 224.
Munster, the first settlement of the Anabaptists in that city, II. 297. The
city seized by them, ib. They establish a new form of government there,
298. Is called Mount Sion, ib. The bishop of, repulsed by them, 299.
Is blockaded by the bishop, 302. The city taken, 303. See Anabaptists.
Murder, the prices of composition for, by the Romish clergy, II. 93.
Mustapha, the declared heir to Sultan Solyman the Magnificent, is invest.
ed with the administration of Diabequir, III. 236. His father rendered
jealous of his popularity, by the arts of Roxalana, ib. Is strangled by
his father's order, 241. His only son murdered, 242.