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Emperor is vested, ib. Views of the Electors, ib. The Em. pire offered to Frederick of Saxony, 49. Who rejects it, and his reasons, ib. Charles V. chosen, 51. The capitulation of the Germanic privileges confirmed by him, ib. Charles sets out for, 57. Charles crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle, 67. Commencement of the reformation there, by Martin Luther, 68. Treatment of the bull of excommunication published against Luther, 84. The usurpations of the clergy there, during the disputes concerning investitures, 93. The clergy of, mostly foreigners, 97. The benefices of, nominated by the Pope, 98. The expedient of the Emperors for restraining this power of the Pope, ineffectual, 99. The great progress of Luther's doctrines in, 176. Grievances of the peasants, 219. Insurrection in Suabia, 220. The memorial of their grievances, ib. The insurrection quelled, 220. Another insurrection in Thuringia, ib. How the house of Austria became so formidable in, 247. Proceedings relating to the Reformation there, ib. Great progress of the Reformation there, 275. Ferdinand King of Hungary and Bohernia, brother to Charles V. elected King of the Romans, 282. The Protestant religion established in Saxony, 358. The Protestant religion established in the Palatinate, III. 44. The league of Smalkalde raise an army against the Emperor, 68. under the ban of the Empire, 70. The Protestant army dispersed, 85. The Interim enforced by the Emperor, 150. Maurice of Saxony raises an army, and declares in favour of the Protestants, 192. Maurice favoured even by the Catholic princes, and why, 193. Treaty of Passau, between the Emperor and Maurice of Saxony, 193. Truce between the Emperor and Henry of France, 293. Charles resigns the Imperial

crown to his brother Ferdinand, 302. Ghent, an insurrection there, II. 362. The pretensions of the

citizens, ib. Form a confederacy against the Queen-dowager of Hungary, their governess, 363. Their deputies to the Emperor, how treated by him, ib. Offer to submit to France,

364. Is reduced by Charles, 370. Ghibeline, faction in Italy, a view of, 233. Giron, Don Pedro de, appointed to the army of the Holy Junta,

II. 148. Resigns his commission, and Padilla replaced, 150. Goletta in Africa, taken by the Emperor Charles V. II. 314. Gonzaga, the Imperial governor of Milan, procures Cardinal Far. Philip to address the assembly at the Emperor's resignation of

nese to be assassinated, and takes possession of Placentia for the Emperor, III. 135. Prepares to seize Parma, 170. Is

repulsed by the French, 172. Gouffer, sent by Francis I. King of France, to negociate a peace

with Charles V. II. 33. Granvelle, Cardinal, his artifice to prevail on the Count de San.

cerre to surrender St. Disiere to the Emperor, III. 29. En. deavours to lull the Protestants into security with regard to the Emperor's conduct toward them, 50. Is commissioned by

his hereditary dominions, 288. Gravelines, an interview there between the Emperor Charles V.

and Henry VIII. of England, II. 65. Grapper, canon of Cologne, is appointed a manager of the Pro.

testant and Catholic conferences before the diet at Ratisbon, II. 386. Writes a treatise to compose the differences between

them, ib. The sentiments of both parties on this work, 387. Granada, archbishop of, president of the council of Castile, his im

prudent advice to Cardinal Adrian, relating to the insurrection

in Segovia, II. 197. Guasto, the Marquis del, appointed governor of Milan, by the Em

peror, II. 340. Procures Rincon the French ambassador to the Porte, to be murdered on his journey thither, III. 3. Defends Carignan against the French, 25. Defeated by d'En

guein in a pitched battle, 26. Guicciardini, his account of the publication of Indulgences con

tradicted, 11. 75, Note. Defends Reggio against the French, 122. Repulses an attack upon Parma by the French, 127. His sentiments of the Pope's treaty with Lannoy viceroy of

Naples, 239. Guise, Francis of Lorrain, Duke of, is made governor of Metz

by Henry II. of France, III. 218. His character, ib. Prepares to defend it against the Emperor, 219. His brother d'Aumale taken prisoner by the Imperialists, 221. The Emperor raises the siege, 224. His humane treatment of the distressed and sick Germans left behind, ib. Persuades Henry to an alliance with Pope Paul IV. 281. Marches with troops into Italy, 308. Is unable to effect any thing, ib. Is recalled from Italy after the defeat of St. Quintin, 318. His reception in France, 322. Takes the field against Philip, 323. Invests and takes Calais from the English, 324. Takes also Guisnes and Hames, ib. Takes Thionville in Luxembourg,

330. Guise, Mary of, married to James V. of Scotland, II. 353.

Frustrates the intended marriage between her daughter Mary

and prince Edward of England, III. 23. Gurk, Cardinal de, why he favoured the election of Charles V.

to the Imperial crown, II. 50. Signs the capitulation of the

Germanic body on behalf of Charles, 57. Gusman, chancellor to the Emperor Ferdinand, is sent to Pope

Paul IV. to notify the election, who refuses to see him, III. 327.

H

Hamburgh, city of, embraces the reformed religion, II. 177. Haro, the Conde de, appointed to command the army of the

Castilian nobles against the Holy Junta, II. 149, Attacks Tordesillas, and gets possession of Queen Joanna, ib. Routs the army of the Junta, and takes Padilla prisoner, who is exe

cuted, 254. Hascen Aga, deputy.governor of Algiers, his piracies against the

Christian states, II. 394. Is besieged in Algiers by the Emperor Charles V. 396. Makes a successful sally, 397. The

Emperor forced by bad weather to return back again, 398.
Hayradin, a potter's son of Lesbos, commences pirate, II. 308.

See Barbarossa.
Heathens, ancient, why the principles of mutual toleration were

generally admitted among them, Ill. 271.
Fleldo, vice chancellor to Charles V. attends the Pope's nuncio to

Smalkalde, II. 555. Forms a Catholic league in opposition

to the Protestant one, 356. Henry II. King of France, his motives for declining an alli

ance with Pope Paul III. against the Emperor, Ill. 136. Procures for Scotland a peace with England, 171. The young Queen Mary contracted to the Dauphin, and sent to France for education, ib. Enters into an alliance with Octa. via Farnese Duke of Parma, ib. Protests against the council of trent, 172. Makes alliance with Maurice Elector of Saxony, 186. Seconds the operations of Maurice, 193. His army marches and seizes Metz, 196. Attempts to surprise Strasburg, 202. Is strongly solicited to spare it, ib. Returns, 203. The Emperor prepares for war against him, 217. Instigates the Turks to invade Naples, 227. Terouanne taken and demolished by Charles, 233. Hesdin taken, ib. Leads an army into the Low-Countries against Charles, ib. Endeavours to obstruct the marriage of Mary of England with Philip of Spain, 248. The progress of his arms against the Emperor, 249. Engages Charles, 251. Retires, ib. Cosmo di Medici, Duke of Florence, makes war against him, 253. Appoints Peter Strozzi commander of his army in Italy, 254. Strozzi defeated, 255. Siena taken, 257. Pope Paul IV. makes overtures to an alliance with him against the Emperor, 279. Montmorency's arguments against this alliance, 280. Is persuaded by the Guises to accept it, 281. Sends the Cardinal of Lorrain with powers to conclude it, ib. The Pope signs the treaty, 283. A truce for five years concluded with the Emperor, 293. Is exhorted by Cardinal Caraffa to break the truce, 295. Is absolved from his oath, and concludes a new treaty with the Pope, 297. Sends the Duke of Guise into Italy, 306. The Constable Montmorency defeated and taken prisoner at St. Quintin, 314. Henry prepares for the defence of Paris, ib. 'St. Quintin taken by assault, 316. Collects his troops and negociates for assistance, 317. His kind reception of the Duke of Guise, 322. Calais taken by Guise, 324. Empowers Montmorency to negociate a peace with Philip, 334. Honours him highly on his return to France, 335. Writes to Queen Elizabeth with proposals of

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marriage, 342. How he failed in his suit, 343. His daughter married to Philip, and his sister to the Duke of Savoy, 347. Terms of the treaty of Chateau Cambresis, 348. The marriage of his sister and daughter celebrated with great pomp,

ib. His death, 349. Henry VII. of England detains the archduke Philip and his duch

ess when driven on his coast three months at the instigation

of Ferdinand Il. 10. Henry VIII. of England sends an ambassador to Germany to pro

pose his claims to the Imperial crown, II. 46. Is discouraged from his pretensions, and takes no part with the other competitors, ib. His personal character and political influence in Europe, 62. Entirely guided by Cardinal Wolsey, 63. Receives a visit from the Emperor Charles V. 65. Goes over to France to visit Francis, 66. Wrestles with Francis, and is thrown by him, 67. Note. Has another interview with Charles at Gravelines, ib. Charles offers to submit his differences with Francis to his arbitration, ib. Publishes a treatise on the Seven Sa. craments, against Martin Luther, 110. Obtains of the Pope the title of Defender of the Faith, 111. Takes part with Charles against Francis, ib. Sends Wolsey to negociate an accommodation between the Emperor and Francis, 120. Concludes a league with Charles against Francis, ib. His avowed reasons for this treaty, ib. His private motives, 122. Declares war against Francis, 130. Is visited by Charles, 131. Makes descents upon the coast of France, ib. Advances with an army into Picardy, 132. Obliged to retire by the Duke de Vendome, ib. Enters into a treaty with the Emperor and Charles Duke of Bourbon, 164. How he raised supplies for his wars beyond the grants of his parliament, 172. Sends the Duke of Suffolk to invade Picardy, who penetrates almost to Paris, but is driven back, 173. Engages to assist Charles in an invasion of Provence, 186. Causes of his not supporting the Imperialists, 187. Effects of the battle of Pavia, and captivity of Francis, ,on him, 199. Particulars of his embassy to Charles, 200. Concludes a defensive alliance with France, 205. Is declared Protector of the league of Cognac against the Emperor, 228. His motives for assisting the Pope against the Emperor, 249. Enters into a league with Francis, and renounces the English claim to the crown of France, 250. Declares war against the Emperor, 257. Concludes a truce with the Governess of the Low-Countries, 260.

Projects his divorce from Catharine of Aragon, 270. Motives which withheld the Pope from granting it, 271. Acquiesces in the peace of Cambray, 272. Sends a supply of money to the Prutestant league in Germany, 285. Procures his marriage to be annulled by Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, 293. The divorce reversed by the Pope under penalty of excommunication, ib. Renounces the Papal supremacy, ib. Refuses to acknowledge any council called by the Pope, 306. Opposes James V. of

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Scotland marrying Mary of Guise, 253. His disgusts with Francis and intercourse with the Emperor, ib. Concludes a league with Charles, III. 8. Makes war with Scotland 9. Particulars of his treaty with Charles, 10. Invades France, and invests Boulogne, 28. Refuses the Emperor's plan of operations, 30. Is deserted by the Emperor, 284. Takes Boulogne, ib. His haughty proposals to Francis, 32. Peace of Campe, 67. Is succeeded by his son Edward VI. 104.

A review of his policy, 385. Hertfort, earl of, plunders and burns Edinburgh, III. 20. Joins

Henry after, in his invasions of France, ib. Hesse, the Landgrave of, procures the restoration of his kins

man, Ulric Duke of Wurtemberg, II. 304. His views compared with those of the Elector of Saxony, III. 49. The Emperor's deceitful professions to him, 55. Quiets the apprehensions of the Protestant league with regard to the Emperor, ib. Is appointed joint commander of the army of the league with the Elector of Saxony, 72. Their characters compared, 73. Urges an attack of the Emperor, but is opposed by the Elector, 76. His letter to Maurice Duke of Saxony, 82. The army of the league disperse, 85. Is reduced to accept harsh terms from Charles, 122. His humiliating reception by the Emperor, 124. Is detained in confinement, 125. His offers of submission slighted by the Emperor, 145. Is carried by the Emperor with him into the Netherlands, 148. Renews his en. deavours for liberty, 164. Charles releases arbitrarily the Elector of Brandenburgh, and Maurice, from their engagements to him, 165. Obtains his liberty by the treaty of Passau, 211. Is arrested by the Queen of Hungary, but freed by the Empe

ror, 215. The effects of his confinement on him, 216. Heuterus, his account of Lewis XII. shown to contradict the re

lations given by Bellay and other French historians of the

education of Charles V.II. 18. Note. Holy Junta.

See Junta. Holy League, against the Emperor Charles V. formed at Cognac

under the protection of Henry VIII. of England, II. 228. Horuc, a potter's son of Lesbos, commences pirate, with his

brother Hayradin, II. 308. See Barbarossa. Hungary, is invaded by Solyman the Magnificent, and its King

Lewis II. killed, Il. 246. His successes, and the number of prisoners carried away, ib. The archduke Ferdinand elected King of, together with Bohemia, 247. John Zapol Scæpius wrests it from Ferdinand, 389. Stephen succeeds on the death of his father John, 390. Is treacherously seized by Soly. man, 392. See Isabella and Martinuzzi,

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James V. of Scotland levies troops to assist Francis in Provence,

but his intention frustrated, II. 352. His negociations for

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