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dinand, 17. Alters his will in favour of Charles, 18. Dies, ib. Review of his administration, 20, Ximenes appointed,

by his will, regent of Castile until the arrival of Charles V. 21. Ferdinand, second son of Philip Archduke of Austria, born, II. 4.

Left regent of Aragon, by his grandfather Ferdinand, 17. This revoked by a subsequent will, by which he obtains only a pension, ib. Discontented with his disappointment, he is taken to Madrid under the eye of Cardinal Ximenes, 24. Sent by Charles V. to visit their grandfather Maximilian, 39. Is elected King of Hungary and Bohemia, 247. Signs a deed called the Reverse, ib. The Emperor endeavours to get him elected King of the Romans, 282. He is opposed by the Protestants, 283. Is crowned King of the Romans, ib. Forms a confederacy against the Anabaptists at Munster, 302. Opposes the restoration of Ulric Duke of Wurtemberg, 304. Recognizes his title, and concludes a treaty with him, 305. His kingdom of Hungary wrested from him by John Zapol Scaepius, 389. Besieges the young king Stephen and his mother in Buda, but is defeated by the Turks, 390. His mean offers of submission to the Porte, 392. Which are rejected, 393. Courts the favour of the Protestants, ib. Opens the diet at Worms, III. 39. Requires it to submit to the decisions of the council of Trent, 40. Agrees to pay a tribute to Solyman for Hungary, 58. Encroaches on the liberties of Bohemia, 130. His rigorous treatment of Prague, 131. Disarms the Bohemia ans, ib. Obtains the sovereignty of the city of Constance, 150. Invades Transylvania by invitation of Martinuzzi, 181. Obtains the resignation of Transylvania from Queen Isabella, ib. Orders Martinuzzi to be assassinated, 184. Enters into negociation with Maurice on behalf of the Emperor, 205. His motives for promoting the Emperor's agreeing with Maurice, 206. Isabella and her son Stephen recover possession of Transylvania, 235. Opens a diet at Augsburg, and excites suspicions in the Protestants, 265. The Emperor leaves the internal administration of German affairs to him, 267. Is again applied to by the Emperor to resign his pretensions of succession to Philip, but refuses, 268. Endeavours therefore to gain the friendship of the diet, 269. Again refuses the Emperor's solicitations, 301. Charles resigns the Imperial crown to him, 302. Assembles the college of electors at Frankfort, which acknowledges him Emperor of Germany,

326. The Pope refuses to acknowledge him, 327. Feudal government, a view of, as it existed in Spain, II. 139. Fiesco, Count of Lavagna. See Lavagna.

Jerome, engages in his brother's conspiracy, and fails in securing Andrew Doria, III. 8. His imprudent vanity on his brother's death, 99. Shuts himself up in a fort on his estate,

101. İş reduced and put to death, 106. Flanders. See Netherlands. Florence, the inhabitants of, revolt against Pope Clement VII.


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on the news of his captivity, and recover their liberty, II. 251. Are reduced to subjection to Alexander di Medici, by the Emperor, 275. Alexander di Medici, Duke of, assassinated by his kinsman Lorenzo, 350. Cosmo di Medici advanced to the sovereignty, ib. Cosmo supported by the Emperor, de"feats the partizans of Lorenzo, 351, Cosmo asserts his inde

pendency on the Emperor, III. 225. Fonseca, Antonio de, commander in chief of the forces in Spain,

ordered by Cardinal Adrian to besiege the insurgents in Segovia, II. 138. Is denied liberty of taking military stores, by the inhabitants of Medina del Campo, ib. Attacks and almost burns the whole town, ib. Is repulsed, ib. His house at Val.

ladolid burnt, ib. France, the acquisitions of that kingdom, during the reign of the

Emperor Charles V. III. 355. The character of the people of, 556. The good consequences of the civil wars in that

kingdom to the rest of Europe, 357. Francis I. King of France, concludes a peace with Charles V.

and the conditions of the treaty, II. 33. Sends a fruitless embassy to Charles for the restitution of Navarre to the young king, 40. Aspires to the Imperial crown at the death of Maximilian, 43. Reasons by which he supported his pretensions, 44. Remarks on the equipages of his ambassadors to the German States, 45. His pretensions adopted by the Venetians, 46. Loses the election, 51. Rise of the rivalship between him and Charles, 59. Courts the favour of Cardinal Wolsey, 63. Promises Wolsey his interest for the Papacy, 64. Has an interview with Henry VIII. of England, 65. Wrestles with Henry, and throws him, 66. Note. His advantages over Charles, at the commencement of hostilities between them, 111. Concludes an alliance with the Pope, 113. Invades and reduces Navarre, in the name of Henry D'Albret, son of John, the former King, 115. The French driven out by the imprudence of L'Esparre their general, who is taken prisoner by the Spaniards, 117. Retakes Mouson from the Imperialists, 118. Invades the Low-Countries, but loses the opportunities of success by imprudence, ib. Rejects the demands of Charles at the Congress at Calais, 119.

A league concluded between Charles and Henry VIII. against him, 120. His imprudent appointment of the Marechal de Foix to the government of Milan, 122. De Foix attacks, Reggio, but is repulsed by the governor Guicciardini the historian, 123. The Pope declares against him, ib. His embarrassments on the invasion of Milan, 124. His mother seizes the money appointed for payment of the Milanese troops, ib. Milan taken, and the French driven out, 125. Levies a body of Swiss, ib. Who insist on giving a precipitate battle to the Imperialists, which is lost 129. War declared against him by Henry VIII. 130. His expedients to supply his treasury, ib. The plan pursued by him to resist the incursions of the English, 131. Picardy invaded by Henry, ib. The Venetians league with

the Emperor against him, 164. To which Pope Adrian accedes, ib. His expeditious movement against the Milanese, 165. Disconcerted by the Duke of Bourbon's conspiracy, ib. Taxes him with betraying his cause, which Bourbon denies, 166. Bourbon escapes to Italy, and Francis returns, 168. Appoints the Admiral Bonnivet to command against the Mi. lanese, 169. Picardy invaded by the Duke of Suffolk, who is Driven back, 172. Repulses the invasion of Guienne and Burgundy by Charles, 173. His successful close of the campaign, ib. His prudent care to disappoint the Imperialists in their invasion of Provence, 186. Assembles an army, which causes the Imperialists to retire from Marseilles, 187. Determines to invade the Milanese, 188. Appoints his mother Louise regent during his absence, ib. Enters Milan, and takes possession of the city, 189. Advised by Bonnivet to besiege Pavia, 190. His vigorous attacks on Pavia, 191. Concludes : a treaty of neutrality with Pope Clement, 192. His imprudent invasion of Naples, ib. Resolves, by Bonnivet's advice, to attack Bourbon's army, advanced to the relief of Pavia, 193. Is routed at the battle of Pavia, 195. Is taken prisoner, 196. Is sent to the castle of Pizzitchitone under the custody of Don Ferdinand Alarcon, 197. Refuses the propositions made to him by Charles, 203. Is carried to Spain on his desire of a personal interview with Charles, 204. Is rigorously treated in Spain, 210. Falls dangerously ill, ib. Is visited by Charles, 211. Resolves to resign his kingdom, 213. Is delivered from this captivity by the treaty of Madrid, 214. His secret protestations against the validity of this treaty, 216. Marries the Queen of Portugal, 217. Recovers his liberty, and the Dauphin and the Duke of Orleans delivered up hostages to Charles for the performance of the treaty of Madrid, 217. Writes a letter of acknowledgment to Henry VIII. of England, 226. His reply to the Imperial ambassadors, 227. Enters into a league with the Pope, the Venetians, and Sforza, against Charles, 228. Is absolved from his oath to observe the treaty of Madrid, ib. His behaviour to the Emperor's second embassy, 230. Is dispirited by his former ill success, 231. Enters into a treaty with Henry VIII. of England against the Emperor, 250. Successes of his general Lautrec in Italy, 252. His reply to the Emperor's overtures, 256. Declares war against him, and challenges him to single combat, 257. Treats Andrew Doria ill, who revolts from him to the Emperor, 261. His army under Saluces driven out of Italy, 263. His troops in Milan routed, 265. His endeavours toward an accommodation, 266. Terms of the peace at Cambray, concluded by the mediation of his mother Louise and Margaret of Austria, 268. Remarks on the sacrifices made by him in this treaty, and on his conduct of the war, 269. Leagues secretly with the Protestant Princes, 284. "His measures to elude the treaty of Cambray, 290. His negociations with the Pope, 291. His interview and treaty, with the Pope, 292. Gives the Duke of Orleans in marriage to Catherine di Medici, ib. Negociates a treaty with Francis Sforza, Duke of Milan, 319. His envoy Merveille executed at Milan for murder, 320. Is disappointed in his endeavours to negociate alliances against the Emperor, ib. Invites Melancthon to Paris, 321. Evinces his zeal for the Romish religion, 322. Causes of his quarrel with the Duke of Savoy, 323. Seizes the Duke's territories, 324. His pretensions to the dutchy of Milan, on the death of Francis Sforza, 328. The Emperor's invective against him before the Pope in council, 330. Is invaded by Charles, 333. His prudent plan of defence, 335. Joins the army under Montmorency, 339. Death of the Dauphin, 341. Obtains a decree of the parliament of Paris against the Emperor, 342. Invades the Low-Countries, 343. A suspension of arms in Flanders, and how negociated, ib. A truce in Piedmont, 344. Motives to these truces, ib. Concludes an alliance with Solyman the Magnificent, 345. Negociations for a peace with the Emperor, 346. Concludes a truce for ten years at Nice, 347. Reflections on the war, 348. His interview with Charles, ib. Marries Mary of Guise to James V. of Scotland, 353. Refuses the offers of the deputies of Ghent, -365. Informs Charles of the offer made by them, 366. Grants the Emperor leave to pass through France to the Netherlands, 367. His reception of the Emperor, 368. Is deceived by the Emperor in respect to Milan, 369. His ambassador to the Porte, Rincon, murdered by the Imperial governor of the Milanese, III. 3. Prepares to resent the injury, 4. Attacks the Emperor with five armies, 5. His first attempts rendered abortive by the imprudence of the Duke of Orleans, 6. Renews his negociations with Sultan Solyman, 11. Invades the Low Countries, 12. Forces the Emperor to raise the siege of Landrecy, 13. Dismisses Barbarossa, 24. Gives the Count d'Enguien permission to engage Guasto, 25. Relieves Paris, in danger of being surprised by the Emperor, 30. Agrees to a separate peace with Charles, 31. Henry's haughty return to his overtures of peace, 35. Death of the Duke of Orleans, 42. Peace of Campe, 67. Perceives a necessity of checking the Emperor's ambitious designs, 103. Forms a general league against him, 104. Dies, 107. His life and character summarily compared with those of Charles, ib. Consequences of

his death, 110. Francis II. his accession to the crown of France, and charac

ter, III. 349. Frankfort, the diet of, assembled for the choice of an Emperor

at the death of Maximilian, II. 48. Names and views of the Electors, ib. The Empire offered to Frederick of Saxony, 49. Who rejects it, with his reasons, ib. Chooses Charles V. Emperor, 51. His confirmation of the Germanic privileges required and agreed to, ib. City of, en races the reformed religion, 177.

The college of Electors assembled there by Ferdinand, who is acknowledged Emperor of Germany, III. 24. Frederick Duke of Saxony assembles with the other Electors at

the diet of Frankfort, to choose an Emperor, II. 48. The Empire offered to him, 49. Rejects it, and votes for Charles V. ib. Refuses the presents of the Spanish ambassadors, ib. This disinterested behaviour confirmed by the testimony of historians, ib. Note. Chooses Martin Luther philosophical professor at his university of Wittemburg, 73. Encourages Luther in his opposition to indulgences, ib. Protects him against Cajetan, 77. Causes Luther to be seized at his return from the diet at Worms, and conceals him at

Wartburg, 108. Dies, 225. Fregoso, the French ambassador to Venice, murdered by the

Marquis del Guasto, the Imperial governor of the Milanese,

III. 3. Fronsperg, George, a German nobleman, some account of, he

joins the army of Charles V. II. 235.


General of the Jesuits, an inquiry into his office and despotie

authority, II. 375. Geneva, an account of its revolt against the duke of Savoy, II. 325. Genoa, reduced by Lautrec, the French general, II. 252. The

French endeavour to prejudice its trade in favour of Savona, 259. Is rescued from the. French by Andrew Doria, 261, The government of, settled by the disinterestedness of Doria, 264. The honour paid to Doria's memory, 265. Is visited by the Emperor, 290. A scheme formed to overturn the constitution of, by Fiesco Count of Lavagno, III. 91. He assembles his adherents, 95. The conspirators sally forth from Lavagno's palace, 97. Deputies sent to know Lavagno's terms, 99. Lavagno crowned, ib. The insurrection ruined by the imprudence of his brother Jerome Fiesco, ib. The conspirators disperse, 100. Jerome reduced and put to

death, 106. Germanada, an association in Valencia, so termed, on what oc

casion formed, II. 158. Refuse to lay down their arms, ib. Their resentment levelled at the nobility, who raise an army against them, 159. Defeat the nobles in several actions, 160.

But are routed and dispersed by them, ib. Germany, state of, at the death of the Emperor Maximilian,

II. 41, 42. Charles V. of Spain, and Francis I. of France, form pretensions to the Imperial crown, 43. Their respective reasons offered in favour of their claims, 44. Views and interests of the other European States in relation to the competitors, 45. Henry VIII. of England advances a claim, 46. But is discouraged from prosecuting it, ib. How the Papacy was likely to be affected in the choice of an Emperor, 47. Advice of Pope Leo X. to the German Princes, ib. Opening of the diet at Frankfort, 48. In whom the election of an

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