· DOO K in the consistory of Cardinals against Philip, setting forth

that he, notwithstanding the fidelity and allegiance due by 1556.

him to the Holy See, of which he held the kingdom of Naples, had not only afforded a retreat in his dominions to the Colonnas, whom the Pope had excommunicated and declared rebels, but had furnished them with arms and was ready, in conjunction with them, to invade the Ecclesiastical State in an hostile manner ; that such conduct in a vassal was to be deemed treason against his liege lord, the punishment of which was the forfeiture of his fief. Upon this, the consistorial advocate requested the Pope to take cognizance of the cause, and to appoint a day for hearing of it, when he would make good every article of the charge, and expect from his justice that sentence which the heinousness of Philip's crimes merited. Paul, whose pride was highly flatter

ed with the idea of trying and passing judgment on so great July 27.

a king, assented to his request, and as if it had been no less easy to execute than to pronounce such a sentence, declared that he would consult with the Cardinals concerning the formalities requisite in conducting the trial a

Philip's But while Paul allowed his pride and resentment to drive supersti- him on with such headlong impetuosity, Philip discovered tious scruples. an amazing moderation on his part. He had been taught

by the Spanish ecclesiastics, who had the charge of his education, a profound veneration for the Holy See. This sentiment, which had been early infused, grew up with him aş he advanced in years, and took full possession of his mind, which was naturally thoughtful, serious, and prone to superstition. When he foresaw a rupture with the Pope approach ing, he had such violent scruples with respect to the lawfulness of taking arms against the Vicegerent of Christ, and the common father of all Christians, that he consulted some Spanish divines upon that point. They, with the usual dexterity of casuists in accommodating their responses to the circumstances of those who apply to them for direction, assured him that, after employing prayers and remonstrances in order to bring the Pope to reason, he had full right, both

a Pallav. lib. xiii. 171.



by the laws of nature and of Christianity, not only to defend BOOK himself when attacked, but to begin hostilities, if that were judged the most proper expedient for preventing the effects of Paul's violence and injustice. Philip nevertheless continued to deliberate and delay, considering it as a most cruel misfortune, that his administration should open with an attack upon a person, whose sacred function and character he so highly respected b.

takes the

At last the Duke of Alva, who, in compliance with his The Duke master's scruples, had continued to negociate long after he of Alva should have begun to act, finding Paul inexorable, and that field a. every overture of peace, and every appearance of hesitation

gainst the

pope. on his part, increased the Pontiff's natural arrogance, took the field and entered the ecclesiastical territories. His ar- Sept. 5. my

did not exceed twelve thousand men, but it was composed of veteran soldiers, and commanded chiefly by those Roman barons, whom Paul's violence had driven into exile. The valour of the troops, together with the animosity of their leaders, who fought in their own quarrel, and to recover their own estates, supplied the want of numbers. As none of the French forces were yet arrived, Alva soon became master of the Campagna Romana ; some cities being surrendered through the cowardice of the garrisons, which consisted of raw soldiers, ill disciplined, and worse commanded; the gates of others being opened by the inhabitants, who were eager to receive back their ancient masters. Al. va, that he might not be taxed with impiety in seizing the patrimony of the church, took possession of the towns which capitulated, in the name of the college of cardinals, to which, or to the Pope that should be chosen to succeed Paul, he declared that he would immediately restore them.

The rapid progress of the Spaniards, whose light troops A truce bemade excursions even to the gates of Rome, filled that city pope and with consternation. Paul, though inflexible and undaunted Philip. himself, was obliged to give way so far to the fears and solicitations of the Cardinals, as to send deputies to Alva in

tween the

b Ferrer. Hist. de Espagne, ix. 373. Herrera, i. 308.


BO O K order to propose a cessation of arms. The Pope yielded the XI.

more readily, as he was sensible of a double advantage which might be derived from obtaining that point. It would deliver the inhabitants of Rome from their present terror, and would afford time for the arrival of the succours which he expected from France. Nor was Alva unwilling to close with the overture, both as he knew how desirous his master was to terminate a war, which he had undertaken with reluctance, and as his army was so much weakened by garrisoning the great number of towns which he had reduced,

that it was hardly in a condition to keep the field without Nov. 19. fresh recruits. A truce was accordingly concluded first for

ten, and afterwards for forty days, during which, various schemes of peace were proposed, and perpetual negociations were carried on, but with no sincerity on the part of the Pope. The return of his nephew the Cardinal to Rome, the receipt of a considerable sum remitted by the King of France, the arrival of one body of French troops, together with the expectation of others which had begun their march, rendered him more arrogant than ever, and banished all thoughts from his mind, but those of war and revenge C.

c Pallay. lib. xiii. 177. Thuan. lib. xvii. 588. Mem. de Ribier, ii. 664









new at


WHILE these operations or intrigues kept the Pope and B O O K

XII. Philip busy and attentive, the Emperor disentangled himself finally from all the affairs of this world, and set out for the place of his retreat. He had hitherto retained the Im- Charles's perial dignity, not from any unwillingness to relinquish it,

tempt to for, after having resigned the real and extensive authority alter the that he enjoyed in his hereditary dominions, to part with the succession limited and often ideal jurisdiction which belongs to an elec- pire, tive crown, was no great sacrifice. His sole motive for delay was to gain a few months, for making one trial more, in order to accomplish his favourite scheme in behalf of his

At the very time Charles seemed to be most sensible of the vanity of worldly grandeur, and when he appeared to be quitting it not only with indifference, but with contempt, the vast schemes of ambition, which had so long occupied and engrossed his mind, still kept possession of it. He could not think of leaving his son in a rank inferior to that which he himself had held among the Princes of Europe. As he had, some years before, made a fruitless attempt to secure the Imperial crown to Philip, that by uniting it to the kingdoms of Spain, and the dominions of the house of Burgundy, he might put it in his power to prosecute, with a better prospect of success, those great plans, which his own infirmities had obliged him to abandon, he was still unwil

BO O K ling to relinquish this flattering project as chimerical or unXII.


1556. Which NOTWITHSTANDING the repulse which he had formerly proves un- met with from his brother Ferdinand, he renewed his sosuccessful.

licitations with fresh importunity; and during the summer, had tried every art, and employed every argument, which he thought could induce him to quit the Imperial throne to Philip, and to accept of the investiture of some province, either in Italy, or in the Low-Countries, as an equivalent a. But Ferdinand, who was so firm and inflexible with regard to this point, that he had paid no regard to the solicitations of the Emperor, even when they were enforced with all the weight of authority which accompanies supreme power, received the overture, that now came from him in the situation to which he had descended, with great indifference, and would hardly deign to listen to it. Charles, ashamed of his own credulity in having imagined that he might accomplish that now which he had attempted formerly without success, desisted finally from his scheme. He then resigned the government of the Empire, and having transferred

all his claims of obedience and allegiance from the Germanic August 27. body, to his brother the King of the Romans, he executed

a deed to that effect, with all the formalities requisite in such an important transaction. The instrument of resignation he committed to William Prince of Orange, and empowered him to lay it before the college of electors b.

Charles NOTHING now remained to detain Charles from that resets out for Spain.

treat for which he languished. The preparations for his voyage having been made for some time, he set out for Zuitburg in Zealand, where the fleet which was to convoy · him had orders to assemble. In his way thither he passed through Ghent, and after stopping there a few days, to indulge that tender and pleasing melancholy, which arises in the mind of every man in the decline of life, on visiting the place of his nativity, and viewing the scenes and objects familiar to him in his early youth, he pursued his journey,

a Ambassades des Noailles, tom. y. 356. b Goldast. Constit. Imper. par. i. 576.

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