Amongst czars, Peter was a great man; | away before Goethe, for the fourth time, Goethe was far greater than Peter, be visited Karlsbad. This was in 1806. He cause he was a great man amongst men. put up at the Three Moors, a lodging. It is, indeed, no small honor to Karlsbåd house to which he always returned; partly, that it was one of Goethe's favorite places it is alleged, out of a special liking for the of resort, that there he planned and wrote landlady, Frau Heillinggötter. He was some of his best works, and that there he then fifty-seven, and his visit was the reacquired that stock of health which light-sudt of medical orders, his owo opinion ened his labors and lengthened his life. being that the waters would not do him He was thirty-six years old when he vis. any good this time. However, he was so ited Karlsbad for the first time. This much and so speedily the better for his was in 1785. He was seventy-four when, visit that he regretted having postponed in 1823, he paid his last visit to it. Ait so long. On this occasion, as on other painful affection of the kidneys, from occasions, he busied himself with study. which he suffered early in life, was the ing botany, inineralogy, and geology. The reason why he sought for relief in the curious geological formation of the valley healing waters of Karlsbad, and, happily, in which Karlsbad lies and through which he found what he sought. Twelve times, the Tepel flows, interested him exceed. at longer or shorter intervals, did Goethe ingly, and he was assiduous in investigattake a course of the Karlsbad waters. ing the origin of the mineral waters. He He wrote to Frau von Stein in 1785 that said that he never left this place without the waters which he drank and in wbich an addition to his stock of information. he bathed suited bim very well, and that Later he wrote an essay on the Bohethe necessity of being obliged to keep mian mountain range, which became the company with his fellows had a beneficial guide to explorers of it. He wrote to effect upon him; all things having tended, Herr Voigt on the 12th of July that the ladies included, to render his stay the weather suits me very well, and I do not agreeable and interesting. The following desire to be better than I am now, if it would year he returned, and occupied himself only last. Müller, the stonecutter, is the same with preparing for the press a collected old man, and he has been induced by the new edition of his works. He told the Duke mineralogists to strive after some novelty; he of Saxe Weimar that the second year's has really collected some very pretty things, use of the waters had greatly improved and I shall bring away with me a set of them his health; he started off from Karlsbad for my cabinet. Up to the present time the on the 3rd of September, 1786, in good visitors' list shows that 542 persons have ar: health and spirits, on his long-contem- rived; as in former years they belong to all plated journey to Italy. He stole away, nations, conditions, and creeds, and ihey all as he says, very early in the morning, their health. This year the Neubrunn is the

use the warm springs for the recovery of and without even saying good-bye to his most fashionable, because it specially suits the friends, lest they should seek to detain

gentler sex. him longer. He did not return to Karlsbad for nine years. In a letter to Schiller, A few days later he informed Frau von written in July, 1795, he says that he was Stein: “I am in capital condition.

My welcomed as a famous author, but that health has been re-established without the some persons confounded him with an aid of physic, and solely by drinking and other writer of the day. Thus a charming bathing in the waters.” He adds that the lady told him that she had read his last number of visitors had increased to six work with the greatest pleasure, and that hundred and fifty: Leaving Karlsbad and “ Ardinghello” had interested her in the Bohemia early in August, Goethe highest degree — the actual author of this marked that their peacefulness gave him romance being Heinse. In another letter the impression of being in the land of he records that the waters were effecting Goshen. The year 1806 was not a quiet a cure, and that he scrupulously observed one elsewhere. Returning in the followthe prescribed rules — getting up at five, ing year, Goethe wrote a pamphlet on the passing his days in idleness, mixing with mineralogy of Karlsbad, which was printed the people, and enjoying much conversa there. The waters continued to benefit tion, and some adventures. That he was him, only a change was made in the treatnot wholly idle is shown by his adding ment; he gave up taking those of the hot that he had written the fifth book of Sprudel, and drank the cooler waters of “ Wilhelm Meister,” and was about to other springs. He was very ill on arrive finish the sixth. Eleven years passed ling, and he became worse owing to a mis.


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take in using the waters ; however, he was verses in her honór which his least critical
restored to good health in six weeks' time. admirers praise the most highly. Not
He wrote some of his minor works during being so much benefited in health as he
this visit. His son, and the dukes of Co. hoped to be, he went to Teplitz, where his
burg and Saxe Weimar were visitors at health improved. He blamed the contin-
the same time. The only things worthy uous bad weather at Karlsbad as the cause
of note in his visit during 1808 is a pas- of his illness, and expressed his regret to
sage in a letter to Knebel to the effect have to find fault with “a place which he
that he had given up reading the news. loved so well." Nothing deserves men.
papers, as they contained so much that tion about his stay during 1811 except that
was false' and misleading, and that his he informed the Duke of Saxe Weimar
friends kept him perfectly well informed that “ Picknicks were very
about the news of the day. He remarks, His wife was with him for part of the
too, that the threatening aspect and un time, and she did not please the ladies,
certain state of affairs rendered strangers who were Goethe's ardent worshippers.
chary of discussing political matters. One Frau von Schiller writes contemptuously
of the Karlsbad industries, one, too, which about Goethe's corpulent better-half."
is still prosecuted, though the competition in 1812, he returned on the 4th of May,
of machinery renders it daily more un. and he was the third arrival of the season.
profitable, is pin-making. The Karlsbad He had a sharp attack of his old inalady,
pins have always been in request, and this which confined him to the house for sev.
will explain the following short passage in eral weeks; he went to Teplitz for a short
a letter from Goethe to Frau von Stein : time, and then returned to Karlsbad,
“I am very well. Along with this you which he did not leave till September, his
will receive a pound of pins, costing two stay lasting four months. During that
thalers twelve groschen (about 7s.), owing period he made the acquaintance of
to the dearness of brass. Brass is no Wilhelm von Humboldt, who wrote to him
longer drawn into wire, being too much afterwards expressing the great pleasure
in demand for cannon.” Again, writing on he had in conversing with him, being espe.
the 16th of August, be says:

cially struck with the views about Shake

speare expressed during their walks, I am well, and have no reason to be dis- which he begged Goethe to set forth in satisfied with this summer. I have had the

writing. experience of all sorts of society, from the

Five years elapsed before his most complete solitude to the greatest noise revisiting Karlsbad; when he did so, in and bustle, succeeded by solitude again. Thus 1818, he made Prince Blücher's acquaintthe summer season at a watering-place bears tance there, and he heard Madame Cata. a close resemblance to man's life. So it has lani sing. So pleased was be with the been as regards the weather. The finest May songstress that he wrote a few lines to the days, rain, heat, and damp, misty evenings, effect that she had made him appreciate anticipating those of autumn, and the most for the first time the advantage of men beautiful moonlight nights, succeeding each having ears. On the 28th of August, 1819, other ; these we find everywhere, yet in the being his birthday, be paid his eleventh mountain range and valleys of this locality visit to Karlsbad, and he was present one is the more impressed with them, as they there when Prince Metternich, Count affect us in a more characteristic fashion. At times the heat is like that of an oven, and the Bernstorff, and Count Kaunitz assembled rain is like a deluge.

together to unite together Austria, Prus.

sia, Bavaria, Hanover, Baden, Hesse, and Goethe notes that the Duke of Gotha, Nassau, a conspiracy against human freewho was then at Karlsbad, had the bad dom, which was the last combined attempt habit of always making one of his guests of the despots of Germany to keep their the butt of his wit and ridicule, but that subjects in abject bondage. The twelfth the duke spared him. He expresses his and last time Goethe visited Karlsbad for surprise at the occasional flashes of clever the sake of the waters was in 1820. He observation and repartee which the duke was still active in researches of all kinds. displayed in company. Goethe also re. Anticipating Mr. Ruskin, he busied bimcords that he worked as hard at this time sell during his journey in noting the cloud as if he had still to make his way in the formations, keeping for a time a diary in world. He spent three months and a which he entered the various atmospheric half in Karlsbad during 1808. Revisiting conditions and appearances in order to it in 1810, he was there when the empress arrive at conclusions respecting the par. Maria Ludovica arrived, and he wrote | ticular forms of the clouds. He attended

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a wedding, the persons present represent. | with a memorial in stone. He erected a ing the middle class; he says that by con- covered resting-place for weary wayfarers versing with them “he gained a clearer in 1801, wherein he placed a French inknowledge of the actual state of Karlsbad scription, expressive of his gratitude for than be previously had, having till then having lived under “the mild and paternal been accustomed to regard the place as a laws of Austria." Those who know what large hospital and hotel.” In 1823 he the laws of Austria were at that period paid Karlsbad a flying visit, the attraction must be aware that, whilst they favored being Fräulein Ulrike von Lewezow, a men of birth or fortune, they were scourges young and charming lady, who had siit- of scorpions for the body of the people. ten the great poet's very susceptible As many of the inscriptions are in some heart, and who, owing probably to his be. Slav tongue they escape both attention ing seventy-four, received and declined and criticism from the majority of visitthe offer of his hand.

I observed but one in English: it The sixty years that have elapsed since consisted of a few verses on the back of Goethe last saw Karlsbad have been one of two stope seats which had been crowded with changes. He would not erected at the cost of Lady Henrietta recognize some of his old habitations and Maria Stanley of Alderley; the dates bebeloved haunts. The houses in which he ing 1842, 1878. I quote the verses which stayed or those which have been built give expression to a kindly sentiment: upon their sites bear inscriptions of the fact of his residence. A place in the town To the bright town that gave me health and is called after him: his marble bust, the first monument erected to his honor in Year after year in life's quick pilgrimage, Austria, is one of the artistic charms of Grateful I dedicate these seats, a nest

Where youthful love- may talk, and wayworn Karlsbad. More fortunate than Peter the

age, Great, the countless strangers who know Remembering all that life has lost and given, the German tongue can learn from the May pause and think upon the rest of Heaven! inscriptions on tablets which of the houses were consecrated by Goethe's presence. On the back of the other seat are a few The very small number of visitors who beautiful lines from Goethe, which it is read Russian can alone learn from tablets impossible to translate adequately, and outside the houses that the Czar Peter which express in exquisite words how, for once lived and labored in them.

all toilers, there is repose at last. SevVisitors to Karlsbad have long been in eral visitors have commemorated their the habit of leaving behind them some stay here by causing walks through the token of their stay there, and of gratitude woods to be cut at their own expense. for the benefit received. Instead of Amongst them is the Russell Weg, for merely writing their names on wooden which the town is indebted to two neph. benches, carving them on trees, or cutting ews of the late Earl Russell, who, in their them in stones, they have liad inscriptions youth, lived for some time in Karlsbad painted on metal or wooden tablets, and with their mother. One was Arthur, the bave had these tablets fixed in conspicu. Other Odo Russell. As I write these ous places. A granite obelisk erected lines the sad news comes from Berlin that last year bears inscriptions in Hungarian, the latter, recently known as Lord Amp. French, and German, to the effect that thill, has suddenly passed away in the it is a thank-offering to Karlsbad from prime of his life and the fulness of his grateful Hungarians. In 1859, Kiss, the powers. His great and most efficient great Prussian sculptor, carved an image services require no eulogy. In common in the solid rock as a testimony of good with all who had made his personal acwishes and his skill. Many of the inscrip- quaintance, I feel his untimely death to tions are in the French tongue, and they be a calamity of no common kind. It are sometimes couched in a variety of might have been averted had he been able French which would be unfamiliar in to leave Berlin for Karlsbad, where rooms France. A Count Findlater, whois some. I had been engaged for him.

Last year he times called Lord Findlater, but whose came to Karlsbad in greatly impaired name I do not remember to have seen in health, and he left it much better. Diplothe English peerage, was conspicuous and matic busihess detaining him in Berlin, energetic at the end of last century in it may truly be said that he died at his improving the walks about Karlsbad, and post, a martyr to duty: for this the burghers have honored him The number of picturesque walks in

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and about Karlsbad is one of its many consensus of opinion amongst competent attractions. No less than twenty exist; medical men; but why they prove efficathey are all through scenery alike varied cious in any case remains an unsolved and charming, and the pathway in each problem. The principal springs are five case is excellently kept. A charm of in number, and are alike in their chemical these woods and walks is the number and composition : but they differ in tempera. tameness of the birds. This is due to ture. The Sprudel, which is the hottest, the care taken of them, a society existing has a temperature of 165°; the Schlossfor providing food for the feathered song- brunn, one of the coolest, has a temperasters. In and near the town itself there ture of 124° Fahrenheit. A new one, are weighing machines at short intervals. which has just been discovered, is said to A man who can make a living in no other resemble those of Marienbad. It is easy way, provides a weighing machine for the enough, indeed, to discover a spring by use of the visitors who are concerned boring anywhere within a certain area. about their weight, and who form a large More than once, in the history of the proportion of the patients. Some delicate town, there has been a disastrous outburst invalids take the waters in order to regain of scalding water, and earthquakes have bealth and flesh, and they seem delighted occurred. No little care is required to when they find that they have added sevo keep the Sprudel on its good behavior. eral pounds to their weight. Yet their joy It is a useful and friend, does not appear equal to that openly man- but a most dangerous enemy. There are ifested by those who find themselves bath-houses, in which patients bathe in growing thinner and lighter day after day. mineral water, and others in which Moor The visitors most open in showing pleas- baths are taken. If a Moor bath be as ure at becoming lighter generally belong curative as is alleged, then a fortune is to to what is commonly regarded as the fairer be easily made in certain parts of Ireland and gentler, but what bere appears to be or Scotland. A Moor bath is simply a the fatter and heavier sex. Perhaps it is solution of peat in water; in other words, the fact of many stout persons resorting it is an artificial warm peat bog. The to Karlsbad for treatment that has led patient who takes one realizes practically some English physicians to regard the the meaning of “wallowing in the mire." waters as strong purgatives and nothing The sensation is less unpleasant than the

That they are strong is beyond appearance of the bath. question; but that they are solely fitted A part of the “cure at Karlsbad confor removing superfluous fat is a mistake. sists in drinking Giesshübler mineral I shall not discuss their medicinal propo water at or between meals. The water is erties: this lies within the physician's pleasant and sparkling, and it is said to province, and, for this reason, it is highly possess many virtues. An excursion to imprudent to drink the waters without the place where it is found is made by medical advice. But I may note, as inter- most of the visitors to Karlsbad. The esting and indisputable, the fact that in distance is seven miles and a half, and one malady — the formation of gall stones the road thither passes through romantic

they are regarded as a specific, and scenery. Situated in a valley on the left that they have proved of singular efficacy bank of the Eger, Giesshübl-Puchstein is in certain obscure and puzzling diseases. a very pretty little watering-place. The Dr. Hufeland, whose “ Art of Prolonging i chief spring is called King Otto's spring, Life” used to be a favorite work, wrote in honor of the king of the Greeks who in 1815 in strong praise of these waters visited this place and drank the waters in generally, and especially as to their virtue 1852. About one hundred and ten feet in alleviating or curing diabetes. Dr. above the river bank, this spring wells up Seegen, a distinguished member of the through a cleft in the granite rock of which medical faculty of the University of Vien- the slope is formed. From the tenth edi. na, and who for many years has been the tion of a small work on the subject by Dr. most esteemed consulting physician dur-Löschner, I learn that the Giesshübl water ing the season at Karlsbad, has confirmed has long been known and valued, being in Hufeland's views as to the value of the request as far back as the thirteenth cenwaters in arresting or removing that mal. tury. It seems to have been always a ady. So well is this known that Karlsbad regular adjunct to the treatment in Karls. has been named a large hospital for dia. bad. Dr. Payer, who wrote in 1522, and betic patients. As to the proved efficacy Dr. Summer in 1571, about the waters of the waters in other diseases, there is a l of the latter place, both recommend the


use of Giesshübler water also. It is re- litor much more amusement and variety corded that when the archduchess Ferdi, prevailed. The visitors being then fewer nand took baths at Karlsbad in 1571 and in number, it was possible to get up enter1574, she drank Giesshübler water under tainments at which they could all be presmedical advice. There was a great de ent. A very marked change occurred in mand for it up to 1805; agencies were 1852. Till then every visitor's arrival was opened for its sale in Prague and Vienna, welcomed by a blast on a horn from the and it was regularly supplied to the im. castle tower, and by a serenade outside perial court. But, between 1805 and 1829, the house in which he lodged. In Enthe sale of the water fell off, and the very gland at one time, when a distinguished existence of the place whence it came person landed at a seaport, the churchseemed forgotten. This is attributed to bells were rung in his honor. Afterwards the imperfect manner in which it was bot. the bell-ringers waited upon him, and they tled. Since 1829 greater care is taken in were not complimentary in their remarks bottling it, and now the number of bottles if he failed to reward them handsomely. sent away yearly is upwards of four mil- The blowing of horns and the playing of lions. Throughout Austria and some bands at Karlsbad were followed by appliparts of Germany this water is as well cations for gratuities. Now, each visitor known, and is as much drunk, as Apolli- pays a sum to the town not exceediog fif. naris is in England. It has the advantage teen florins, and for this he is allowed to of being naturally charged with enough listen to the town band, and drink, but not carbonic acid gas to be at once pleasant bathe in the mineral waters without further and easily digestible. When exported to charge. He has plenty of other payments England it is, like the Apollinaris, pre. to make. In the season, Karlsbad is a pared for the English market; in other very expensive as well as a serious place words, it is artificially surcharged with of abode. Whilst the coming guest is no carbonic acid gas. Those persons in longer welcomed with the blowing of England who wish to enjoy Giesshübler horos, the parting one is now sped on bis water as they do who drink it in Austria, way with flowers. Large bouquets and should insist upon being supplied with it baskets of flowers are placed in the car. in its natural state. When bottled and riage which conveys the homeward bound sold in that state, there are no wires over traveller to the railway station. Ladies the corks; when artificially prepared the are said to prize these manifestations of corks are wired, and the bottles resemble good feeling so highly that, if they cannot in shape those in which Apollinaris is count upon gifts of flowers, they will pay sold.

for the flowers that are handed to them. A certain number of patients go to To present a small bouquet is a graceful Giesshübl-Puchstein for treatment. Taken attention; but when a carriage is so en. internally and externally the water is said cumbered with flowers that little room is by Dr. Löschner to be efficacious in bron left for anything else, the compliment is chial irritation, catarrh of the bladder, converted into a farce. At the railway and gout. A whey cure and a cold water station, or shortly after leaving it, the cure are also provided for the visitors to superabundant Aoral tributes cease to Giessbübl-Puchstein. Quite as good as charm, and they are thrown away. When either

may be the open-air cure, as the air a pleasant custom is exaggerated till it is pure and bracing, and the walks and becomes ridiculous in all eyes save those scenery are so attractive as to tempt the of vain women and florists, it should be visitors to remain out of doors. Not yet discountenanced and discontinued. The being accessible by rail, the place is much parting guest cares less about presents of less frequented than those which are more Howers than about the benefits he has easily reached. On the other hand, it is gained from the waters. Many visitors much more enjoyable than if it were over to Karlsbad renew their youth there, and run by scampering tourists. Amongst they return home highly pleased as well the watering places of Bohemia, one of as glad to acknowledge ihat they have rethe most charming is Giesshübl-Puch. ceived ample compensation for weeks of stein.

enforced abstemiousness and wearisome Karisbad is no place for the mere seeker water-drinking or bathing. Others are after pleasure. The waters are what the less fortunate. They go away without French and Germans term " serious," and experiencing any sensible improvement, life there during the season is serious and fearing that they have foolishly wasted also. In the days that Goethe was a vis-their time and substance in a vaio quest

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