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and that consequently, the place was advocated, and not till later did it become named after him. He was but the first of common. At present, though many paa long array of crowned heads who have tients take baths, the majority only drink visited Karlsbad for their health's sake. the waters. That the baths could not fail Amongst these royal personages are num- to produce some effect is apparent from bered: Frederick the First of Prussia; the way in which they were used. · Dr. Peter the Great; King Augustus the Summer, who wrote in 1571, gives the First of Poland; the emperor Charles following account of bathing in his day:the Sixth ; King Frederick William the First of Prussia; the emperor Joseph the skin has to be induced, the patient must bathe

When a breaking out over the body and Second; the empress Maria Ludovika; for ten or eleven hours a day, beginning with the king of Saxony; the emperor Francis a few hours the first day, bathing for three the Second and his daughter, the empress hours in the forenoon, and two in the afterMaria Louisa, second wife of Bonaparte; noon, increasing the time by one, two, three, King Frederick William the Third of and more hours afterwards, till the breaking Prussia, and his successor, the present out shall have occurred. The water must not German emperor. Whilst Francis the be so cold as to cause a chill to the patient, Second was king of Naples, he was a

but it is to be tepid only, and not so warm as frequent visitor to Karlsbad ; last year he

to cause perspiration. When the breaking out returned as Duke of Castro. Last year leave the bath, cover hiinself well with clothes,

on the skin has taken place, the patient is to the ex-empress Eugenie was a visitor for and walk up and down in a moderately warm the first time; this year she has returned room; or, if this be a trouble to him, he is to to drink the waters. Quite as important lie in bed in order that the evil humors may is it to note the names of visitors which flow out. After an hour or two he is to return will be treasured with gratitude and pride to the bath, where he is to remain an hour or when the names of many royal personages more, and then get out again, and remain in are forgotten or despised. Ainongst them his room so that the evil humors may recomare those of Sebastian Bach and Beet- mence to flow. Thereafter he is to return to hoven; Catalani, Sontag, Paganini, and fore, and this he is to do, as far as may be

the bath, remaining there for an hour as beDavid Strauss; Gellert, Kotzebue, Fichte, practicable, four or five times and during two, and Schelling; Herder, Goethe, and Schil.three, or more days, till the evil humors cease ler; Körner, Geibel, Auerbach, and Tour to flow. When this happens he is to bathe genieff; Chateaubriand and Gervinus. again in warm water, not in the water which Prince Blücher visited Karlsbad two years caused the breaking out, but in other and unafter Waterloo; and Prince Bismarck two used water. On the first day this water is not years before Sadowa. Of the former the to be very warm, but must be cooled down, story is told that, after arriving and taking yet it should be a little warmer than the tepid the waters, he exclaimed: "I was always wards he is to bathe for a longer time each

water which caused the breaking out Afterthe deadly foe of water-drinking, yet the day in warmer water, till the skin is drawn devil has brought me here to swallow together again. When the patient begins to water as a matter of duty.”

bathe in warm water he is to bathe four or five Till the year 1756 no regular record of times a day for fifteen or thirty minutes at a the visitors was kept. In that year bey timne, and, when he leaves the bath, he is to numbered one hundred and thirty-four; remain for an hour in a warm room, During in 1883 they numbered twenty thousand, the foilowing days he is to prolong his stay in six hundred and ninety-two.' But it is the bath from day to day * clear that many invalids resorted to Karls. Few invalids and few maladies could bad in the olden days. Lobkowitz, who long resist this heroic treatment; either died in 1510, wrote a Latin ode in praise the patients would get well or die. Perof the Karlsbad waters. He said in that haps the skins of those who never washed ode that their virtues merited the highest themselves may have required more powhonors the Muse could bestow; that they erful measures than would be requisite were great natural marvels as well as for persons who now cultivate bodily most valuable natural products; that their cleanliness. It is noteworthy that the use restored vigor to the frame and limbs original mode of treating disease was the of the aged, and revived in the maidens' pale cheeks the rosy tints of health. Per. * This extract is translated from ihe old German, haps the most curious thing in connection quoted by the late, Dr. Eduard Hlawacek, in his work

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“Karlsbad,” which is the most comprennensive with these waters is that for two centu. ries after their medicinal character was

have used, and from which I quote, is the fourteenth,

which is edited by Dr. Julius Hofmann, and is brought known, they were exclusively used exter- down to the present year. There is no English transnally; not till 1520 was their internal use lation of the work.

upon
one on the subject that exists.

The edition which I

same at Karlsbad as that which is in waters. I have read that the natives of voguc amongst the North American Indi. the Queen Charlotte Islands try to cure ans. They seldom wash themselves till themselves of ailments by drinking a they feel ill, and then if they find a hot bucket or two of sea-water; but, then, spring, such as I have seen in southern they never expect to retain so much water Colorado or New Mexico, they remain in long in their stomachs, whereas the pait for hours together till they are parboiled tients at Karlsbad did not drink large and cured.

doses of water in order to make them. Two centuries after invalids had been selves sick. The explanation is that they boiled or baked at Karlsbad, Dr. Payer, a drank so many glasses of water in a warm physician there, introduced a new method room, and that much of it passed off in of treatment. In his book, published in perspiration, just as in the case of water 1522, he says: “I have remarked that this drunk in a Turkish bath. Indeed, the water should be drunk. However, as it patients were expressly ordered to remain has chiefly been used for bathing, and sel- quiet so as to perspire the more freely. dom for drinking purposes, many persons Dr. David Becher, one of the leading will consider my statement a novelty.” physicians of his day, set himself in 1777 Dr. Payer, who was a contemporary of to oppose the old custom, insisting that Paracelsus, appears to have been far in the preferable method of taking the waters advance of his age; many of his sugges- was at the springs. He was laughed at tions and conclusions being applicable and denounced as a reckless innovator by and correct at the present day. The the admirers of the ancient ways, yet his greatest change since his time consists in views and advice prevailed and were fol. the diminished quantity of water taken by lowed in the end. It may be noted in each patient, and particularly in the aban- passing, that not only human beings were donment of a preliminary course of medi- enjoined to use the waters for their cine. The old custom was to prepare the health's sake, but that the virtues of these system for drinking or bathing in mineral waters were supposed to be as advantawaters by means of a drastic physicking. geous to the lower animals; the MühlThis was as common in France as in Ger-brunn, which is now a favorite one with many. Indeed, the extreme to which it water-drinkers, was long used exclusively was carried in France is exemplified in as a bath for sick horses, dogs, and cattle. the following account given by Boileau to Whilst this practice has long been aban. Racine, which Dr. Macpherson has repro. doned here, it has been revived in the Far duced: "I have been purged and bled, West of North America. Major Shepherd and have not failed to comply with all the states in his “ Prairie Experiences that formalities required before commencing "some men put their sheep through the the use of the waters. The medicine natural hot mineral waters which abound which I have taken to-day has, as they in the West. Each farmer will swear by pleasantly say, done me all the good in his own particular spring. It cures the the world, for it has made me faint four scab in sheep, removes corns and rheu. or five times, and rendered me so weak matism in men, and is efficacious uni. that I can scarcely stand.” Up to the versally." beginning of the eighteenth century it was Though Dr. Becher did much to im. the rule at Karlsbad to subject the patient prove the medical practice of his time, he to a course of violent purgatives. Then approved of larger quantities of water bethe patient drank mineral waters for seven ing swallowed than his successors would days, bathing for the next seven without deem expedient. He wrote that, while no drinking the water. The water-drinking fixed dose could be said to be suitable in

a most serious matter. Dr. Hoff- all cases, the highest limit was twenty mann, writing in 1705, says that no more glasses, and that from twelve to fifteen than fifteen to eighteen glasses should be was a reasonable quantity: Dr. Hlawacek drunk the first day, but that later on the rightly remarks that this was no small number should be increased to thirty, and, dose, adding that, when he commenced in certain cases, to forty glasses. Dr. practice in 1834, the ordinary dose was Tilling, writing in 1756, records that he ien to fifteen glasses, that this was after. himself drank from fifty to sixty glasses wards reduced to eight, and later to six as in the course of two hours. Dr. Sangrado the maximum. The ordinary dose is now never prescribed warm water on a more from three to four.' The old custom of extensive scale, and the puzzle is how the drinking the water indoors has been so patients managed to swallow and retain far revived that many patients are ordered these large quantities of warm mineral | to drink a glassful cold before they leave

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their rooms to go to the springs. At all By way of illustrating the sort of diet times the regulation of diet has had a which is recommended to patients in prominent place in the treatment. The Karlsbad, I may summarize the directions truth is that many persons resort to given by Dr. Hlawacek, who was a prac. Karlsbad because they have lived too tising physician for upwards of forty years freely and become too fat. For such per. there, and whose book entitled “Karls. sons, a part of the cure consists in en bad” contains the results of his personal forced abstinence from certain kinds of observation and long experience. For food and liquid. Even those who suffer breakfast he recommends from one to two from impaired appetites and want of flesh, cups of coffee and milk, chocolate or cocoa, and who have always been very moderate accompanied with two very small rolls, in eating and drinking, are strictly forbid- which, he is careful to add, will cost two den to eat and drink certain things. They kreutzers, or less than a penny each. He are told that butter and cheese, salad, un- strictly forbids cream being substituted cooked fruit, and beer must be avoided on for milk; but he laments that the liking pain of death, whilst they are drinking the for cream is too strong to be easily over. waters. Stories as horrible and as true come, saying that it is easier to wash a as the ghost stories told by superstitious blackmoor white than to uproot the Karlsnurses to frighten naughty children are bad taste for coffee with cream. Dinner, current about the fate of water-drinkers he says, is to consist of three courses who have eaten forbidden dainties. One only — soup, meat, and a dish of vege: of these is to the effect that an English- tables; in place of vegetables, stewed man, who was rash enough to disregard fruit or a light pudding may be taken. his doctor's orders, died suddenly after He objects to patients dining at the table eating three cherries. Other persons are d'hôte, on the ground that they may be said to have nearly lost their lives by eat. tempted to overeat themselves. There ing butter or drinking a glass of beer, is no fear of any one succumbing to the Yet, while butter is pronounced unwhole attractions of a table d'hôte, as one cansome now, it was recommended to be not be found in any Karlsbad hotel. The eaten in former days; a writer in 1710 soup must be very simple, and free from said it was a proper thing, at the end of fat. The meat inay consist of tender each meal, to eat a quantity of fresh beef, veal, lamb, or mutton ; of pigeons, butter, over which caraway seeds were fowls, capons, pheasants, partridges, or strewed. The same writer advised pa ducks; but the skin of these birds is on tients to eat roast meat at their early din- no account to be caten. Hare and veni. per, boiled meat at their early supper, and son are prohibited. Such fish as trout, to drink well-fermented beer. Whilst pike, and carp may be eaten; but here, there can be no doubt that fixed rules of again, the skin is to be left untouched – diet may prove advantageous in some a piece of advice which English readers cases, it is as certain that the rules which will deem quite superfluous. The vegeapply to particular persons cannot be tables he allows are spinach, carrots, equally applicable to others. Patients cauliflower, green peas, French beans, come here from Russia, Italy, France, asparagus, and mashed potatoes. Stewed Germany, England, America, and other cherries, plums, apricots, and strawberries countries. In each of these countries the are permitted, but all pastry is condemned, mode of living differs, and the wise physi. especially the sweet biscuits, which are cian, instead of laying down uniform rules, known in Karlsbad as Oblaten, and which has to consider the constitution and habits have recently been introduced into Enof each individual. Those who act other.gland under the name of Karlsbad biscuits. wise are as foolish as the physician who, In exceptional cases, Dr. Hlawacek per. in the last century, believed that all dis- mits such raw fruit to be eaten as straweases had their origin in the itch. If a berries, ripe grapes, and sweet oranges. patient admitted that he had suffered from He holds ihat white bread should be eaten that malady, he was treated with the great in preference to black a preference est care; but, till this adinission was ex which is in entire accord with the English torted from him, he received no attention. taste - and he thinks that stale bread is There are few things that may not be the most wholesome –

- an opinion which eaten when taking a course of Karlsbad many English people share. Water he waters, provided moderation be practised, pronounces the best drink; after it he and provided the patient has no malady ranks weak wine and water. The wine rendering certain articles of food injurious chosen may be either Austrian, Bohemian, to him at all times.

Hungarian, Moselle, or Medoc, but the 2492

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LIVING AGE.

VOL. XLVIII.

quantity drunk must not exceed half a must resist temptation and keep awake bottle daily. In exceptional cases he per. by bathing the face in cold water or smell. mits patients to drink a glass or two of ing eau-de-Cologne. Those who have had champagne, or a glass of good light beer. very bad nights may indulge in a nap for Between dinner and supper some Ger- half an hour after dinner, but they are mans are in the habit of taking a light warned that to do so habitually is dangermeal called Vesperbrod, which corresponds ous. Sensible persons are expected to go with the English five o'clock tea. It to bed at nine and get up at five. In this seems that coffee with cream is the favor. case they can act sensibly with the greater ite drink at this meal, and that a roll is ease if they have strictly followed Dr. eaten at the same time. Dr. Hlawacek Hlawacek's advice and abstained from disapproves of the coffee, the cream, and taking anything after their dinner at one the roll, and he advises sensible persons o'clock except a walk and a glass or two to take, instead of them, a glass or two of of aërated water. Famished and fatigued, aërated water. This, he says, will do them they will regard bed as the best of all as much good as the other would do them places, and sleep as a true comforter. harm. Supper is to consist of soup, a Patients are told not only what to eat, roll, some stewed fruit, or, at the outside, drink, and avoid, but they are also miof two soft-boiled eggs. Those who want nutely instructed how to act in other mat. something more substantial may eat a ters of lesser moment. Their clothing slice of raw ham, a permission of which must be neither too heavy and warm, nor English patients will be slow to avail too light and tight, the compression of the themselves. At supper, water is again body or neck impeding the circulation, a recommended as the only drink ; but those piece of knowledge which may have been who are fond of tea may take it instead, acquired by most patients before reading provided it be tepid and very weak, as it Dr. Hlawaček's book. As the weather is usually is in Karlsbad. Those who prefer changeable at Karlsbad, they must not beer to soup may substitute the one for come without overcoats and warm clothes. the other; but those who want to give the No provision is made for the cases of mineral water the best chance of working those who, being ignorant that the weather an effectual cure are advised to go to bed is changeable, omitted to bring warm fasting, unless, as is most probable, they clothing with them. Dr. Hlawacek writes: should suffer severely from the pangs of " Precautions should be taken lest those hunger.

who take long walks during unsettled Dr. Hlawacek is careful to provide a weather should be unprotected when a mental as well as a physical régime for sudden shower of rain falls.” This is a Karlsbad patients. He appears to think roundabout way of saying, “When you that if invalids do not keep up their spir- go for a walk, carry an umbrella." Young its, they will not get up their strength. people are allowed to dance whilst they He says they should throw off all worldly are at Karlsbad, provided they do so in cares and live for their health's sake, moderation; a gentle movement of the without thinking too much about their body being beneficial rather than other. ailments; that they should arrange for wise. Smoking is also permitted to reg. having regular letters from their families, ular smokers. They must be careful, but should not exhaust themselves by bowever, to smoke good, light cigars or writing too much in return. He warns tobacco, and they must not smoke all day them against “the medical vampires " long. No one is to smoke more than four who get into conversation with patients, cigars and from two to three pipes. Nor make them dissatisfied with their medical is any one to smoke before breakfast and advisers, and give them bad advice gener on the way to the springs. Those who ally. He advises patients to contine their suffer from catarrh of the stomach, a malreading to light literature, and especially ady often brought on by excessive smok. to newspapers, which he considers the ling, and one which causes many persons lightest of all reading. If they will play to take the Karlsbad waters, are enjoined at cards, they must not play for high to cease smoking altogether. This instakes or for several hours at a time; they junction will give most smokers the less would be better employed, he thinks, in uneasiness, as they will find it very hard, playing billiards or, best of all, in taking if not impossible, to procure good cigars walks and enjoying the beauties of nature. in Karlsbad. Dr. Hlawacek advises paAfter the labors of the day are over, the tients to live in rooms which are light, patient is allowed to go to bed. However airy, and free from draughts and damp, drowsy he may feel during the day be advice which is thoroughly sensible, if

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somewhat superfluous; but there may be it may be inferred that over-doses of more need of the further advice to give brandy may have occasioned the czar's up taking medicine in order that the heal. ailment. He was as assiduous at his deing action of the waters may not be inter. votions as in drinking. There being no fered with.

Greek church at Karlsbad then, he was Before noticing the different springs accustomed to go daily up the side of the and the place itself, I may give some in. valley, kneel before a cross placed there, teresting particulars concerning two dis- and say his prayers, whilst his attendants tinguished visitors, one of them being kept away intruders. He worked as a Peter the Great, the other Goethe. Those mason at a house then building, and he concerning the former I have found in a competed for and carried off the prize at lecture delivered by the chief priest Kusa shooting-match. On both occasions be todieff before a meeting of Russians held displayed his hasty temper. A mason reat Karlsbad in honor of Peter the Great's garding him, as he thought, in a contemp. two hundredth birthday. Peter first vis. tuous fashion, he threw a trowel-full of ited Karlsbad in October, 1711, doing so mortar in the poor man's face. Learning with a view to drink the waters; but afterwards that, instead of meaning disre. nothing definite is known about his mal. spect, the mason meant to express his ady. From a picture of the period a no- astonishment at seeing so great a man tion may be formed of the manner in working with a trowel as

a mason, the which he took the waters. A room is czar repented him of his haste and of the there shown in which there is a bed, and injury done to the mason, and made him on the wall a board on which to chalk the a present. In like manner he was so en. number of glasses taken. There are three raged at the applause of a spectator of his rows of figures, the third is blurred, but shooting, who was really surprised at his the second indicates the number 23. An skill but was supposed by the czar to have anecdote is preserved which shows why made so much noise in order to distract the czar Peter had to be careful in noting his attention, that he fired at, but happily the number of glasses. When the doctor missed him. When told of the over-enfirst saw him he ordered that the czar thusiastic spectator's real intention, he should begin by drinking three glasses. made amends by a gift. It was nearly as The czar understood him to mean three dangerous to applaud the czar too vigorpitchers, and selected, out of the pitchers ously as it was to oppose any of his whims. used for bringing water from the Spru. Amongst the mementoes of his stay at del to his lodging, the one which he Karlsbad are an ivory snuff box and the thought the best for the purpose of drink. legs of a table fashioned by himself at a ing Lying in bed be swallowed the turning-lathe. A spot on the hill-slope to contents of one pitcher and had nearly which he rode on a barebacked horse is finished those of a second when the doc- named after him. Most noteworthy, howtor entered the room. The czar said to ever, of all the circumstances connected him: “I think I shall empty the second with his stay at Karlsbarl was that, when pitcher, but I cannot possibly manage to he visited it in 1712 for the second time, get down the contents of the third.” The he then renewed and continued the perdoctor was astounded, and hastened to sonal acquaintance with Leibnitz, which explain the mistake. As the archives of he had first made at Torgau in 1711. At Karlsbad were destroyed by fire in 1759, Karlsbad, the czar took counsel with the many of the particulars concerning the great philosopher as to the reforms to be czar's sojourn are lost; but the records introduced into Russia. He made Leib. of Teplitz have been preserved, and they nitz a privy councillor with a yearly pen. contain the following anecdote of the czar, sion of one thousand thalers, or 1501. who went thither from Karlsbad to take Leibnitz gave the czar much good advice the baths. He arrived at Teplitz on the in return; but not even a philosopher like 5th of November, 1712, and took a bath Leibnitz, or a czar like Peter, can transihat day. Although the temperature of form the habits and manners of a whole the water was 110° Fahrenheit, he ordered people; hence progress in Russia bas a stove to be placed in the bathroom and necessarily been more gradual than was heated to a bigh pitch, and, besore enter- expected by the philosopher and the soving the hot water, he swallowed a large ereign who discussed at Karlsbad the quantity of brandy. Each time he took a best way in which to raise the Russian bath he remained several hours in it. In nation to a level with the other nations of the absence of more precise information, Europe.

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