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tion the peculiar structure of the tongue. not rather love the sight of the actual works of bone, or the vermiform tongue, extensile Nature when we are able to discover their and retractile, by means of which the causes. Hence we ought not to regard with creature catches the insects and larvæ on disgust, in a childish way, the inspection of the which it feeds; and that he takes no notice more ignoble animals, because in all Nature's of its great lungs. He is incorrect in works there is something wonderful; and as
Heracleitus is said to have addressed certain saying there is no spleen, which organ is
strangers who wished to see him, and who, always present in the reptilia, and that having found him warming himself by the the chameleon has no blood except about kitchen fire, stopped, and he bade them enter the heart.
without fear, “for even here,” said he, “are Aristotle gives a very good description the gods,” in like manner, in investigations of a hermit crab, that curious occupant of concerning each living creature we must apunivalves familiar to all observers : proach without notions of a painful spectacle,
because in all things there is something of naThe creature called carcinium resembles ture and of beauty. both the malacostraca (crustacea) and the ostracodermata (testacea), for it is like in its The story told by Pliny and Athenæus nature to the carabi (lobsters). It is born that Aristotle received many animals from naked, but because it clothes itself with a shell, India through the generous liberality of and lives in it, it is like the testacen, and thus Alexander is very improbable indeed, and it partakes of the nature both these classes. there is nothing in Aristotle's zoological In shape, to speak plainly, it is like a spider, works to lead one to suppose that any except that the lower part of the head and Indian animals had been sent to bim. thorax is larger. It has two thin red horns, and two large eyes below these, not within nor
Humboldt, Schneider, Grote, and others turned on one side like those of the crab, but have rejected the tradition without hesi. straight forwards. Below these is the mouth, tation. The notices of the forms and and round it many hairlike appendages. Next habits of Asiatic animals are often brief, to these there are two divided feet, with which and generally inaccurate, and were proba. it seizes its prey, and two besides these on bly derived by Aristotle, as Humboldt each side, and a third pair smaller Below
says, from information obtained by him the thorax the whole creature is soft, and when quite independently of the Macedonian opened is yellow within. It does not grow to the shell, like the purpura and the ceryx, but expeditions, from Persia and from Babyis easily freed from it.*
lon, the centre of such widely extended
trading intercourse. We agree with M. This is a fair general description of a Saint-Hilaire that we owe the “ History hermit crab (pagurus), but it is not suffi- of Animals " and the other zoological ciently precise for the determination of works of Aristotle to the genius of the the species.
author, the comprehensive mind, the un. Aristotle had an ardent love and admi- tiring industry, the love of knowledge ration of nature, and in nature be always which had no bounds, the admiration of saw the beautiful, though he, like the nature which characterized this great Greek philosophers generally, seldom Greek philosopher; and we are grateful cared to be demonstrative in the expreso for the possession of his writings; but sion of his feelings. The following pas- we must not exaggerate the value of his sage from his treatise “On the Parts of natural-history writings, we must not pay Animals” bas deservedly attracted the an absurd homage to antiquity by placing admiring attention of M. Saint-Hilaire:
the pretensions of the ancients upon an Having already treated of these subjects, and equality with those of the moderns, as given what is our opinion about them, it re. Buffon, Cuvier, and others have done; mains for us now to speak of animated nature for, as the author of one of the Bridge(Tepì tìs Gwikis púteos), omitting nothing, as far water Treatises has well said: “The ques. as lies in our power, whether it be ignoble ortion does not regard the original powers honorable; for even in those things which of the mind, but the amount of accumu. seem less pleasing to our senses in our con: lated knowledge on which those powers templation of them, Nature, the creator of all
are to be exercised; and it would indeed things ( Sluroup://caga (Usuc), affords incolnceivable pleasures to those able to discover the of individuals, the world should not be
extraordinary if, inverting the analogy causes of things and are philosophers by na
For it would be unexpected and strange viser in its old age than it was in its indeed if, when looking at images of things, we infancy.” Antecedently to the knowledge rejoice when we survey the art that produced of the circulation of the blood, the true them, whether in painting or sculpture, and do character of respiration and of the ner.
* Hist. An. iv. 4, § 14. LIVING AGE. VOL. XLVIII.
* De Part. An. i. 4, p. 645, ed. Bekker.
BY EDWARD GARRETT.
THE SECRET IN THE BIBLE.
vous system, zoological science was im.
From The Sunday Magazine. possible and error inevitable. Before the
AT ANY COST. invention of the microscope physiological knowledge could make very little advance.
OCCUPATIONS OF A RETIRED LIFE, Had Aristotle lived in our age we should | AUTHOR OF
CRUST AND THE CAKE," have seen him, we imagine, in the noble army of Darwin and Huxley, and other patient investigators of the phenomena of nature and of the working of nature's laws. Verification of facts, the cautious
TOM OLLISON's half-dreamy conjecture proof that certain organic structures do had been right. In the middle of the occur in such and such animals, would night Grace Allan, who had never been to take the place of the statement that they bed, left her room and stole down-stairs must occur in accordance with some pre
to the parlor. supposed theory, and thus true knowledge There was something aroused in her would increase, and there would be no which must be satisfied in one way or need for imagination to supply the defi- another, at any cost. What did Mr. San. ciencies of observation.
dison know about her? Did he know We must not conclude this article with anything? And if so, how had he learned out a few words of hearty congratula. it? And was there not something to know tion to the veteran French translator of about himself? What Jay between the Aristotle's works, M. Barthélemy Saint. sealed fly-leaves of the family Bible ? Hilaire. The “ Histoire des Animaux
She determined to risk anything to find d'Aristote,” in three handsome, well that out. She did not hope to do so and printed volumes, his latest translation, to escape detection in so doing. (She had appears to be exceedingly well done; it already tried numberless times to do accurately represents the Greek, and is that.) No; she would be at the secret accompanied by copious useful footnotes,* anyhow. After she once knew it, what. and an exhaustive index, and although we ever it might be, probably Mr. Sandison cannot share with him his almost unquals would think thrice before he put her out ified praise of Aristotle as a writer of of the house for her inquisitiveness, or natural history, and fail to see such an before he again “cast up” against her “unbeard-of multiplicity of facts observed what " was none of his business,” what he with so much exactness as be bas dis bad no right to know, and that, after she covered, we are glad to bear witness to had lived “so respectable” for nigh fifty the great merit of his translation. It is a years. valuable addition to Aristotelian litera. It was odd that deaf Grace, who had ture, and will, we think, add fresh lustre not heard one of her master's words, had to the honored name of Saint-Hilaire. made out a bitter reproach where Tom
Ollison had heard only a pathetic appeal. * We could wish that the footnotes sometimes contained more definite zoological information. We turn
Sbe went down into the parlor, still to M. Saint-Hilaire's note on the mole (ugrúhaş), groping in the dark, found a candlestick, He does not tell us whether Aristotle's animal is the and got a light. insectivorous Talpa or the rodent mole-rat (Spalar typhus) The correctness of Aristotle depends on this
Then she took the big Bible from its question. If he is speaking of the common mole he is shelf and laid it on the table. wrong when he says "it has no apparent eyes, being covered with skin,” for, as Sir Thomas Browne re
But somehow, a little hesitation seized marks, "that mole's have eyes in their head is mani- | her, as if she could not hasten to do what fested unto any one that wants them bot in his own.” could never be undone. So she left the 11 Aristotle is speaking of the Spalax, or mole-rat, he Bible lying closed, while she cleared the is quite right, for this creature's eyes are covered with the skin. Fortunately there is one word in Aristotle's supper table and tidied the apartment, as account which settles the question, viz., xavaiósouras she usually did before going up-stairs to (Hist. An. iv. 8, § 2) spoken of the teeth. This word bed, but had failed to do on the preceding is frequent in Aristotle's zoological treatises, and refers to the prominent teeth of certain creatures, as the evening. tusks of the elephant and wild boar. the Spalax are long, conspicuous, and chisel-shaped, irresolution, it meant no relenting change
All this was only the delay of nervous and may well be called χαυλιόδοντες. MM. Aubert and Wimmer think this passage containing a notice of of mood. the brain channels ( Tópol vevpódeLS) is a later inter- So, at last, she drew a chair to the table, polation. If it be so, it shows that the interpolator and set down the candle beside her, a had interpreted Aristotle's animal as the Spala x, and not the insectivorous Talpa, but the question as to little spot of light in the surrounding what special animals are denoted in Greek and Latin gloom. Then she opened the Bible, and authors generally by the words uonúkas, onuna, and fumbled at the sealed leaves with fingers talpa, opens out a subject too wide for present discus
which trembled strangely.
Now the teeth of
How little do any of us know when and impression is that she was young and not how we shall take the judgment-book of tall.” our own lives into our hands, and opening (There was just such a silver brooch it, perhaps in pride and malice, to read formed in a plain hollow circle, sticking the sentence of another, shall find instead in the pincushion in Grace Allan's bedthe simple home-thrust,
room. She had worn it at her throat on “ Thou art the man !”
the preceding evening.) One seal was broken! So cleanly too This scrap of printed matter had been that she almost thought it might be evidently enclosed in a letter bearing date mended unnoticeably, and her heart beat two or three years later. As Grace has. faster with the thought that if she had tily scanned its contents she found this such good luck with another, she might so must have been written by the Buchanness repair the damage as to be possessed of fisherman to his sister, married and child“the truth "about her master, without his less, in Shetland. It set forth that his knowing where she had found it.
own wife being dead, and he resolved on But that was not to be. The second going to Newfoundland, he purposed comseal smashed and fell in fragments. Yet mitting to the charge of her and her hus. she scarcely noticed that disappointment band the adopted child of whom he had in the fact that the leaves were now so already written, and whom he was sending widely parted that sundry papers fell from to them by trusty hands, along with cer. them into her lap, and that she could also tain of his savings, which would assist in distinctiy see between them.
its maintenance until it could “fend for They were both entirely blank.
itself." The secret then was among those loose This letter was endorsed in Peter San. papers. Eagerly she turned them over dison's handwriting, • Found among the one or two old letters, and a few dim and papers of my adopted parents after their yellow cuttings from prints.
death. My first discovery of the truth.” Then came a low, terrible, incredulous And the date was given. cry. For one moment the papers fell Then came a narrow printed slip with from her hands, but in another she was a date not long subsequent. This was wildly seeking some clue for their ar. only an advertisement offering reward or rangement so as to get the whole narrative advantage of some kind to any person in its dreaded sequence. Each scrap of coming forward able to give any informapaper had a date written upon it, and how tion whatever which might lead towards instinctively she seemed to know which the discovery of the antecedents of a male was the earliest!
child, found deserted among the rocks of This was a bit of old newspaper, thin in Buchanness, on such a day of such a year, texture and weak in type, suggestive of and believed to have been deserted by a old-fashioned provincial journalism. It woman wearing a black shawl, with a silwas only a short paragraph, and it ran:- ver circle for a brooch.
“ Last week, one evening, a Buchan. This advertisement had apparently elicness fisherman found a baby lying at the ited one letter -- the long and rambling foot of the Buller rocks. The child, a letter of an uneducated person. But it boy, had evidently been exposed for some was not too long or too illegible for Grace's time, as it was in a very suffering condi. patience. tion. The fisherman was directed to it It set forth that, years before, the writer, by its cry, which he mistook at first for a seafaring man and a native of Buchan. that of a sea-bird. He carried the poor ness, having engaged for a voyage from little waif home to his wife, and, to the one of the more southern seaports, had credit of their humanity, they have re. been leisurely journeying towards his port solved to take charge of it for the present. by easy stages, stopping with sundry rela. There is no clue as to those who must tives on the road; that he had thus stopped have so wilfully and cruelly deserted the in Ellon; that while there, chancing to child. Only a lad reports that, in the look from his bedroom window at a very early morning of the day when the baby early hour in the morning, he saw a woman was found, he met a strange woman walk- go past carrying a baby in her arms; that ing very fast in the direction of Ellon. he took a good look at her, wondering who He did not notice anything about her, ex. she could be, since there was something cept that her black shawl was fastened by in her dress and appearance different from a silver brooch, formed in a plain hollow those of the women of that neighborhood circle, which caught his eye through the who were likely to be abroad at such an sun glancing on it as he passed her. His | hour; that she was short in stature, pale
and dark, and wore a black shawl; that, er's and her coming to Peter Sandison's. of course, he thought no more of the inci. Considering the number of the years in dent, travelled to his port, went his voyage, this interval, this list was not short, For and never even heard of the baby deserted the increasing acerbity of Grace's temper among the rocks; that many years after, and the inconvenience of her deafness while making purchases in the shop of a had made her an unwelcome and awkward nautical instrument maker in London, he inmate of the households which she had had been particularly struck by a woman entered. She had been indeed a poor old who appeared to be acting as a working woman, very low down in the world, and housekeeper in the establishment, because with a very gloomy outlook, when, all her face seemed familiar to him, though unexpectedly, the offer of the post of Mr. he was utterly unable to fix the memory; Sandison's housekeeper had come to her. he had asked her whether she could help She had believed that she quite saw him at all — whether, on her side, she through her new master's acceptance and had the least idea of having ever seen endurance of her infirmities. He had him before, that she had answered de secrets of his own, which made him quite cidedly and sourly, "Certainly not;" that content to stand aside from the ordinary he had remained unconvinced, and had comforts and amenities of life, secrets even asked one of the shopmen what her perhaps which made it safer for him so to name was, was told she was a Miss do. From the very first she had asked Grace Allan, and belonged to London, herself, sourly, “ What could he have and was, said the man, such a perfect hidden in those locked-up rooms, which porcupine of propriety, that she had prob. nobody ever entered — ay, which she ably construed the seaman's good.natured | had never entered yet - after all these question into an insult; that he had years?" thought no more of the matter; that it was Ah, and she had asked herself also, only afterwards, when returning through " What had he got hidden between the Ellon, that in quite a casual way the re- sealed-up leaves of the big Bible?" membrance of the woman he had seen As the remembrance of that old wonder in the road there flashed on his mind, and suspicion turned round and stung her, identifying her with the London house the loose papers fuitered from her hand keeper (whose blank denial of all recollec- to the floor, leaving in her grasp only that tion of him was therefore quite truthful, in which they had been folded, and which since, on the first occasion of his seeing she had thought at first was but a blank her, she had not seen him), that being wrapper. She saw now that there was Dear Buchanness when the advertisement writing upon it. There were but a few appeared asking for information concern-words; and how strangely they seemed to ing the desertion of the child, he then, for dance before her eyes! What was wrong the first time, heard the story, already with them, or with her ? ” forgotten by all but elderly neighbors ; They were in Peter Sandison's own that, with the exception of the black bandwriting, and they were nothing but a shawl, he could not speak as to what the transcript of the texts :
was wearing whom he saw in “Can a woman forget her sucking child, Ellon, but that he could swear that the that she should not have compassion on instrument maker's housekeeper wore for the son of her womb? Yea, they may a brooch a flat silver circle, because he forget, yet will I not forget thee." took special notice of it, thinking such "When my father and mother forsake would not be an unsuitable design for a me, then the Lord taketh me up." gift he was at that time about to make; She gathered up the papers and put that he gave all this information for what them back between the severed leaves. it was worth, not seeking reward, which she had no longer any thought of hiding indeed he would not take; that it was what she had done. What did that mat. nothing in itself, yet might lead to some ter now? thing; but that he was bound to say, in She sat there still and silent. The conclusion, that the London instrument sweet spring dawn was brightening out. maker was since dead, and that his estab- side ; a silver shaft of light stole softly lishment was utterly broken up and scat. even to that gloomy parlor. tered.
How well she remembered that red, red The only other document was a sheet dawn over the eastern sea, when she had of foolscap, on which was set forth a list sped along the desolate roads, amid the of the places which Grace Allan had filled, treeless, hedgeless fields of dreary Bu. between ber leaving the instrument makochan, with her baby at her breasí! her
one thought, how to put far from her the She did not notice that she left the Bible shame of it, and, above all, the burden of lying open on the table, ready to tell its it; for there was none to share it with tale. She knew only her own wild deterher. She remembered all her thoughts mination not to meet the eyes of Peter that day, and all that had gone before, as Sandison. She would have shrunk from one might remember a story that was told them less had her story been new to her one of another.
son this day. But he had known it all
the time; he had never looked at her, un. Once or twice, in the long, long years knowing of it. since, she bad vaguely wondered whether The candle had gone on burning in the that boy had lived or died. Once, when wan dawning, It was at the socket now, ber
way had been very hard — just before and when it fickered and went out, that Peter Saodison had crossed her path roused her to the consciousness that it she had half-wondered whether it might was now broad daylight. What was to not bave been well for her to have strug- be done must be done quickly. gled for his infancy, if, haply so, he might She stole from the parlor and crept have defended her old age. But it was won through the shop. Then, with chill and derful how seldom she had ever thought trembling hands, she unfastened the front of him at all. The remembrance had door. How heavy the bolts and bars never made ber pitiful to one forlorn child, seemed! But they were all undone at nor merciful to one sinful woman.
last, and the morning air blew freshly on
her withered face. She closed the door Old Grace Allan sat in the pale morn. behind her very gently, lest any noise ing light; but it was not of past things should penetrate through the house and that she thought. Nay, she thought of rouse the sleepers in the far-off bedrooms. nothing. There was only once more a And then she went down the street, movbitter protest against the penalty she had ing slowly, close by the houses, even to bear. It seemed to her now, that the drawing her hand along their shutters, as penalty from which she had shrunk in ber if she would have been glad of some supyoung womanhood had been light indeed, port. If her mind had not been dead to though it still seemed to her but natu- all outside of herself, she would bave ral” that she should have sti ick a deadly noticed a woman standing half side the blow to escape it. And that it should old-fashioned porch of a neighboring turn up like this, after all — how hard, bouse - a woman who had spent the how hard, how hard it was ! For to whole night walking to and fro and in and Grace's narrow mind this was no simple out of the quiet lanes in the vicinity, ter. fulfilment of the everlasting law that, ribly fearless of the belated and half-tipsy somewhere on some day, sin shall ever wanderers who had greeted her with gibe find out the sinner, it seemed to ber a and insult, and meekly obedient to the special providence, and therefore spe- policeman's gruff bebest to “move on.” cially cruel. Was she, after all, to be This was a young woman, dressed in thin condemned as a would be murderess and garments of tawdry finery, with a fluff of a lifelong hypocrite? It was not fair ! golden hair about her face, like a neg. Such measure was not meted out to every lected aureole, and with blue eyes wbich body. She would not bear it! She would looked like faded forget-me-nots. It was escape somewhere, somehow! Futile as Kirsty Mail. she had just proved such efforts to be, When Kirsty saw Grace issue from the she was ready for them again. Experi- door of Mr. Sandison's house she herself ence is such a puzzling teacher. When but drew back farther into the shadow, we do well, and yet fail, she says dis. not wishing to be seen by her who had tinctly, “ Try again.” When we do badly, met her so inhospitably on the previous and fail, we are apt to catch that echo. evening. But when she saw the old
Grace had laid her plans well when she woman creep along, with her strangely was young and vigorous in mind and body, groping hands, and marked her grey head and ihey had all come to nothing. Now bare to the morning breeze - for Grace she had no plans to lay, nothing to start wore not even her cap — then Kirsty felt upon, except the blind rebellion within that something was wrong, and first she her.
peeped from the porch, and then she stole She would go away from here; she did after the fugitive. not know where she meant to go. She On and on went Grace, and on went did not know that she forgot to take any Kirsty after her. It struck Kirsty very ihing with her, even a bonnet or shawl. I soon that the old woman was going she