hoppers Ay along, they emit a kind of Aristotle's reasons are sometimes amus. moisture, as agriculturists say; they feeding. Man has no tail because the avail. on dew, and if a person advances to them able formative material has been used up bending his finger and then straightening in the posterior parts (buttock). Apes it, they will remain more quiet than if the have neither tail nor buttocks because finger is put out straight at once, and will they are intermediate between man and climb up the finger, for from bad sight quadrupeds. Bees and wasps have stings they ascend it as if it were a moving leaf." | inside their bodies because they have “ Persons who have parasites (poεipes) in wings. All crabs and lobsters (generally) the head are less subject to headache. have the large claw on the right, because Moths are produced in the greatest abun. all animals are by nature strong on the dance if a spider is shut up with them in right side. Bees and ants are more inthe wool, for this creature being thirsty telligent than other animals of the kind, dries up any moisture which may be pres because their blood (fluid answering to ent. Small birds during the day Aly round blood) is thin and cold. The seal has no the owl – which is called admiring it external ears, only ear.pores, because its and as they fly round it they pluck out its feet are incapacitated for walking (TTETNPWfeathers." “The anthus" (some bright révov). Serpents have a forked tongue colored bird) "is an enemy to the horse, because they are gluttonous, and a bifid for it drives the horse from its pasture tongue has a double tasting power. Man and eats the grass, it iinitates the voice of is the only animal that is tickled, because the horse and frightens it by flying at it, his skin is fine ; and he is the only animal but when the horse catches it he kills it.” that laughs, and “ tickling (yapyaalouós) is “If any one takes hold of a she.goat by laughter from a motion of this kind about the long hairs of the beard, all the others the armpit,” which, as Mr. Lewes says, is stand still as if bewildered (Leppwuéval) and “ a physiological explanation rather diffigaze at her.” “The hawk, though carniv. cult to understand." Insects eat little orous, does not eat the hearts of the birds because their bodies are cold. It is curi. it has killed.” “ The jay (kítra) bas many ous to notice that Aristotle had no idea varieties of voice; it utiers a different that insects produced eggs — they bring one, so to speak, every day.” “The goat. forth worms; be evidently took the larva sucker flies against the she-goats and stage as the normal birth-form. These sucks them, whence its name. They say instances are taken from the treatise “ On that, after the udder has been sucked, it the Parts of Animals." becomes dry and goes blind.” * “ Mares But we need quote no farther, though become less ardent and more gentle if it would be easy to supply many more their manes are cut.t At certain times samples of a like character; but surely they never run to the east or west, always these will incline us to refuse to admit north or south.” “The sow gives the that "in his accumulation of facts, Arisfirst teat to the first little pig that is born.” totle has not written one useless word;” When a serpent has taken its food, it neither are we able to see with M. Saintdraws itself up till it stands erect upon its Hilaire, from the study of the “ History of tail (επί το άκρον).

Animals,” an

an "originality which nothing

bad prepared, even as nothing completely * Ælian (iii. 39) and Pliny (x. 40) repeat this absurd and injurious statement. We cannot trace it in any

new has followed it." M. Saint-Hilaire writer prior to Aristotle. The delusion continues to speaks of Aristotle's incessant practice of this day in some parts of this country, and the insect- anatomy; it seems to us that he did not eating night-jar suffers.

tórav úñoreipwvtal. This remark about mares practise anatomy on any extended scale ; contains a very curious bit of old folk-lore. MM. that he occasionally dissected animals, is, Aubert and Wimmer, as usual, consider the passage however, certain from his own remarks apocryphal. M. Saint-Hilaire properly refuses to sanction its rejection. We may add that it has the ex- here and there,* but he also mentions press confirmation of Ælian (xi. 18), who refers to anatomical drawings as existing in bis Aristotle by name as his authority. Rejection of the time and before bim, and refers his readpassage is wholly unwarranted. Xenophion, Plutarch, Ælian, and Pliny give us the same bit of folk-lore about ers to them. Had Aristotle habitually

Xenophon (De Re Equit. c. 5) says that the dissected animals, it is impossible that he mane, tail, and forelock were given to the horse by the gods as an additional beauty; consequently, that when couid have made the incorrect assertions ihe mane was clipped the mare lost her pride and dig. that he has on numerous points of obsernity, became dejected on seeing her reflection in water: vation not difficult of detection or dem. and ass; that breeders of mules adopted this tonsure svstem on this account. M. Saint-Hilaire's note that the words of Aristotle are better applicable to stallions than

+ See Hist. An. v. 16, § 5, where certain organs of to mares, shows that he has failed to discern the point the cuttlefish (sepia) are explained by reference to leto in question.

ters A, B, T, A in a diagram.

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onstration. It is chiefly, we imagine, | many little reniform bodies (ék Torrāv veamongst marine creatures that he prac. ppwv yekpôv) and are not smooth like those tised dissection, and to which he paid of sheep or other four-footed creatures”?* most personal attention; and certainly, or that the uterus is double; or that the many of his observations are admirably heart is placed above the lungs near the correct on some of the fishes, for instance, bifurcation of the trachea; † that the brain sponges, crustacea, cephalopoda, and is without blood, and that the back part other sea creatures.* Aristotle's father of the skull is empty ? - a statement free was a man of some scientific culture, and quently made. If Aristotle did dissect anatomy probably formed one part in his human bodies, then, as Mr. Lewes reboyhood education, which study he con- marks: “An answer in the affirmative tinued to some extent in after years. His would be still more damaging to his repuwas an all-grasping mind — an ambition tation, since it would render many of his to know all subjects; but in zoological errors unpardonable.” The evidence, we matters constant observations and repeat think, is almost conclusive that he did not ed verifications are necessary to establish dissect human bodies. fact, and observation and verification were There seems much reason to believe not Aristotle's strong points; his anatom- that he paid little attention to the examical knowledge was very limited, and, as ination of the skeletons of animals, and Mr. G. H. Lewes says, “to explain the that his osteological knowledge was very phenomena of life without having previ- limited. Let us consider what he has ously mastered the facts of anatomy, is as recorded of a certain bone, well known to hopeless as to attempt an explanation of the Greeks as being one much used for the action of a watch in ignorance of dice and some other purposes springs, escapement, and wheels, merely course the astragalus. “Many from seeing it wound up and hearing it cloven-footed animals,” he says, “have an tick. Nothing but vague, unassured astragalus, but no many-toed animals have guesses can be formed. Of this kind is one, neither bas man; the lynx has as it the physiology of Aristotle.”. Had Aris- were half an astragalus, the lion one in totle any acquaintance with human anat- the form of a coil (naßvpivowon); solidomy from actual dissection ? It appears hoofed animals, with the exception of the to us almost certain that Hippocrates Indian ass, have no astragalus, swine (nearly contemporary with Aristotle) and have not a well-formed astragalus.” The other medical authorities of antiquity oc- fact is that the hind feet of all mammals casionally at least practised inspectiones possess this bone, with slight differences cudaverum. The human body was openly in form and relative position with the dissected in the anatomical schools of other tarsal bones, but always preserving Alexandria considerably less than one their characteristic shape. Aristotle rechundred years after the death of Hippoc. ognizes this bone only, as a rule, in the rates; it' is, therefore, highly probable ruminants, and denies its existence genthat the practice had prevailed before erally in the hind feet of other animals. that time, though not to the same extent. This bone was familiar to him as occurHippocrates was by profession a physi- ring in the sheep and goat, because they cian, and probably taught anatomy in his supplied principally the dice used orig. school; and there seems good reason for inally in the Greek game. Had he exambelieving that on physiological questions ined the hind feet of the animals which Aristo:le borrowed freely from that most be specifies as having no astragalus, he eminent physician of antiquity. Aristotle could not have committed such an error ; may sometimes have been present at the bad he been in the habit of dissecting examination of human bodies, but it is animals for osteological information, he pretty certain that he never carried on must have noticed the uniform presence anything like systematic operations, never of this characteristic tarsal bone in the dissected in the modern technical accepta. mammalia. tion of that term. If he had, would be Aristotle had a theory — a kind of phys. have said that the kidneys of a man re- iological axiom — that led him to infer semble those of a ox, and “consist of that certain animals could not have an

astragalus, and therefore he did not exam. * Eels are of course discussed; they are supposed to be produced spontaneously from the inud and not from Though there are some points in the generation

* De Part. iii. 9, p. 671, ed. Bekker.

† Hist. An. i. 14, § 1. of eels which remain obscure to this day, we know that they are produced froin eggs; the milt of the conger

I ou kaiālaotpuyahov, perhaps, “not prettily eel was discovered a few years ago, and much has been shaped” like the tarsal bone of the gazelle (dopnús),


M. Saint-Hilaire's zoology is not very recent. which was much prized. See Polybius, xxvi. 10. 9.



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ine them to prove his theory; he was issues may be found,” viz. verification, satisfied that his theory proved his facts, was neglected, and error promulgated. and there was no need of verification. The mention of the Indian ass, which We shall see this in the following pas- Aristotle receives with some degree of sage from his “Parts of Animals," where incredulity, as coming from Ctesias, whom he gives his reason why certain animals he describes as man "unworthy of have no astragalus.

credit” (ouk ūv úĞIÓTLOTOS), suggests a few

remarks. The Indian ass, as described The feet of quadrupeds differ, for some ani- by Ctesias * is fabulous altogether, but it mals have one hoof, others a cloven foot, others is interesting as being the origin of the many divisions in the foot. One-hoofed ani. unicorn, which even now supports the mals are those which, on account of their large arms of England. The Indian rhinoce. size and abundance of earthy matter, have ros in all probability is at the bottom of secreted such matter for the formation of nail the story told by Ctesias. The astragalus or hoof, instead of horns and teeth, and on of this animal was prized by the Indian account of this superabundance, instead of many nails have only one - a solid hoof. bunters, who pursued it for the sake of its Hence, on this account, to speak generally, horns as well. Ctesias was shown the such animals have not an astragalus, for if they astragalus, which he says was “the most had one, the joint of the hind leg would be beautiful he ever beheld, in shape and moved with greater difficulty, because parts size like that of the ox, but heavy as with one angle open and shut more readily lead, its color resembled cinnabar throughthan parts with many angles; but the astragalus, out its whole substance” (raí Scù Búdovs). a kind of wedge (yóupos) is fixed as a foreign the description will suit the astragalus of member in two other bones; it has weight in the rhinoceros well enough; of course the deed, but conduces to the security of the step. specimen Ctesias saw had been artificially On this account animals which have an astragalus have it in the hind feet, and not in the stained with some red dye, and perhaps fore, because the parts which move first ought leaded. Drinking.cups were made out of to be light and flexible, whereas the hind parts its horn, and filings of the same were used require security and tension (Túous). More- as an antidote against poison, spasms, over, animals without this bone can give a and other diseases. Drinking.vessels and more heavy blow in defending themselves, cups are to this day made from the horn such, for instance, as use their hind legs, and of the rhinoceros in the interior of Africa, kick at what hurts them. But animals with where the unicorn (anasa of the natives) cloven feet have an astragalus, for they are is nothing more than the rhinoceros; the lighter behind; and because they have an as. tragalus they have not solid hoofs, the bony people attribute to the horn the very same maiter which is wanting in the foot serving for properties which Ctesias did. Although flexure. But many-toed animals have not an

some of the stories about the strange astragalus, otherwise they would not be many animals and plants which Ctesias gives toed, but cleft for so much of the breadth of can be explained to some extent, making the foot as the astragalus occupies (iv. 10, p. great allowance for the marvellous, it is 690, ed. Bekker).

quite impossible to deny that several of

them are pure unmitigated fables. Not, His argument is mainly as follows, from however, that we believe Ctesias to be, as what may be clearly gathered from several some have supposed, a mere fabricator of other passages : large animals have in lies, a sort of classical Baron Munchautheir system much earthly matter (YEWDES), sen, one who, in the words of Lucian, the superabundance of such matter (1 * neither saw what he relates nor heard it TEPLOOWLatiKÝ Útep3011) nature uses in the from any one else.” On the contrary, we formation of teeth, tusks, and horns; in believe that he is perfectly truthful, that solid-hoofed animals, as in a horse for in. he heard from the Persians their strange stance, the excess of earthly matter goes stories of certain animals and plants of to form the hoof, and not horns or tusks India, which perhaps they themselves as it does in cattie and elephants; and as credited, and that he has 'simply given this excess is spent in the formation of a their accounts. He never visited India solid hoof, such animals have no astraga: himself, and he accepts too credulously lus, which is only a kind of superadded no doubt the marvellous stories which he bone, and would be, in the horse for in- had heard. Herein may be a strong con. stance, a detriment rather than an advan- trast between the philosophic mind of tage. With such conceptions Aristotle Aristotle and the unquestioning credulity imagined the phenomena of nature must of Ctesias, though, like Homer, even correspond, and hence the true guide, “the Ariadne thread by which the real * Indica, caps. 25-27, p. 25, ed. Baehr.

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Aristotle aliquando dormit. We have | jects, and he convicts him of some very taken the trouble to analyze carefully all absurd statements, stigmatizing him as a that Ctesias has written in his fragmen-“ mythologist.” When Herodotus is tary account of India. He mentions wrong, Aristotle refutes him sometimes by about fifty subjects, some in a few words, name, sometimes under the expression some in many. Several of these may be "some say;” it is, however, noticeable explained, making allowance for the usual that when Aristotle accepts the accounts exaggerations and love of the marvellous wbich Herodotus gives of certain animals, which attend all natural-history anecdotes, he does not hesitate to appropriate his unless checked by strict scientific joves. remarks without a word as to his authortigation. His dog-headed cave-men; his ity; he makes use of them as if they were pygmies with ears reaching to their shoul- his own. This is very evident in the acders, which meet together and cover the counts of the crocodile and hippopotamus. back behind; the worm (okú^n5), the only In the case of the great saurian of the creature of the river Indus, with two teeth Nile, all that Aristotle tells us is borrowed and a body which a child can scarcely from Herodotus, with the exception of the span with his two hands, which drags number of eggs it is said to lay; and it is camels and oxen into the water and de. curious to notice that he even tells the vours them all but the entrails; the story of the little bird (trochilos) which griffins; the dicerus bird, which philan- eats the leeches out of the crocodile's thropically hides its deadly excrement; mouth -a story long discredited, but the martichorns, of lion-like form and which has been to a great extent corrobohuman visage, that shoots forth poisonous rated by M. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, the darts from its scorpion-like tail - a figure eminent French naturalist, who long reof which may be seen in old Topsell, and sided in Egypt and had repeated occa. which has been lately reproduced by Miss sions to ascertain that the story of HerodPhipson in her“ Animal Lore of Shake- otus was correct, in substance at least. speare ” — all these, with others, are sim. He found that a little bird, the black. ply creatures of the imagination, like the beaded plover (Pluvianus ægyptius), flies stone and wood adornments of ecclesias. incessantly from place to place, searching tical buildings of mediæval architecture ; everywhere, even in the crocodile's mouth, but Ctesias gives a short but fairly correct for insects, such as gnats, which attack account of the parrot, the bird which the great saurian in innumerable swarms, speaks with human tongue; his wormlike and entering his mouth, cover the inner creatures of the size and of the color of surface of the palate with a brownish cinnabar, which infest trees, are probably black crust. The little plover comes and some species of cochineal insect (coccus); delivers him from his troublesome enehis swift, fierce, and iron-like crocottas mies. That curious friendships exist imitating man's voice is the Hyena cro. between animals widely different from cuta, still found in Ethiopia; and there is each other in form and habit, is well no very great exaggeration in the idea, as known to naturalists; we may instance any one can testify who has heard the the case of the rhinoceros and hippopotacurious voice of the laughing hyena. He mus, which are often attended by little has given a fair account of the large In- birds known as rhinoceros.birds, which dian mastiff, the same animal which the feed on the ticks and other parasites that Assyrian kings employed in the chase of infest these beasts, and which serve as wild beasts ; his small sheep and cattle well to warn them of approaching danger; may be even now seen in India, as in the the great pachyderms fully understand the little zebu; while his mention of a variety bird's warning, and doubtless appreciate of iron which, when fixed in the ground its good offices. The ancient Greeks and averis storms and lightnings recalls to our Romans do not appear to have been very mind the lightning-conductor of modern scrupulous in the acknowledgment of their days. We acknowledge the fabulous sources of information. Herodotus borcharacter of many stories in his “ Indica,” rowed his description of the hippopotamus but we object to Aristotle's stigma on the from Hecatæus, and his account of the good faill of Ctesias, when, as in the mode adopted by the Egyptians for catchtreatise “ On the Generation of Animals," ing the crocodile, as well as his story of he speaks of the Greek physician of the phenix; and certainly writes as it he Artaxerxes as a manifest liar (pavepoc was the originator of his narratives. Aris. έψευσμένος.)

totle borrowed from Herodotus ; perhaps Aristotle had no bigh opinion of Herod- Hecatæus told his own story. Though otus as a relater of natural-history sub-| Aristotle depended to a considerable ex.


tent on his own observations, it is certain The creatures called tethya have of all ani. that he drew largely from other sources. mals the most peculiar nature, for their whole Schneider on this point writes :

body is concealed in a shell, which is interme

diate between skin and shell, so that it can be Aristotle had very likely more authorities cut like hard leather. The shell-like substance whom he has followed or converted to his own grows upon rocks. It has two pores distinct purposes than those whose names he has given. from each other, very small and not readily There are, however, a few whom he has named, seen, by which it emits and takes in water. as Alcmxon of Crotona, Dionysius of Apollo- When opened, one sees first of all that it has nia, Heradorus of Heracleum in Pontus, the a gristle-like membrane within, lining the father of Bryson the sophist, Ctesias of Cnidos, shell-like substance, and in this is the Aeshy Herodotus of Halicarnassus, Syennesis of Cy- substance of the tethya itself, unlike that of prus, Polypus, Democritus of Abdera, Anax. other creatures, for the flesh is homogeneous agoras of Clazomene, Empedocles of Sicily. throughout. It is united in two places to the

There are many places, both in his Natu- membrane and the skin on the side, and in the ral History and his other works on animals, point of union it is narrower on each side. where our philosopher refers to the ancient By these places it extends to the outside pores fables of men who were transformed into the which pass through the shell. There it both nature and forms of various animals. . . . All emits and takes in food and moisture, as is one who have read the work of Antoninus and the were the mouth and the other the vent; the Metamorphoses of Ovid, will easily perceive one is somewhat thick, the other thin. In the how much information on the nature and habits inside also there is a cavity at each end, and a of animals our philosopher could have derived middle part which forms continuous partifrom the very character of the books which tions.* In one of the cavities there is moisthad come down from the remotest antiquity to ure; besides this it has no sensitive or organic the time of Aristotle, especially if they bear in part. ... The color of the tethya is partly mind that the ancient teachers of physics yellow, partly red. always compared the habits of animals with those of man, and conjectured the causes and on the whole this is a good popular de. reasons of their actions from similar impulses scription of a tunicated ascidian; a scienin man. This may be seen in the fables of tific one was impossible without the aid Æsop, for they contain the first elements of of the microscope, and, as was to be exthe ancients in physics and morals. (Cress-pected, the description is not strictly well's translation.)

speaking scientifically correct. Aristotle We cannot help thinking that much of bas also given a very good descriptive Aristotle's human anatomy and physiology account of the chameleon, though one was derived from Hippocrates, whom, cannot expect that he would be perfectly however, he only mentions once, and that accurate in all the details. He mentions Democritus supplied him with a good the structure of the ribs, how they descend deal of matter on the forms and habits of and are joined together on the hypogastric various animals. M. B. Saint-Hilaire has region, the serrated back, the prehensile well said in his interesting preface that tail, the number and position of the toes; “amongst all the predecessors of Aris-its eyes are fixed in a hollow, and are totle, Democritus is the one from whom large and round, surrounded with skin he has been able to borrow most; that in like the rest of the body; in the centre the opinion of every one Democritus was there is a small space left for the sight, the wisest of the Greeks before the time through which aperture it sees, and this of Aristotle ; and that the acquirements part is never covered with skin. It turns of Democritus seem to have been as round its eyes in a circle and can direct varied, if not as profound, as those of its vision to all sides and can see what it Aristotle."

wishes. The change in the color of the Speaking of the “ History of Animals,” skin occurs when the animal is filled with looked at absolutely in relation to the air." It is curious that he does not men. science of which it treats, Mr. Lewes makes one remark at all events which * και διείργει μέσον τι συνεχές. Aristotle is, we we cannot altogether endorse; he says, rangular interspaces or square meshes formed by the

think, alluding to the respiratory sac, i.e., to the quad“ There is not one good description in it.” longitudinal and transverse vessels which form a kind W on the contrary, consider there of network throughout the whole of the bronchial sac,

which in some large ascidia are visible to the naked many. Let us take two or three exam

M. Saint-Hilaire translates the words - Il y a un ples: Aristotle is nowhere more happy in petit corps continu qui y fait cloison,” and thinks they his descriptions than when he is discours may possibly refer to the ganglion between the two



Such a small object cou d not possibly ing of marine animals. What seaside be discerned without the aid of a microscope of considobserver is unacquainted with the sea.

erable magnifying power. Moreover, Aristotle knew

nothing whatever either of nerves or nerve-ganglia, and squids, known to naturalists by the name

there is no mention of the epithet “smail” in the of tunicated molluscs, or ascidians ? original.



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